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Open access

Kevin Zhao, Joseph Quillin, and James K. Liu

In this illustrative video, the authors demonstrate resection of a superior vermian arteriovenous malformation (AVM) using the endoscopic-assisted parieto-occipital interhemispheric precuneal transtentorial approach. Lateral positioning allows for gravity-assisted access to the interhemispheric fissure without retractors. The parieto-occipital trajectory is useful in patients who have a steep tentorial angle and avoids manipulation of the occipital lobe and visual cortex. In addition, the authors utilize an angled endoscope, which allows full inspection of the resection bed after AVM removal to visualize areas hidden from the microsurgical view to minimize the chance of residual disease in a deep corridor with multiple visual obstructions.

The video can be found here: https://youtu.be/hk9nIIdtqbI

Open access

Benjamin K. Hendricks and Aaron A. Cohen-Gadol

Surgery within the posterior cranial fossa uniquely requires excellence in microsurgical technique, given the complexity of the neurovascular structures housed within this region. Arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) within this region represent the greatest surgical challenge because of the difficulty in resecting an AVM completely while preserving the highly eloquent surrounding structures. The AVM in this video exemplifies a surgeon’s “most challenging case,” a surgery that spanned two stages, including 14 hours of resection, but concluded with complete resection despite the complexity of deep arterial and dural feeders.

The video can be found here: https://youtu.be/WNBuwFHSrQ0

Open access

Burak Ozaydin, Demi W. Dawkins, Stephanie A. Armstrong, Beverly Aagaard-Kienitz, and Mustafa K. Baskaya

Although intravenous digital subtraction angiography (IV-DSA), cone-beam CT, and rotational angiography are well-established technologies, using them in a single system in the hybrid operating room to acquire high-quality noninvasive 3D images is a recent development. This video demonstrates microsurgical excision of a ruptured cerebellar arteriovenous malformation (AVM) in a 66-year-old male followed by intraoperative IV-DSA acquisition using a new-generation system (Artis Icono). IV-DSA confirmed in real time that no residual remained following excision without the need to reposition the patient. To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this is the first surgical video to demonstrate the simplified workflow and application of this technology in neurovascular surgery.

The video can be found here: https://youtu.be/bo5ya9DQQPw

Open access

Mustafa K. Baskaya, Adib A. Abla, Daniel L. Barrow, and Adam S. Arthur

Open access

Livio Pereira and Eduardo Vieira

In this surgical video, the authors present a case of a 24-year-old male patient who presented with sudden-onset headache and imbalance. On examination, he had a right-sided dysmetria and was otherwise neurologically intact. MRI showed a right cerebellar hematoma associated with multiple flow voids in the cerebellomesencephalic fissure and an enlarged lateral mesencephalic vein. Preoperative angiogram confirmed an arteriovenous malformation supplied by branches of the superior cerebellar artery. The patient underwent a lateral supracerebellar infratentorial approach for resection of the arteriovenous malformation (AVM). He recovered well from surgery and was discharged home on postoperative day 6. Postoperative angiogram confirmed complete AVM resection.

The video can be found here: https://youtu.be/tY4Go2n7V80

Open access

Joshua S. Catapano, Rohin Singh, Visish M. Srinivasan, and Michael T. Lawton

Arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) in the brainstem, specifically medullary AVMs, are exceedingly rare and difficult to treat. These lesions are commonly more aggressive than supratentorial AVMs and pose their own unique treatment challenges. Current treatment options for these AVMs consist of endovascular embolization or open surgery. Radiosurgery is not favored because it is associated with potential risk to the brainstem and lower obliteration rates. Here the authors report the case of a 27-year-old man with a ruptured anterior medullary AVM. The patient underwent a successful far-lateral craniotomy for resection of the AVM.

The video can be found here: https://youtu.be/lyOfOQ3sBdU

Open access

Ehsan Dowlati, Kelsi Chesney, and Vikram V. Nayar

This is the case of a ruptured Spetzler-Martin grade II arteriovenous malformation (AVM) located in the cerebellopontine angle and draining into the transverse sinus. The AVM was initially treated with staged embolization using Onyx (ev3 Neurovascular). However, recurrence was noted and treatment with microsurgical resection was undertaken. The authors present technical nuances of the approach and strategies for microsurgical resection of a previously embolized recurrent AVM with the aid of intraoperative indocyanine green angiography. Follow-up after endovascular treatment is critical, and curative treatment with microsurgical resection can be achieved with low morbidity in such AVMs as demonstrated by this case.

The video can be found here: https://youtu.be/LMpz_YTFC0g

Open access

Walter Marani, Nicola Montemurro, Shoichiro Tsuji, Paolo Perrini, Kosumo Noda, Nakao Ota, Yu Kinoshita, Hiroyasu Kamiyama, and Rokuya Tanikawa

Cerebellar arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) represent 10%–15% of all intracranial AVMs and are associated with a greater risk for hemorrhagic presentation compared with supratentorial AVMs. When they reach the cerebellopontine angle cistern, neurovascular compression syndromes, including trigeminal neuralgia and hemifacial spasm, can occur. Due to the aggressive natural history of cerebellar AVM, an effective treatment strategy is required. In this video, the authors demonstrate the technical nuances of microsurgical resection of an unruptured cerebellar AVM in a 24-year-old female presenting with trigeminal neuralgia. The patient underwent right retrosigmoid craniotomy and complete resection of the AVM with resolution of trigeminal neuralgia.

The video can be found here: https://youtu.be/6GmNjgFQwx8

Open access

Brian M. Howard and Daniel L. Barrow

Many brain arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) derive dural blood supply, while 10%–15% of dural arteriovenous fistulas (dAVFs) have pial arterial input. To differentiate between the two is critical, as treatment of these entities is diametrically opposed. To treat dAVFs, the draining vein(s) is disconnected from feeding arteries, which portends hemorrhagic complications for AVMs. The authors present an operative video of a subtle cerebellar AVM initially treated as a dAVF by attempted embolization through dural vessels. The lesion was subsequently microsurgically extirpated. The authors show a comparison case of an AVM mistaken for a dAVF and transvenous embolization that resulted in a fatal hemorrhage.

The video can be found here: https://youtu.be/eDeiMrGoE0Q