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Open access

BRAF-mutated suprasellar glioblastoma mimicking craniopharyngioma: illustrative case

Bryan Zheng, Belinda Shao, Jennifer Mingrino, Jonathan Poggi, Richard S Dowd, Douglas C Anthony, John E Donahue, and Curtis E Doberstein

BACKGROUND

Suprasellar masses commonly include craniopharyngiomas and pituitary adenomas. Suprasellar glioblastoma is exceedingly rare with only a few prior case reports in the literature. Suprasellar glioblastoma can mimic craniopharyngioma or other more common suprasellar etiologies preoperatively.

OBSERVATIONS

A 65-year-old male with no significant history presented to the emergency department with a subacute decline in mental status. Work-up revealed a large suprasellar mass with extension to the right inferior medial frontal lobe and right lateral ventricle, associated with significant vasogenic edema. The patient underwent an interhemispheric transcallosal approach subtotal resection of the interventricular portion of the mass. Pathological analysis revealed glioblastoma, MGMT partially methylated, with a BRAF V600E mutation.

LESSONS

Malignant glioblastomas can mimic benign suprasellar masses and should remain on the differential for a diverse set of brain masses with a broad range of radiological and clinical features. For complex cases accessible from the ventricle where the pituitary complex cannot be confidently preserved via a transsphenoidal approach, an interhemispheric approach is also a practical initial surgical option. In addition to providing diagnostic value, molecular profiling may also reveal therapeutically significant gene alterations such as BRAF mutations.

Open access

The infundibulochiasmatic angle and the favorability of an endoscopic endonasal approach in type IV craniopharyngioma: illustrative case

Guilherme Finger, Maria Jose C Ruiz, Eman H Salem, Matthew D Marquardt, Kyle C Wu, Lucas P Carlstrom, Ricardo L Carrau, Luciano M Prevedello, and Daniel M Prevedello

BACKGROUND

Lesions located in the floor of the third ventricle are among the most difficult to access in neurosurgery. The neurovascular structures can limit transcranial exposure, whereas tumor extension into the third ventricle can limit visualization and access. The midline transsphenoidal route is an alternative approach to tumor invading the third ventricle if the tumor is localized at its anterior half and a working space between the optic apparatus and the pituitary infundibulum exists. The authors introduce the “infundibulochiasmatic angle,” a valuable measurement supporting the feasibility of the translamina terminalis endoscopic endonasal approach (EEA) for resection of type IV craniopharyngiomas.

OBSERVATIONS

Due to a favorable infundibulochiasmatic angle measurement on preoperative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), an endoscopic endonasal transsellar transtubercular approach was performed to resect a type IV craniopharyngioma. At 2-month follow-up, the patient’s neurological exam was unremarkable, with improvement in bitemporal hemianopsia. Postoperative MRI confirmed gross-total tumor resection.

LESSONS

The infundibulochiasmatic angle is a radiological tool for evaluating the feasibility of EEA when resecting tumors in the anterior half of the third ventricle. Advantages include reduced brain retraction and excellent rates of resection, with minimal postoperative risks of cerebrospinal fluid leakage and permanent pituitary dysfunction.

Open access

Spontaneous development and involution of a de novo pseudoaneurysm at the superficial temporal artery–middle cerebral artery bypass anastomotic site in a patient with moyamoya disease: illustrative case

Kristine Ravina, Biraj Patel, and Benjamin Yim

BACKGROUND

De novo pseudoaneurysm formation is a rare complication of extracranial-intracranial bypass surgery.

OBSERVATIONS

The authors report the case of a 28-year-old male who presented with new-onset right temporal and occipital ischemia who was found to have bilateral proximal internal carotid artery occlusion with collateral vasculature formation consistent with moyamoya disease. The patient underwent bilateral superficial temporal artery–middle cerebral artery bypasses. A de novo pseudoaneurysm was found at the left-sided bypass distal anastomotic site recipient vessel 1 month after the surgery. The pseudoaneurysm demonstrated a progressive reduction in size and eventual complete involution at 6 months after surgery.

LESSONS

Limited literature reports extracranial-intracranial bypass-associated aneurysms treated primarily with either clipping or resection and reanastomosis. The authors demonstrate, for the first time, a progressively benign natural history course of an extracranial-intracranial bypass distal anastomotic site pseudoaneurysm.

Open access

Continuous direct intraarterial treatment of meningitis-induced vasospasm in a pediatric patient: illustrative case

Aubrey C Rogers, Aditya D Goyal, and Alexandra R Paul

BACKGROUND

Bacterial meningitis–induced ischemic stroke continues to cause significant long-term complications in pediatric patients. The authors present a case of severe right internal carotid artery terminus and M1 segment vasospasm in a 9-year-old with an infected cholesteatoma, which was refractory to multiple intraarterial treatments with verapamil and milrinone. This is the first report of continuous intraarterial antispasmodic treatment in a pediatric patient as well as the first report of continuous treatment in an awake and extubated patient.

OBSERVATIONS

Arterial narrowing was successfully treated by continuous direct intraarterial administration of both a calcium channel blocker (verapamil) and a phosphodiesterase-3 inhibitor (milrinone). The patient recovered remarkably well and was discharged home with no neurological deficit (National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score 0) and ambulatory without assistance after 22 days. The authors report a promising outcome of this technique performed in a pediatric patient.

LESSONS

This represents a novel treatment option for the prevention of stroke in pediatric bacterial meningitis. Continuous, direct intraarterial administration of antispasmodic medications can successfully prevent long-term neurological deficit in pediatric meningitis-associated vasospasm. The described method has the potential to significantly improve outcomes in severe pediatric meningitis-associated vasospasm.

Open access

Sternocleidomastoid muscle-splitting method for high cervical carotid endarterectomy: illustrative cases

Atsushi Sato, Tetsuo Sasaki, Toshihiro Ogiwara, Kazuhiro Hongo, and Tetsuyoshi Horiuchi

BACKGROUND

The number of cervical carotid endarterectomies (CEAs) has decreased as carotid artery stenting (CAS) has increased. However, CEA and CAS both have advantages and disadvantages; therefore, appropriate procedures must be selected for individual patients. High-positioned carotid artery stenosis presents technical challenges for CEA and is occasionally managed by performing CAS. However, CAS is associated with a high risk of thrombosis in patients with soft plaques, suggesting a clinical need for a better procedure. Consequently, appropriate surgical treatment for patients requiring high-level CEAs is essential.

OBSERVATIONS

In this study, a novel and straightforward method was devised. The primary concept underlying this technique is separation of the sternocleidomastoid muscle (SCM) from other anatomical structures to ensure a wider surgical field. By anatomically separating the SCM into the sternal and clavicular head groups, the objective of the wider surgical field can be met. Herein, we report technical innovations in high-positioned carotid artery stenosis and evaluate their efficacy in two patients.

LESSONS

In conclusion, high CEA surgery using this new method is valuable and may eliminate barriers to more advanced approaches.

Open access

Successful management of delayed traumatic cervical spondyloptosis with neurological deficit: illustrative case

Ibrahim Dao, Salifou Napon, Ousmane Ouattara, Abdoulaye Sanou, Elie Nassoum, Sylvain Delwendé Zabsonré, and Abel Kabré

BACKGROUND

Cervical spondyloptosis is a serious condition scarcely encountered by spine surgeons. Few cases have been reported in the literature. There are no general guidelines for their management, especially in delayed cases. The authors describe their surgical technique for the management of cervical spondyloptosis 45 days after the trauma.

OBSERVATIONS

A 28-year-old patient was admitted 45 days after head and cervical trauma leading to quadriplegia with muscular strength at the C5 level. Cervical computed tomography scanning and magnetic resonance imaging revealed C6–7 spondyloptosis with complete slippage of the C6 vertebral body in front of C7. Posterior and anterior cervical spine approaches during the same surgery allowed decompression and stabilization, leading to a dramatic improvement in the neurological deficit. The patient was able to walk 18 months later with near normal balance.

LESSONS

Traumatic cervical spondyloptosis requires early management to increase the possibility of decompression through anatomical realignment and stabilization. In delayed cases, a combined anterior and posterior cervical spine approach according to our technique allows decompression and stabilization with a good postoperative outcome possible.

Open access

Overcoming the challenge of a thin skull in a 2-year-old patient undergoing laser interstitial thermal therapy using an individualized stereotactic platform: illustrative case

Spencer Lau, Joseph Menousek, Tyler Pistone, Arnett Klugh III, and Afshin Salehi

BACKGROUND

Ependymoma is the third most common pediatric brain tumor that can present with headaches, cranial nerve deficits, nausea, vomiting, and ataxia. Current treatment is maximal safe resection followed by radiation therapy. More recently, laser interstitial thermal therapy (LITT) has become an alternative to traditional resection. In this report, the authors describe the utilization of a single-use, patient-specific stereotactic platform for the treatment of supratentorial ependymoma with LITT.

OBSERVATIONS

A 2-year-old female had a complex history of supratentorial ependymoma after multiple craniotomies for repeated tumor progression and ventriculoperitoneal shunt placement. Imaging demonstrated an enlarging, complex, enhancing mass in the right occipital region. LITT was decided on for treatment. Given the thinness of the patient’s skull, which precluded traditional means of stereotaxy, the authors elected to use a personalized stereotactic platform. Immediate postoperative imaging captured complete laser ablation of the tumor, with long-term imaging demonstrating a decreased tumor size.

LESSONS

Individualized stereotactic platforms are increasingly used in adult populations, but pediatric use continues to be infrequent. In this report, the authors present the youngest reported case using a personalized stereotactic platform and show the effectiveness of this system for performing LITT in the youngest of populations with very thin skulls.

Open access

Bilateral and asymmetrical localization of language function identified by the superselective infusion of propofol in an epilepsy patient with a mild malformation of cortical development: illustrative case

Mayuko Otomo, Shin-ichiro Osawa, Kyoko Suzuki, Kazuo Kakinuma, Kazushi Ukishiro, Hiroyoshi Suzuki, Kuniyasu Niizuma, Norio Narita, Nobukazu Nakasato, and Teiji Tominaga

BACKGROUND

Atypical localization of language function can result in unexpected postsurgical deficits after cortical resection, but it is difficult to predict the risk in the presurgical evaluation. The authors experienced a rare case of the bilateral and independent existence of different components of language function identified by segmented evaluation of anatomical anterior and posterior language areas using the superselective infusion of propofol.

OBSERVATIONS

A 32-year-old right-handed female presented with drug-resistant epilepsy. Comprehensive epilepsy evaluation suggested that the epileptic foci involved the whole left frontal lobe but provided less evidence of structural abnormality. To estimate the extent of functional deterioration likely to be caused by an extended left frontal lobectomy, the authors evaluated segmented cortical function in the ipsi- and contralateral hemispheres by the superselective infusion of propofol into the branches of the intracranial artery. The results revealed bilateral and asymmetrical localization of language function because the patient presented with different components of aphasia in each hemisphere. Based on the authors’ assessment of her functional tolerance, an extended left frontal lobectomy was performed and resulted in neurological deficits within the anticipated range.

LESSONS

An accurate understanding of the correlations between vascular and functional anatomy and the highly specific evaluation of language function provides more advanced presurgical assessment, allowing more tailored planning of cortical resection.

Open access

Endoscopic endonasal repair of temporal lobe meningoencephalocele in the lateral recess of the sphenoid sinus, complicated by intracerebral hematoma: illustrative case

Rasim Agaev, Ekaterina Gormolysova, Anton Kalinovskiy, and Jamil Rzaev

BACKGROUND

Anomalies in the anatomical structure of the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses often serve as a potential cause of spontaneous cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leakage and may result in the development of a meningoencephalocele. In this report, the authors present a case of surgically treated intrasphenoidal meningoencephalocele attributed to the persistence of the lateral craniopharyngeal canal, which was further complicated by the occurrence of an intracerebral hematoma.

OBSERVATIONS

A temporal lobe meningoencephalocele located in the lateral recess of the sphenoid sinus was successfully managed using endoscopic endonasal transpterygoid repair (EETR). However, an intracerebral hematoma developed after resection of the meningoencephalocele, necessitating additional surgical interventions. Despite this complication, the patient exhibited a favorable clinical outcome after the surgical interventions.

LESSONS

This case highlights the potential risk of intracerebral hematoma associated with EETR of a lateral sphenoid sinus meningoencephalocele. A thorough examination of magnetic resonance imaging scans, especially identifying vascular structures, is crucial during surgical planning. This knowledge can help to prevent the occurrence of complications, including intracerebral hematoma.

Open access

Long-term survival after cordectomy in a case of spinal cord diffuse midline glioma, H3K27-altered: illustrative case

Daisuke Sato, Hirokazu Takami, Shota Tanaka, Shunsaku Takayanagi, Masako Ikemura, and Nobuhito Saito

BACKGROUND

Spinal cord diffuse midline glioma, H3K27-altered, is an extremely rare entity with a poor prognosis. However, its optimal treatment remains poorly defined. Although cordectomy was introduced in the early 20th century, its efficacy has been questioned and shrouded behind the scenes.

OBSERVATIONS

A 76-year-old male with recent-onset paraparesis of the lower extremities and paresthesia presented to our outpatient clinic. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed an intra-axial spinal cord tumor extending from T12 to L2. The patient underwent laminectomy and partial tumor resection, and the surgical specimen was histologically diagnosed as a diffuse midline glioma, H3K27-altered. Although standard chemoradiotherapy was implemented, the patient experienced local tumor recurrence 2 years later and underwent cordectomy at T9. The patient was alive at the 4-year follow-up after cordectomy without tumor recurrence. According to the literature, patients with lesions in the lower thoracic cord below T8 achieved a longer survival than those with lesions in the upper thoracic cord above T5.

LESSONS

Cordectomy benefits selected cases of high-grade spinal cord gliomas. Maximal prevention of cerebrospinal fluid dissemination by tumor cells is indisputably important, and tumors located below the lower thoracic spine may be the key to success in establishing a long-term prognosis after cordectomy.