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Open access

Minimally invasive resection of a prominent transverse process in neurogenic thoracic outlet syndrome: new application for a primarily spinal approach. Illustrative case

Marc Hohenhaus, Johann Lambeck, Nico Kremers, Jürgen Beck, Christoph Scholz, and Ulrich Hubbe

BACKGROUND

The optimal surgical approach to treat neurogenic thoracic outlet syndrome (nTOS) depends on the individual patient’s anatomy as well as the surgeon’s experience. The authors present a minimally invasive posterior approach for the resection of a prominent transverse process to reduce local muscular trauma.

OBSERVATIONS

A 19-year-old female presented with painful sensations in the right arm and severe fine-motor skill dysfunction in the right hand, each of which had been present for several years. Further examination confirmed affected C8 and T1 areas, and imaging showed an elongated C7 transverse process displacing the lower trunk of the brachial plexus. Decompression of the plexus structures by resection of the C7 transverse process was indicated, owing to persistent neurological effects. Surgery was performed using a minimally invasive posterior approach in which the nuchal soft tissue was bluntly dissected by dilatators and resection of the transverse process was done microscopically through a tubular retractor. The postoperative course showed a sufficient reduction of pain and paresthesia.

LESSONS

The authors describe a minimally invasive posterior approach for the treatment of nTOS with the aim of providing indirect relief of strain on brachial plexus structures. The advantages of this technique include a small skin incision and minor soft tissue damage.

Open access

Intracranial solitary fibrous tumor in a 15-year-old girl: illustrative case

Kuan Lu, Xiaoqing Qu, Jingcheng Jiang, Quanjun Zheng, Yongsheng Ao, and Lihua Qiu

BACKGROUND

Solitary fibrous tumor (SFT) is an infrequent spindle cell tumor derived from mesenchymal tissue, which can manifest in diverse anatomical locations, primarily in the pleural cavity and infrequently in the central nervous system. SFT is predominantly observed in individuals aged between 40 and 50 years old, with a slightly higher occurrence in males than in females.

OBSERVATIONS

This case report describes a female, age 15, who had migraines for 2 months prior to the diagnosis of an intracranial tumor. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging showed a mass located in the right parietooccipital region with surrounding edema and a compressed right lateral ventricle. Neurosurgery was utilized to successfully remove the mass, and single intracranial fibrous tumor (grade I) was identified by postoperative pathological analysis. During an 8-month follow-up period, the patient did not experience any recurrences.

LESSONS

SFT is often misdiagnosed as meningioma because of their similar imaging characteristics. However, identifying the distinctive features of SFT on magnetic resonance imaging can distinguish it from meningioma and help to select appropriate treatment. The complete preoperative imaging data for this case indicated a highly vascularized tumor. Preoperative vascular embolization treatment reduced any difficulties during the subsequent tumor resection and minimized intraoperative bleeding.

Open access

Operative planning for a functional precision medicine assay of recurrent high-grade glioma: illustrative case

Andrew P Mathews, William J Shelton, Erika Santos Horta, Prashanth Reddy Damalcheruvu, J. Stephen Nix, Murat Gokden, and Analiz Rodriguez

BACKGROUND

Functional precision medicine (FPM) represents a personalized and efficacious modality for treating malignant neoplasms. However, acquiring sufficient live tissue to perform FPM analyses is complicated by both difficult identification on imaging and radiation necrosis, particularly in cases of recurrence. The authors describe a case of planning biopsy trajectories for an FPM assay in a patient with recurrent high-grade glioma.

OBSERVATIONS

A 25-year-old male with a history of recurrent high-grade glioma was scheduled for laser ablation and biopsy with ChemoID assaying after regions of potential recurrence were identified on follow-up imaging. Preoperative magnetic resonance (MR) spectroscopy of the regions showed areas of high choline/creatine ratios within lesions of radiation necrosis, which helped in planning the biopsy trajectories to selectively target malignancies for FPM analysis. ChemoID results showed high tumor susceptibility to lomustine, which was implemented as adjuvant therapy.

LESSONS

FPM therapy in the setting of recurrence is complicated by radiation necrosis, which can present as malignancy on imaging and interfere with tissue acquisition during biopsy or resection. Thus, operative approaches should be carefully planned with the assistance of imaging modalities such as MR spectroscopy to better ensure effective tissue acquisition for accurate FPM analysis and to promote more definitive treatment of recurrence.

Open access

Laser interstitial thermal therapy as a radiation-sparing approach for central nervous system tumors in children with cancer predisposition syndromes: report of a child with Li-Fraumeni syndrome. Illustrative case

Sergio W Guadix, Abhinav Pandey, Carson Gundlach, Michael Walsh, Nelson S Moss, and Mark M Souweidane

BACKGROUND

Ionizing radiation and alkylating chemotherapies increase secondary malignancy risk in patients with cancer predisposition syndromes (CPSs), such as Li-Fraumeni syndrome. Laser interstitial thermal therapy (LITT) is a minimally invasive ablation technique that has not been associated with mutagenic risks. We describe the case of a child with LFS and a history of treated choroid plexus carcinoma (CPC) who developed a second primary glial tumor that was safely treated with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)–guided LITT.

OBSERVATIONS

A 4-year-old male with left parietal World Health Organization grade III CPC associated with a TP53 germline mutation was evaluated. The patient underwent neoadjuvant platinum-based chemotherapy before near-total resection, followed by 131I-8H9 immunotherapy and 30 fractions of 54-Gy proton radiotherapy. He remained without evidence of disease for 2 years before developing a slow-growing mass adjacent to the left frontal ventricular horn. Stereotactic biopsy revealed a glial neoplasm. Given the nonsuperficial location and focality of the lesion, MRI-guided LITT was performed for ablative therapy. There were no complications, and 2 years of surveillance revealed continued retraction of the ablated tumor focus and no subsequent disease.

LESSONS

Alternatives to mutagenic therapies for brain tumors should be explored for patients with CPS. LITT paired with imaging surveillance is a logical strategy to ensure durable outcomes and mitigate treatment-related secondary neoplasms.

Open access

Management of a recurrent spinal arachnoid cyst presenting as arachnoiditis in the setting of spontaneous spinal subarachnoid hemorrhage: illustrative case

Omar Hussain, Randall Treffy, Hope M Reecher, Andrew L DeGroot, Peter Palmer, Mohamad Bakhaidar, and Saman Shabani

BACKGROUND

Spontaneous spinal subarachnoid hemorrhage is a rare pathological entity with a variety of presentations depending on the underlying etiology, which often remains cryptogenic. The literature is sparse regarding the most efficacious treatment or management option, and there is no consensus on follow-up time or modalities. Additionally, there are very few reports that include operative videos, which is provided herein.

OBSERVATIONS

The authors present a case of spontaneous spinal subarachnoid hemorrhage without an underlying etiology in a patient with progressive myelopathy, back pain, and lower-extremity paresthesias. She presented to our institution, and because of progressive worsening of her symptoms and the development of compressive arachnoid cysts, she underwent thoracic laminectomies for evacuation of subdural fluid, fenestration of the arachnoid cysts, and lysis of significant arachnoid adhesions. Her clinical course was further complicated by the recurrence of worsening myelopathy and the development of a large compressive arachnoid cyst with further arachnoiditis. The patient underwent repeat surgical intervention for cyst decompression with an improvement in symptoms.

LESSONS

This case highlights the importance of long-term follow-up for these complicated cases with an emphasis on repeat magnetic resonance imaging. Unfortunately, surgical intervention is associated with short-term relief of the symptoms and no significant nonoperative management is available for these patients.

Open access

Management of frontoethmoidal osteoma causing pneumocephalus and cerebrospinal fluid leakage with minimally invasive techniques: illustrative cases

Nicholas G Candy, Kyle C Wu, Guilherme Finger, Kyle VanKoevering, and Daniel M Prevedello

BACKGROUND

Osteoid osteoma is a common benign bone tumor frequently seen in the frontoethmoid region. However, involvement of the skull base is rare, with few cases previously reported.

OBSERVATIONS

The authors report two cases of spontaneous, symptomatic frontoethmoidal osteoma: one presented with neurological deficit secondary to tension pneumocephalus and the other with cerebrospinal fluid leakage. The first case was managed with a transfrontal sinus craniotomy and pneumocephalus decompression with osteoma resection and skull base reconstruction. The second case was managed with a uninaral endoscopic endonasal approach to the anterior skull base with osteoma resection and reconstruction.

LESSONS

Given the paucity of cases with associated tension pneumocephalus described in the literature, it was relevant to describe the authors’ experience with surgical decision-making and the expected outcomes among patients with this pathology when using minimally invasive techniques.

Open access

The complex treatment paradigms for concomitant tethered cord and scoliosis: illustrative case

Rose Fluss, Riana Lo Bu, Andrew J Kobets, and Jaime A Gomez

BACKGROUND

Scoliosis associated with tethered cord syndrome is one of the most challenging spinal deformities to manage. Multiple surgical approaches have been developed, including traditional staged and concomitant procedures, spine-shortening osteotomies, and individual vertebral column resections.

OBSERVATIONS

A 10-year-old female presented with congenital kyphoscoliosis with worsening curve progression, tethered spinal cord, and a history of enuresis. The scoliosis had progressed to a 26° coronal curve and 55° thoracolumbar kyphosis. Preoperative magnetic resonance imaging of the spine revealed a tethered cord between the levels of L3–4 and a large kyphotic deformity at L1. The patient underwent laminectomy, during which intraoperative motor signals were lost. A planned hemivertebrectomy at L1 was performed prior to an L4 laminectomy, untethering of the filum terminale, and posterior spinal fusion from T11 to L2. After surgery, the patient experienced transient lower-extremity weakness, with her neurological function improving from baseline over the next 2 months. Ultimately, the goal of this surgery was to halt the progressive decline in motor function, which was successfully achieved.

LESSONS

Much remains to be learned about the treatment of this complicated disease, especially in the setting of concomitant scoliosis. This case serves to exemplify the complex treatment paradigms that exist when attempting to manage this clinical syndrome and that more remains to be learned.

Open access

A new surgical method to treat intracanal lumbar disc herniation using the unilateral biportal endoscopic transforaminal approach: patient series

Tomohide Segawa, Hiroki Iwai, Hirohiko Inanami, Yuichi Takano, Yohei Yuzawa, Takeshi Kaneko, Kenta Taniguchi, Kazuyoshi Yanagisawa, Junichi Yokosuka, Ryoji Tominaga, Hideki Nakamoto, Katsuyuki Sasaki, and Hisashi Koga

BACKGROUND

Unilateral biportal endoscopic lumbar discectomy (UBELD) is a new minimally invasive spine surgery. The purpose of this study is to describe a new surgical method to treat intracanal lumbar disc herniation (LDH) using the unilateral biportal endoscopic transforaminal approach (UBE-TFA). The first 15 patients who had undergone UBELD for single-level LDH were included in this study. Operative time, intraoperative blood loss, postoperative stay, and intraoperative complications were recorded. The Oswestry Disability Index (ODI), numeric rating scale (NRS) score for leg pain, and modified MacNab criteria were assessed at 3 months postoperatively.

OBSERVATIONS

The mean operative time was 52.0 ± 13.8 minutes. The mean intraoperative blood loss was 10.5 ± 10.2 mL. The mean postoperative stay was 1.1 ± 0.3 days. There were no complications. The postoperative mean ODI was significantly improved from 44.9 ± 14.4 to 7.7 ± 11.2 at the final follow-up (p < 0.001). There was a significant decrease in the postoperative mean NRS score for leg pain, from 6.1 ± 1.9 to 0.8 ± 1.3 at the final follow-up (p < 0.001). Based on the modified MacNab criteria, good to excellent results were obtained in 86.7% of the patients.

LESSONS

We considered UBELD-TFA as not only one of the promising surgical methods for UBELD, but also a new surgical implementation of the TFA.

Open access

Nontraumatic symptomatic de novo arachnoid cyst in an adolescent patient treated with cystoperitoneal shunting: illustrative case

Angelica M Fuentes, Jonathan J Yun, and John A Jane Jr.

BACKGROUND

Arachnoid cysts are often congenital, asymptomatic lesions detected in the pediatric population. When seen in adults, they usually occur following trauma. De novo formation of arachnoid cysts is uncommon, with only a few instances cited in the literature and most of which occurred in the pediatric population. Treatment options for these lesions include observation, craniotomy for cyst resection, microsurgical/endoscopic fenestration, or shunting.

OBSERVATIONS

In this report, the authors describe a female patient with a de novo, symptomatic, enlarging middle cranial fossa arachnoid cyst detected at age 16 years. She was treated with the placement of a cystoperitoneal shunt. After surgery, she experienced clinical and radiological improvement.

LESSONS

We illustrate successful shunting of a de novo arachnoid cyst in a symptomatic teen patient. Although arachnoid cysts in certain intracranial locations are more likely to produce symptoms, those in the middle cranial fossa tend to be asymptomatic. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of a symptomatic de novo arachnoid cyst located in the middle cranial fossa in a postpubertal patient. Although the current presentation is rare, the authors demonstrate an effective surgical treatment of a symptomatic, large, de novo arachnoid cyst in a postpubertal pediatric patient.

Open access

Bipolar, high-voltage, long-duration pulsed radiofrequency ablation of the Gasserian ganglion for the treatment of trigeminal neuralgia in a patient with a cardiac implantable electronic device: illustrative case

Albert A Sufianov, Nargiza A Garifullina, Andrey G Shapkin, Egor S Markin, Matias Baldoncini, Luis A. B Borba, Manuel J Encarnacion Ramirez, and Rinat A Sufianov

BACKGROUND

One of the common methods of treating trigeminal neuralgia (TN) nowadays is radiofrequency therapy. However, it has serious limitations in patients with a cardiac pacemaker because of electromagnetic interference. Therefore, it is crucial to select optimal radiofrequency ablation parameters to make this procedure safe with favorable outcomes for such patients.

OBSERVATIONS

In this study, the authors present a case of a 70-year-old man with a history of cardiac pacemaker dependency and previous microvascular decompression with complaints of severe, constant facial pain. After reprogramming the cardiac implantable electronic device (CIED), the authors performed bipolar, high-voltage, long-duration pulsed radiofrequency therapy (PRFT) of the Gasserian ganglion under electrocardiography and pulse rate control in the pre-, intra-, and postoperative periods. There were no cardiovascular or neurological complications after PRFT. The patient reported relief of pain after the procedure, and at the 9-month follow-up, he was pain-free.

LESSONS

This clinical case demonstrates that the use of bipolar, high-voltage PRFT for TN treatment in patients with a CIED can be safe and effective, provided that the rules and pacemaker instructions are followed. It is necessary to use ablative treatment with caution and to guide the patient in collaboration with a cardiac surgeon and an anesthesiologist resuscitator.