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Andrew K. Chan, Praveen V. Mummaneni, John F. Burke, Rory R. Mayer, Erica F. Bisson, Joshua Rivera, Brenton Pennicooke, Kai-Ming Fu, Paul Park, Mohamad Bydon, Steven D. Glassman, Kevin T. Foley, Christopher I. Shaffrey, Eric A. Potts, Mark E. Shaffrey, Domagoj Coric, John J. Knightly, Michael Y. Wang, Jonathan R. Slotkin, Anthony L. Asher, Michael S. Virk, Panagiotis Kerezoudis, Mohammed A. Alvi, Jian Guan, Regis W. Haid, and Dean Chou

OBJECTIVE

Reduction of Meyerding grade is often performed during fusion for spondylolisthesis. Although radiographic appearance may improve, correlation with patient-reported outcomes (PROs) is rarely reported. In this study, the authors’ aim was to assess the impact of spondylolisthesis reduction on 24-month PRO measures after decompression and fusion surgery for Meyerding grade I degenerative lumbar spondylolisthesis.

METHODS

The Quality Outcomes Database (QOD) was queried for patients undergoing posterior lumbar fusion for spondylolisthesis with a minimum 24-month follow-up, and quantitative correlation between Meyerding slippage reduction and PROs was performed. Baseline and 24-month PROs, including the Oswestry Disability Index (ODI), EQ-5D, Numeric Rating Scale (NRS)–back pain (NRS-BP), NRS-leg pain (NRS-LP), and satisfaction (North American Spine Society patient satisfaction questionnaire) scores were noted. Multivariable regression models were fitted for 24-month PROs and complications after adjusting for an array of preoperative and surgical variables. Data were analyzed for magnitude of slippage reduction and correlated with PROs. Patients were divided into two groups: < 3 mm reduction and ≥ 3 mm reduction.

RESULTS

Of 608 patients from 12 participating sites, 206 patients with complete data were identified in the QOD and included in this study. Baseline patient demographics, comorbidities, and clinical characteristics were similarly distributed between the cohorts except for depression, listhesis magnitude, and the proportion with dynamic listhesis (which were accounted for in the multivariable analysis). One hundred four (50.5%) patients underwent lumbar decompression and fusion with slippage reduction ≥ 3 mm (mean 5.19, range 3 to 11), and 102 (49.5%) patients underwent lumbar decompression and fusion with slippage reduction < 3 mm (mean 0.41, range 2 to −2). Patients in both groups (slippage reduction ≥ 3 mm, and slippage reduction < 3 mm) reported significant improvement in all primary patient reported outcomes (all p < 0.001). There was no significant difference with regard to the PROs between patients with or without intraoperative reduction of listhesis on univariate and multivariable analyses (ODI, EQ-5D, NRS-BP, NRS-LP, or satisfaction). There was no significant difference in complications between cohorts.

CONCLUSIONS

Significant improvement was found in terms of all PROs in patients undergoing decompression and fusion for lumbar spondylolisthesis. There was no correlation with clinical outcomes and magnitude of Meyerding slippage reduction.

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Savas Ceylan, Harun Emre Sen, Bedrettin Ozsoy, Ecem Cemre Ceylan, Anil Ergen, Alev Selek, Yonca Anik, Sibel Balci, Burak Cabuk, and Ihsan Anik

OBJECTIVE

Giant pituitary adenoma is considered a challenging pathology for surgery owing to its complications and low resection rate. In this study, the authors present their experience of using the endoscopic endonasal approach to treat patients with giant pituitary adenoma, and they aimed to develop a classification system for prediction of extent of resection.

METHODS

The institutional medical records of patients diagnosed with giant pituitary adenoma who underwent endoscopic endonasal transsphenoidal surgery between August 1997 and December 2019 were retrospectively reviewed. Surgical and clinical outcomes were evaluated in detail. The effects of tumor characteristics on extent of resection were analyzed. The findings were used to develop two classification systems that could preoperatively predict extent of resection. Morphological score was based on tumor characteristics, and landmark-based classification was defined according to surgical zones based on neurovascular landmarks. The effects of change in surgical strategy, which aimed to maximize tumor resection and capsule dissection, on rates of resection and complications were evaluated before and after 2017.

RESULTS

This study included 205 patients, with a mean patient age of 46.95 years and mean preoperative tumor diameter of 46.56 mm. Gross-total resection (GTR) was achieved in 35.12% of patients, near-total resection (NTR) in 39.51%, and subtotal resection (STR) in 25.36%. Extent of resection differed significantly between the grades and zones of the classification systems (p < 0.001 for both). Among patients with grade 3 tumor, 75.75% of patients achieved STR, 21.21% achieved NTR, and 3.03% achieved GTR. Among patients with zone 3 tumor, 65.75% achieved STR, 32.87% achieved NTR, and 1.36% achieved GTR. Both grade 3 and zone 3 indicated limited extent of resection. The mean (range) follow-up duration was 50.16 (9–247) months. Postoperative recovery of at least one hormone axis was seen in 15.24% of patients with pituitary deficiency, and development of new hormonal deficiency was observed in 22.43% of patients. Complications included permanent diabetes insipidus (7.80%), cerebrospinal fluid leakage (3.90%), postoperative apoplexy (3.90%), meningitis (3.41%), and epistaxis (3.41%). The surgical mortality rate was 1.46%. Among 85 patients treated before 2017, 27.05% of patients achieved GTR, 37.64% achieved NTR, and 35.29% achieved STR; among 120 patients treated after 2017, 40.83% achieved GTR, 40.83% achieved NTR, and 18.33% achieved STR. Seven patients in the pre-2017 cohort had postoperative apoplexy versus only 1 patient in the post-2017 cohort. There were no statistically significant differences between the two periods in terms of the incidence rates of other complications.

CONCLUSIONS

Capsule dissection and GTR are valuable for preventing serious complications and reducing recurrence of giant adenoma. Treatment of giant pituitary adenoma may be better managed with the help of a classification system that provides information about extent of resection that can be achieved with an endoscopic approach.

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Pablo M. Munarriz, Blanca Navarro-Main, Jose F. Alén, Luis Jiménez-Roldán, Ana M. Castaño-Leon, Luis Miguel Moreno-Gómez, Igor Paredes, Daniel García-Pérez, Irene Panero, Carla Eiriz, Olga Esteban-Sinovas, Eduardo Bárcena, Pedro A. Gómez, and Alfonso Lagares

OBJECTIVE

Factors determining the risk of rupture of intracranial aneurysms have been extensively studied; however, little attention is paid to variables influencing the volume of bleeding after rupture. In this study the authors aimed to evaluate the impact of aneurysm morphological variables on the amount of hemorrhage.

METHODS

This was a retrospective cohort analysis of a prospectively collected data set of 116 patients presenting at a single center with subarachnoid hemorrhage due to aneurysmal rupture. A volumetric assessment of the total hemorrhage volume was performed from the initial noncontrast CT. Aneurysms were segmented and reproduced from the initial CT angiography study, and morphology indexes were calculated with a computer-assisted approach. Clinical and demographic characteristics of the patients were included in the study. Factors influencing the volume of hemorrhage were explored with univariate correlations, multiple linear regression analysis, and graphical probabilistic modeling.

RESULTS

The univariate analysis demonstrated that several of the morphological variables but only the patient’s age from the clinical-demographic variables correlated (p < 0.05) with the volume of bleeding. Nine morphological variables correlated positively (absolute height, perpendicular height, maximum width, sac surface area, sac volume, size ratio, bottleneck factor, neck-to-vessel ratio, and width-to-vessel ratio) and two correlated negatively (parent vessel average diameter and the aneurysm angle). After multivariate analysis, only the aneurysm size ratio (p < 0.001) and the patient’s age (p = 0.023) remained statistically significant. The graphical probabilistic model confirmed the size ratio and the patient’s age as the variables most related to the total hemorrhage volume.

CONCLUSIONS

A greater aneurysm size ratio and an older patient age are likely to entail a greater volume of bleeding after subarachnoid hemorrhage.

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Mehmet N. Cizmeci, Linda S. de Vries, Maria Luisa Tataranno, Alexandra Zecic, Laura A. van de Pol, Ana Alarcon, Floris Groenendaal, and Peter A. Woerdeman

OBJECTIVE

Decompressing the ventricles with a temporary device is often the initial neurosurgical intervention for preterm infants with hydrocephalus. The authors observed a subgroup of infants who developed intraparenchymal hemorrhage (IPH) after serial ventricular reservoir taps and sought to describe the characteristics of IPH and its association with neurodevelopmental outcome.

METHODS

In this multicenter, case-control study, for each neonate with periventricular and/or subcortical IPH, a gestational age-matched control with reservoir who did not develop IPH was selected. Digital cranial ultrasound (cUS) scans and term-equivalent age (TEA)–MRI (TEA-MRI) studies were assessed. Ventricular measurements were recorded prior to and 3 days and 7 days after reservoir insertion. Changes in ventricular volumes were calculated. Neurodevelopmental outcome was assessed at 2 years corrected age using standardized tests.

RESULTS

Eighteen infants with IPH (mean gestational age 30.0 ± 4.3 weeks) and 18 matched controls were included. Reduction of the ventricular volumes relative to occipitofrontal head circumference after 7 days of reservoir taps was greater in infants with IPH (mean difference −0.19 [95% CI −0.37 to −0.004], p = 0.04). Cognitive and motor Z-scores were similar in infants with and those without IPH (mean difference 0.42 [95% CI −0.17 to 1.01] and 0.58 [95% CI −0.03 to 1.2]; p = 0.2 and 0.06, respectively). Multifocal IPH was negatively associated with cognitive score (coefficient −0.51 [95% CI −0.88 to −0.14], p = 0.009) and ventriculoperitoneal shunt with motor score (coefficient −0.50 [95% CI −1.6 to −0.14], p = 0.02) after adjusting for age at the time of assessment.

CONCLUSIONS

This study reports for the first time that IPH can occur after a rapid reduction of the ventricular volume during the 1st week after the initiation of serial reservoir taps in neonates with hydrocephalus. Further studies on the use of cUS to guide the amount of cerebrospinal fluid removal are warranted.

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Ahmad Ozair, Vivek Bhat, and Anil Nanda

Surgical specialties, and particularly neurosurgery, have historically had and continue to have poor representation of female trainees. This is especially true of South Asia, considering the added social and cultural expectations for women in this region. Yet it was in India, with its difficult history of gender relations, that Asia’s first fully qualified female neurosurgeon, Dr. T. S. Kanaka (1932–2018), took root, flourished, and thereafter played an integral role in helping develop stereotactic and functional neurosurgery in the country. While a few biographical accounts of her exist, highlighted here are the lessons from her illustrious life for neurosurgical trainees and educators worldwide, along with the instances that exemplify those lessons, drawn from several hitherto unutilized primary sources. These lessons are consistent with the factors identified in previous systematic reviews to be contributing to gender disparities in neurosurgery. Many of the virtues that ensured her success are attributes that continue to be critical for a neurosurgical career. Additionally, the circumstances that helped Kanaka succeed have been recounted as considerations for those working to promote diversity and inclusion. Finally, her life choices and sacrifices are described, which are underexplored but relevant concerns for women in neurosurgery.

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Nishanth Sadashiva, Andiperumal Raj Prabhuraj, and Bhagavatula Indira Devi

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Robert C. Rennert, Michael G. Brandel, Jeffrey A. Steinberg, David D. Gonda, Rick A. Friedman, Takanori Fukushima, John D. Day, Alexander A. Khalessi, and Michael L. Levy

OBJECTIVE

The middle fossa transpetrosal approach to the petroclival and posterior cavernous sinus regions includes removal of the anterior petrous apex (APA), an area well studied in adults but not in children. To this end, the authors performed a morphometric analysis of the APA region during pediatric maturation.

METHODS

Measurements of the distance from the clivus to the internal auditory canal (IAC; C-IAC), the distance of the petrous segment of the internal carotid artery (petrous carotid; PC) to the mesial petrous bone (MPB; PC-MPB), the distance of the PC to the mesial petrous apex (MPA; PC-MPA), and the IAC depth from the middle fossa floor (IAC-D) were made on thin-cut CT scans from 60 patients (distributed across ages 0–3, 4–7, 8–11, 12–15, 16–18, and > 18 years). The APA volume was calculated as a cylinder using C-IAC (length) and PC-MPB (diameter). APA pneumatization was noted. Data were analyzed by laterality, sex, and age.

RESULTS

APA parameters did not differ by laterality or sex. APA pneumatization was seen on 20 of 60 scans (33.3%) in patients ≥ 4 years. The majority of the APA region growth occurred by ages 8–11 years, with PC-MPA and PC-MPB increasing 15.9% (from 9.4 to 10.9 mm, p = 0.08) and 23.5% (from 8.9 to 11.0 mm, p < 0.01) between ages 0–3 and 8–11 years, and C-IAC increasing 20.7% (from 13.0 to 15.7 mm, p < 0.01) between ages 0–3 and 4–7 years. APA volume increased 79.6% from ages 0–3 to 8–11 years (from 834.3 to 1499.2 mm3, p < 0.01). None of these parameters displayed further significant growth. Finally, IAC-D increased 51.1% (from 4.3 to 6.5 mm, p < 0.01) between ages 0–3 and adult, without significant differences between successive age groups.

CONCLUSIONS

APA development is largely complete by the ages of 8–11 years. Knowledge of APA growth patterns may aid approach selection and APA removal in pediatric patients.

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Mohamed Macki, Travis Hamilton, Seokchun Lim, Tarek R. Mansour, Edvin Telemi, Michael Bazydlo, Lonni Schultz, David R. Nerenz, Paul Park, Victor Chang, Jason Schwalb, and Muwaffak M. Abdulhak

OBJECTIVE

Despite a general consensus regarding the administration of preoperative antibiotics, poorly defined comparison groups and underpowered studies prevent clear guidelines for postoperative antibiotics. Utilizing a data set tailored specifically to spine surgery outcomes, in this clinical study the authors aimed to determine whether there is a role for postoperative antibiotics in the prevention of surgical site infection (SSI).

METHODS

The Michigan Spine Surgery Improvement Collaborative registry was queried for all lumbar operations performed for degenerative spinal pathologies over a 5-year period from 2014 to 2019. Preoperative prophylactic antibiotics were administered for all surgical procedures. The study population was divided into three cohorts: no postoperative antibiotics, postoperative antibiotics ≤ 24 hours, and postoperative antibiotics > 24 hours. This categorization was intended to determine 1) whether postoperative antibiotics are helpful and 2) the appropriate duration of postoperative antibiotics. First, multivariable analysis with generalized estimating equations (GEEs) was used to determine the association between antibiotic duration and all-type SSI with adjusted odds ratios; second, a three-tiered outcome—no SSI, superficial SSI, and deep SSI—was calculated with multivariable multinomial logistical GEE analysis.

RESULTS

Among 37,161 patients, the postoperative antibiotics > 24 hours cohort had more men with older average age, greater body mass index, and greater comorbidity burden. The postoperative antibiotics > 24 hours cohort had a 3% rate of SSI, which was significantly higher than the 2% rate of SSI of the other two cohorts (p = 0.004). On multivariable GEE analysis, neither postoperative antibiotics > 24 hours nor postoperative antibiotics ≤ 24 hours, as compared with no postoperative antibiotics, was associated with a lower rate of all-type postoperative SSIs. On multivariable multinomial logistical GEE analysis, neither postoperative antibiotics ≤ 24 hours nor postoperative antibiotics > 24 hours was associated with rate of superficial SSI, as compared with no antibiotic use at all. The odds of deep SSI decreased by 45% with postoperative antibiotics ≤ 24 hours (p = 0.002) and by 40% with postoperative antibiotics > 24 hours (p = 0.008).

CONCLUSIONS

Although the incidence of all-type SSI was highest in the antibiotics > 24 hours cohort, which also had the highest proportions of risk factors, duration of antibiotics failed to predict all-type SSI. On multinomial subanalysis, administration of postoperative antibiotics for both ≤ 24 hours and > 24 hours was associated with decreased risk of only deep SSI but not superficial SSI. Spine surgeons can safely consider antibiotics for 24 hours, which is equally as effective as long-term administration for prophylaxis against deep SSI.

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Heiko Koller, Karoline Mühlenkamp, Wolfang Hitzl, Juliane Koller, Luis Ferraris, Isabel C. Hostettler, and Axel Hempfing

OBJECTIVE

The ideal strategy for high-grade L5–S1 isthmic spondylolisthesis (HGS) remains controversial. Critical questions include the impact of reduction on clinical outcomes, rate of pseudarthrosis, and postoperative foot drop. The scope of this study was to delineate predictors of radiographic and clinical outcome factors after surgery for HGS and to identify risk factors of foot drop.

METHODS

This was a single-center analysis of patients who were admitted for HGS, defined as grade III or greater L5 translation according to the Meyerding (MD) classification. Complete postoperative reduction was defined as MD grade I or less and L5 slip < 20%. Forty-six patients completed health-related quality-of-life questionnaires (Oswestry Disability Index, Physical Component Summary of SF-36, and visual analog scale) and ≥ 2 years’ follow-up (average 105 months). A 540° approach was used in 61 patients, a 360° approach was used in 40, and L5 corpectomy was used in 17. Radiographic analysis included measures of global spinopelvic balance (e.g., pelvic incidence [PI], lumbar lordosis) and measurement of lumbosacral kyphosis angle (LSA), L4 slope (L4S), L5 slip (%), and postoperative increase of L5–S1 height.

RESULTS

The authors included 101 patients with > 1 year of clinical and radiographic follow-up. The mean age was 26 years. Average preoperative MD grade was 3.8 and average L5 slip was 81%; complete reduction was achieved in 55 and 42 patients, respectively, according to these criteria. At follow-up, LSA correlated with all clinical outcomes (r ≥ 0.4, p < 0.05). Forty patients experienced a major complication. Risk was increased in patients with greater preoperative deformity (i.e., LSA) (p = 0.04) and those who underwent L5 corpectomy (p < 0.01) and correlated with greater deformity correction. Thirty-one patients needed revision surgery, including 17 for pseudarthrosis. Patients who needed revision surgery had greater preoperative deformity (i.e., MD grade and L5 slip) (p < 0.01), greater PI (p = 0.02), and greater postoperative L4S (p < 0.01) and were older (p = 0.02), and these patients more often underwent L5 corpectomy (p < 0.01). Complete reduction was associated with lower likelihood of pseudarthrosis (p = 0.08) and resulted in better lumbar lordosis correction (p = 0.03). Thirty patients had foot drop, and these patients had greater MD grade and L5 slip (p < 0.01) and greater preoperative LSA (p < 0.01). These patients with foot drop more often required L5 corpectomy (p < 0.01). Change in preoperative L4S (p = 0.02), LSA (p < 0.01), and L5–S1 height (p = 0.02) were significantly different between patients with foot drop and those without foot drop. A significant risk model was established that included L4S change and PI as independent variables and foot drop as a dependent variable (82% negative predictive value and 71% positive predictive value, p < 0.01).

CONCLUSIONS

Multivariable analysis identified factors associated with foot drop, major complications, and need for revision surgery, including degree of deformity (MD grade and L5 slip) and correction of LSA. Functional outcome correlated with LSA correction.