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Open access

Tsuyoshi Izumo, Michiharu Yoshida, Kazuaki Okamura, Ryotaro Takahira, Eisaku Sadakata, Susumu Yamaguchi, Shiro Baba, Yoichi Morofuji, Takeshi Hiu, Takeo Anda, and Takayuki Matsuo

BACKGROUND

Intraoperative indocyanine green video angiography (ICG-VA) is useful for determining the extent of lesion removal during cerebral arteriovenous malformation (AVM) surgery. The authors described a case of surgical removal of an AVM presenting with early venous filling mimicking a residual nidus on intraoperative ICG-VA.

OBSERVATIONS

A 7-year-old girl experienced a sudden disturbance of consciousness. Computed tomography revealed right frontal intracerebral hemorrhage. Digital subtraction angiography showed a Spetzler-Martin grade 1 AVM in the right frontal lobe. The patient received surgical removal of the AVM after endovascular embolization. After removal of the nidus, the first intraoperative ICG-VA revealed early venous filling of the cortex around the excision cavity. Additional resection of the cortex around this area was performed. Histopathological examination of the lesion revealed a dilated normal vascular structure without an AVM.

LESSONS

Early venous filling in the surrounding brain tissue after AVM removal does not necessarily indicate a residual nidus. The need for additional resection of the lesion depends on the eloquence of the area.

Open access

William S. Dodd, Dimitri Laurent, Brandon Lucke-Wold, Katharina M. Busl, Eric Williams, and Brian L. Hoh

BACKGROUND

Recognizing rare signs of delayed cerebral ischemia (DCI) is crucial to caring for patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage. The authors presented a case of central hearing loss that occurred during the clinical course of a patient treated for aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage.

OBSERVATIONS

The patient had a ruptured right posterior communicating artery aneurysm successfully treated with coil embolization but later developed severe vasospasm and DCI. She developed bilateral hearing loss, and imaging revealed DCI to the left temporal lobe and the right auditory cortex. Computed tomography angiography and digital subtraction angiography demonstrated severe vasospasm of bilateral internal carotid arteries, bilateral middle cerebral arteries, and bilateral anterior cerebral arteries. One month after hospitalization, the patient had recovered fully neurologically intact except for persistent hearing loss.

LESSONS

This case serves to teach important neuroanatomical features and discuss the unique pathophysiology of DCI affecting the auditory cortex.

Open access

Yoshio Araki, Takashi Mamiya, Naotoshi Fujita, Kinya Yokoyama, Kenji Uda, Fumiaki Kanamori, Kai Takayanagi, Kazuki Ishii, Masahiro Nishihori, Kazuhito Takeuchi, Kuniaki Tanahashi, Yuichi Nagata, Yusuke Nishimura, Takafumi Tanei, Shinsuke Muraoka, Takashi Izumi, Katsuhiko Kato, and Ryuta Saito

BACKGROUND

Symptomatic hyperperfusion after cerebral revascularization for pediatric moyamoya disease (MMD) is a rare phenomenon. The authors report a series of patients with this condition.

OBSERVATIONS

In all three patients in this case series, the combined revascularization was on the left side, the patency of bypass grafts was confirmed after surgery, and focal hyperemia around the anastomotic site was observed on single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). On the first to eighth days after surgery, all of the patients developed neurological manifestations, including motor aphasia, cheiro-oral syndrome, motor weakness of their right upper limbs, and severe headaches. These symptoms disappeared completely approximately 2 weeks after surgery, and all patients were discharged from the hospital. Quantitative SPECT was performed to determine the proportional change in cerebral blood flow (ΔRCBF) (to ipsilateral cerebellar ratio (denoted ΔRCBF) in the region of interest around the anastomoses, and the mean value was 1.34 (range, 1.29–1.41).

LESSONS

This rare condition, which develops soon after surgery, requires an accurate diagnosis by SPECT. One indicator is that the ΔRCBF has risen to 1.3 or higher. Subsequently, strategic blood pressure treatment and fluid management could prevent the development of hemorrhagic stroke.

Open access

Jorge A. Roa, Alexander J. Schupper, Kurt Yaeger, and Constantinos G. Hadjipanayis

BACKGROUND

The supracerebellar infratentorial approach provides wide flexibility as a far-reaching corridor to the pineal region, posterior third ventricle, posterior medial temporal lobe, posterolateral mesencephalon, quadrigeminal cistern, and thalamus. Traditionally, the patient is placed in the sitting position, allowing gravity retraction on the cerebellum to widen the supracerebellar operative corridor beneath the tentorium. What this approach gains in anatomical orientation it lacks in surgeon ergonomics, as the sitting position presents technical challenges, forces the surgeon to adopt to an uncomfortable posture while performing the microsurgical dissection/tumor resection under the microscope, and is also associated with an increased risk of venous air embolism.

OBSERVATIONS

In this article, the authors present the use of the three-dimensional (3D) exoscope with a standard prone Concorde position as an alternative for the treatment of lesions requiring a supracerebellar infratentorial approach for lesions in the pineal region, posterior third ventricle, and the superior surface of the cerebellar vermis. The authors present four illustrative cases (one pineal cyst, one ependymoma, and two cerebellar metastases) in which this approach provided excellent intraoperative visualization and resulted in good postoperative results. A step-by-step description of our surgical technique is reviewed in detail.

LESSONS

The use of the 3D exoscope with the patient in the prone Concorde position is an effective and ergonomically favorable alternative to the traditional sitting position for the treatment of lesions requiring a supracerebellar infratentorial approach. This technique allows improved visualization of deep structures, with a possible decreased risk of potential complications.

Restricted access

Dinal Jayasekera, Justin K. Zhang, Jacob Blum, Rachel Jakes, Peng Sun, Saad Javeed, Jacob K. Greenberg, Sheng-Kwei Song, and Wilson Z. Ray

OBJECTIVE

Cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM) is the most common cause of chronic spinal cord injury, a significant public health problem. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) is a neuroimaging technique widely used to assess CNS tissue pathology and is increasingly used in CSM. However, DTI lacks the needed accuracy, precision, and recall to image pathologies of spinal cord injury as the disease progresses. Thus, the authors used diffusion basis spectrum imaging (DBSI) to delineate white matter injury more accurately in the setting of spinal cord compression. It was hypothesized that the profiles of multiple DBSI metrics can serve as imaging outcome predictors to accurately predict a patient’s response to therapy and his or her long-term prognosis. This hypothesis was tested by using DBSI metrics as input features in a support vector machine (SVM) algorithm.

METHODS

Fifty patients with CSM and 20 healthy controls were recruited to receive diffusion-weighted MRI examinations. All spinal cord white matter was identified as the region of interest (ROI). DBSI and DTI metrics were extracted from all voxels in the ROI and the median value of each patient was used in analyses. An SVM with optimized hyperparameters was trained using clinical and imaging metrics separately and collectively to predict patient outcomes. Patient outcomes were determined by calculating changes between pre- and postoperative modified Japanese Orthopaedic Association (mJOA) scale scores.

RESULTS

Accuracy, precision, recall, and F1 score were reported for each SVM iteration. The highest performance was observed when a combination of clinical and DBSI metrics was used to train an SVM. When assessing patient outcomes using mJOA scale scores, the SVM trained with clinical and DBSI metrics achieved accuracy and an area under the curve of 88.1% and 0.95, compared with 66.7% and 0.65, respectively, when clinical and DTI metrics were used together.

CONCLUSIONS

The accuracy and efficacy of the SVM incorporating clinical and DBSI metrics show promise for clinical applications in predicting patient outcomes. These results suggest that DBSI metrics, along with the clinical presentation, could serve as a surrogate in prognosticating outcomes of patients with CSM.

Restricted access

David Ben-Israel, Jennifer A. Mann, Michael M. H. Yang, Albert M. Isaacs, Magalie Cadieux, Nicholas Sader, Sandeep Muram, Abdulrahman Albakr, Branavan Manoranjan, Richard W. Yu, Benjamin Beland, Mark G. Hamilton, Eldon Spackman, Paul E. Ronksley, and Jay Riva-Cambrin

OBJECTIVE

Endoscopic third ventriculostomy and choroid plexus cauterization (ETV+CPC) is a novel procedure for infant hydrocephalus that was developed in sub-Saharan Africa to mitigate the risks associated with permanent implanted shunt hardware. This study summarizes the hydrocephalus literature surrounding the ETV+CPC intraoperative abandonment rate, perioperative mortality rate, cerebrospinal fluid infection rate, and failure rate.

METHODS

This systematic review and meta-analysis followed a prespecified protocol and abides by Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. A comprehensive search strategy using MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsychInfo, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Scopus, and Web of Science was conducted from database inception to October 2019. Studies included controlled trials, cohort studies, and case-control studies of patients with hydrocephalus younger than 18 years of age treated with ETV+CPC. Pooled estimates were calculated using DerSimonian and Laird random-effects modeling, and the significance of subgroup analyses was tested using meta-regression. The quality of the pooled outcomes was assessed using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) approach.

RESULTS

After screening and reviewing 12,321 citations, the authors found 16 articles that met the inclusion criteria. The pooled estimate for the ETV+CPC failure rate was 0.44 (95% CI 0.37–0.51). Subgroup analysis by geographic income level showed statistical significance (p < 0.01), with lower-middle-income countries having a lower failure rate (0.32, 95% CI 0.28–0.36) than high-income countries (0.53, 95% CI 0.47–0.60). No difference in failure rate was found between hydrocephalus etiology (p = 0.09) or definition of failure (p = 0.24). The pooled estimate for perioperative mortality rate (n = 7 studies) was 0.001 (95% CI 0.00–0.004), the intraoperative abandonment rate (n = 5 studies) was 0.04 (95% CI 0.01–0.08), and the postoperative CSF infection rate (n = 5 studies) was 0.0004 (95% CI 0.00–0.003). All pooled outcomes were found to be low-quality evidence.

CONCLUSIONS

This systematic review and meta-analysis provides the most comprehensive pooled estimate for the ETV+CPC failure rate to date and demonstrates, for the first time, a statistically significant difference in failure rate by geographic income level. It also provides the first reported pooled estimates for the risk of ETV+CPC perioperative mortality, intraoperative abandonment, and CSF infection. The low quality of this evidence highlights the need for further research to improve the understanding of these critical clinical outcomes and their relevant explanatory variables and thus to appreciate which patients may benefit most from an ETV+CPC.

Systematic review registration no.: CRD42020160149 (https://www.crd.york.ac.uk/prospero/)

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Jun Torii, Satoshi Maesawa, Daisuke Nakatsubo, Takahiko Tsugawa, Sachiko Kato, Tomotaka Ishizaki, Sou Takai, Masashi Shibata, Toshihiko Wakabayashi, Takashi Tsuboi, Masashi Suzuki, and Ryuta Saito

OBJECTIVE

The efficacy of magnetic resonance–guided focused ultrasound (MRgFUS) ablation for essential tremor (ET) is well known; however, no prognostic factors have been established. The authors aimed to retrospectively investigate MRgFUS ablation outcomes and associated factors and to define the cutoff values for each prognostic factor.

METHODS

Sixty-four Japanese patients who underwent unilateral ventral intermediate nucleus thalamotomy with MRgFUS for ET were included. Follow-up evaluations were performed at 1 week and 1, 3, 6, 12, and 24 months postoperatively. Tremor suppression was evaluated using the Clinical Rating Scale for Tremor (CRST), and adverse effects were recorded postoperatively. Outcome-associated factors were examined preoperatively, intraoperatively, and postoperatively using multivariate analyses. The cutoff values for the prognostic factors were calculated using receiver operating characteristics.

RESULTS

Percentage improvements in the CRST scores of the affected upper limb were 82.4%, 72.2%, 68.6%, and 65.9% at 1, 3, 6, and 12 months, respectively. Preoperatively, a high skull density ratio (SDR) (p ≤ 0.047), low CRST part B score (used to assess tremors during several tasks) (cutoff value 25, p ≤ 0.041), and nonoccurrence of resting tremors (p = 0.027) were significantly associated with improved tremor control. An intraoperatively high maximum mean temperature (cutoff value 52.5°C, p ≤ 0.047), postoperatively large lesion (cutoff value 3.9 mm in the anterior-posterior direction, p ≤ 0.002; cutoff value 5.0–5.55 mm in the superior-inferior direction, p ≤ 0.026), and small transducer focus correction (p ≤ 0.015) were also associated with improved tremor control. No valid cutoff value was found for SDR. Adverse effects (limb weakness, sensory disturbance, ataxia/walking disturbance, dysgeusia, dysarthria, and facial swelling) occurred transiently and were associated with high SDR, high temperature, high number of sonication sessions, large lesion, and occurrence of resting tremor. Patients who developed leg weakness experienced greater percentage improvement in tremors at 3 months postoperatively than those who did not.

CONCLUSIONS

MRgFUS ablation could be used to achieve good tremor control with acceptable adverse effects in Japanese patients with ET. The relatively low SDR in Asian ethnic groups as compared with that of Western populations makes treatment difficult; however, the cutoff values obtained in this study may be useful for achieving good treatment outcomes even in such patients.

Clinical trial registration no.: UMIN000026952 (University Hospital Medical Information Network)

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Raphaële Charest-Morin, Christopher S. Bailey, Greg McIntosh, Y. Raja Rampersaud, W. Bradley Jacobs, David W. Cadotte, Jérome Paquet, Hamilton Hall, Michael H. Weber, Michael G. Johnson, Andrew Nataraj, Najmedden Attabib, Neil Manson, Philippe Phan, Sean D. Christie, Kenneth C. Thomas, Charles G. Fisher, and Nicolas Dea

OBJECTIVE

In multilevel posterior cervical instrumented fusion, extension of fusion across the cervicothoracic junction (CTJ) at T1 or T2 has been associated with decreased rates of reoperation and pseudarthrosis but with longer surgical time and increased blood loss. The impact on patient-reported outcomes (PROs) remains unclear. The primary objective was to determine whether extension of fusion through the CTJ influenced PROs at 3, 12, and 24 months after surgery. The secondary objective was to compare the number of patients who reached the minimal clinically important differences (MCIDs) for the PROs, modified Japanese Orthopaedic Association (mJOA) score, operative time, intraoperative blood loss, length of stay, discharge disposition, adverse events (AEs), reoperation within 24 months of surgery, and patient satisfaction.

METHODS

This was a retrospective observational cohort study of prospectively collected multicenter data of patients with degenerative cervical myelopathy. Patients who underwent posterior instrumented fusion of 4 levels or greater (between C2 and T2) between January 2015 and October 2020 and received 24 months of follow-up were included. PROs (scores on the Neck Disability Index [NDI], EQ-5D, physical component summary and mental component summary of SF-12, and numeric rating scale for arm and neck pain) and mJOA scores were compared using ANCOVA and adjusted for baseline differences. Patient demographic characteristics, comorbidities, and surgical details were abstracted. The proportions of patients who reached the MCIDs for these outcomes were compared with the chi-square test. Operative duration, intraoperative blood loss, AEs, reoperation, discharge disposition, length of stay, and satisfaction was compared by using the chi-square test for categorical variables and the independent-samples t-test for continuous variables.

RESULTS

A total of 198 patients were included in this study (101 patients with fusion not crossing the CTJ and 97 with fusion crossing the CTJ). Patients with a construct extending through the CTJ were more likely to be female and have worse baseline NDI scores (p > 0.05). When adjusted for baseline differences, there were no statistically significant differences between the two groups in terms of the PROs and mJOA scores at 3, 12, and 24 months. Surgical duration was longer (p < 0.001) and intraoperative blood loss was greater in the group with fusion extending to the upper thoracic spine (p = 0.013). There were no significant differences between groups in terms of AEs (p > 0.05). Fusion with a construct crossing the CTJ was associated with reoperation (p = 0.04). Satisfaction with surgery was not significantly different between groups. The proportions of patients who reached the MCIDs for the PROs were not statistically different at any time point.

CONCLUSIONS

There were no statistically significant differences in PROs between patients with a posterior construct extending to the upper thoracic spine and those without such extension for as long as 24 months after surgery. The AE profiles were not significantly different, but longer surgical time and increased blood loss were associated with constructs extending across the CTJ.

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Norio Ichimasu, Michihiro Kohno, Nobuyuki Nakajima, Hiroki Sakamoto, Ken Matsushima, Masanori Yoshino, and Kiyoaki Tsukahara

OBJECTIVE

Tumors around the cerebellopontine angle (CPA) and temporal bone can potentially affect hearing function. In patients with such tumors other than vestibular schwannomas (VSs), auditory tests were investigated before and after surgery to characterize the auditory effect of each tumor and to determine prognostic factors.

METHODS

A total of 378 patients were retrospectively evaluated for hearing functions before and after surgery. These 378 patients included 168 with CPA meningioma, 40 with trigeminal schwannoma (TS), 55 with facial nerve schwannoma (FNS), 64 with jugular foramen schwannoma (JFS), and 51 with CPA epidermoid cyst (EPD).

RESULTS

Preoperative hearing loss was observed in 124 (33%) of the 378 patients. Of these 124 patients, 38 (31%) experienced postoperative hearing improvement. Postoperative hearing deterioration occurred in 67 (18%) of the 378 patients. The prognostic factors for postoperative hearing improvement were younger age and the retrocochlear type of preoperative hearing disturbance. Tumor extension into the internal auditory canal was correlated with preoperative hearing loss and postoperative hearing deterioration. Preoperative hearing loss was observed in patients with FNS (51%), JFS (42%), and MGM (37%), and postoperative hearing improvement was observed in patients with JFS (41%), MGM (31%), and FNS (21%). Postoperative hearing deterioration was observed in patients with FNS (27%), MGM (23%), and EPD (16%).

CONCLUSIONS

According to the results of this study in patients with CPA and intratemporal tumors other than VS, preoperative retrocochlear hearing disturbance was found to be a prognostic factor for hearing improvement after surgery. Among the tumor types, JFS and MGM had a particularly favorable hearing prognosis. The translabyrinthine approach and cochlear nerve section should be avoided for these tumors, regardless of the patient’s preoperative hearing level.

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Risheng Xu, Joshua Materi, Divyaansh Raj, Safwan Alomari, Yuanxuan Xia, Sumil K. Nair, Pavan P. Shah, Nivedha Kannapadi, Timothy Kim, Judy Huang, Chetan Bettegowda, and Michael Lim

OBJECTIVE

Internal neurolysis (IN) and intraoperative glycerin rhizotomy (ioGR) are emerging surgical options for patients with trigeminal neuralgia without neurovascular contact. The objective of this study was to compare the neurological outcomes of patients who underwent IN with those of patients who underwent ioGR.

METHODS

The authors retrospectively reviewed all patients who underwent IN or ioGR for trigeminal neuralgia at our institution. Patient demographic characteristics and immediate postoperative outcomes, as well as long-term neurological outcomes, were compared.

RESULTS

Of 1044 patients who underwent open surgical treatment for trigeminal neuralgia, 56 patients underwent IN and 91 underwent ioGR. Of these 147 patients, 37 had no evidence of intraoperative neurovascular conflict. All patients who underwent IN and 96.7% of patients who underwent ioGR had immediate postoperative pain relief. At last follow-up, patients who underwent IN had lower Barrow Neurological Institute (BNI) pain intensity scores (p = 0.05), better BNI facial numbness scores (p < 0.01), and a greater degree of pain improvement (p = 0.05) compared with those who underwent ioGR. Patients who underwent IN also had significantly lower rates of symptomatic pain recurrence (p < 0.01) at last follow-up over an average of 9.5 months.

CONCLUSIONS

IN appears to provide patients with a greater degree of pain relief, lower rates of facial numbness, and lower rates of pain recurrence compared with ioGR. Future prospective studies will better characterize long-term pain recurrence and outcomes.