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Per K. Eide, Angelika Sorteberg, Terje Nome, Pål A. Rønning, and Wilhelm Sorteberg

OBJECTIVE

Early repair of ruptured blood-blister aneurysms (BBAs) of the internal carotid artery (ICA) remains challenging. Although both surgical and endovascular therapies have been established, their relative superiority remains debated. The authors assessed their single-center experience and compared early deconstructive versus reconstructive repair and early reconstructive surgical versus endovascular repair of ruptured BBAs of the ICA.

METHODS

The study included patients who underwent repair of ruptured BBAs of the ICA within 1 week after the ictus during a 20-year period. Multiple variables were recorded, including clinical state, severity of subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), characteristics of the BBA, treatment details, complication profile, need for secondary treatment, and clinical outcome.

RESULTS

In total, 27 patients underwent early surgical (n = 16) or endovascular (n = 11) repair of BBAs at a median of 24 hours (range 9–120 hours) after the ictus during the period from September 2000 to June 2021 (20.4 years). Primary deconstructive repair (n = 6) without bypass was accompanied by middle cerebral artery (MCA) territory infarction in 5 of 6 (83%) patients and a high mortality rate (4/6 [67%]). Among the 21 patients who underwent early reconstructive repair, surgery was performed in 11 patients (clipping in 6 and clip-wrapping in 5 patients) and endovascular repair in 10 patients (flow diversion in 7 and stent/stent-assisted coiling in 3 patients). No differences were found in complication profiles or clinical outcomes between the surgical and endovascular groups. The mortality rate was low (2/21 [9.5%]), with 1 fatality in each group.

CONCLUSIONS

From the authors’ experience, both surgical and endovascular approaches permitted reconstructive repair of ruptured BBAs of the ICA, with no modality proving superior. Reconstructive treatment is preferable to ICA sacrifice, and if sacrifice is chosen, it should be accompanied with bypass surgery or delayed to the phase when cerebral vasospasm has resumed. The rare occurrence of this disease calls for prospective multicenter studies to improve treatment and delineate which modality is preferable in individual cases.

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Anastasia Arynchyna-Smith, Curtis J. Rozzelle, Hailey Jensen, Ron W. Reeder, Abhaya V. Kulkarni, Ian F. Pollack, John C. Wellons III, Robert P. Naftel, Eric M. Jackson, William E. Whitehead, Jonathan A. Pindrik, David D. Limbrick Jr., Patrick J. McDonald, Mandeep S. Tamber, Brent R. O’Neill, Jason S. Hauptman, Mark D. Krieger, Jason Chu, Tamara D. Simon, Jay Riva-Cambrin, John R. W. Kestle, Brandon G. Rocque, and

OBJECTIVE

Primary treatment of hydrocephalus with endoscopic third ventriculostomy (ETV) and choroid plexus cauterization (CPC) is well described in the neurosurgical literature, with wide reported ranges of success and complication rates. The purpose of this study was to describe the safety and efficacy of ETV revision after initial ETV+CPC failure.

METHODS

Prospectively collected data in the Hydrocephalus Clinical Research Network Core Data Project registry were reviewed. Children who underwent ETV+CPC as the initial treatment for hydrocephalus between 2013 and 2019 and in whom the initial ETV+CPC was completed (i.e., not abandoned) were included. Log-rank survival analysis (the primary analysis) was used to compare time to failure (defined as any other surgical treatment for hydrocephalus or death related to hydrocephalus) of initial ETV+CPC versus that of ETV revision by using random-effects modeling to account for the inclusion of patients in both the initial and revision groups. Secondary analysis compared ETV revision to shunt placement after failure of initial ETV+CPC by using the log-rank test, as well as shunt failure after ETV+CPC to that after ETV revision. Cox regression analysis was used to identify predictors of failure among children treated with ETV revision.

RESULTS

The authors identified 521 ETV+CPC procedures that met their inclusion criteria. Ninety-one children underwent ETV revision after ETV+CPC failure. ETV revision had a lower 1-year success rate than initial ETV+CPC (29.5% vs 45%, p < 0.001). ETV revision after initial ETV+CPC failure had a lower success rate than shunting (29.5% vs 77.8%, p < 0.001). Shunt survival after initial ETV+CPC failure was not significantly different from shunt survival after ETV revision failure (p = 0.963). Complication rates were similar for all examined surgical procedures (initial ETV+CPC, ETV revision, ventriculoperitoneal shunt [VPS] placement after ETV+CPC, and VPS placement after ETV revision). Only young age was predictive of ETV revision failure (p = 0.02).

CONCLUSIONS

ETV revision had a significantly lower 1-year success rate than initial ETV+CPC and VPS placement after ETV+CPC. Complication rates were similar for all studied procedures. Younger age, but not time since initial ETV+CPC, was a risk factor for ETV revision failure.

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Giuseppe Cinalli, Alessandra Marini, Carmela Russo, Pietro Spennato, Giuseppe Mirone, Claudio Ruggiero, Lucia Quaglietta, Maria Serena de’ Santi, and Eugenio Covelli

OBJECTIVE

The goals of this study were to evaluate the extent of resection (EOR) obtained with an occipital interhemispheric transtentorial approach (OITA) in a series of pediatric patients with pineal region tumors and to define preoperative radiological factors predictive of the EOR.

METHODS

This is a retrospective cohort study of a series of pediatric patients with pineal tumors who underwent surgery through a microsurgical OITA performed by the senior author during the period from January 2006 to January 2020. The tumor volume was measured preoperatively, and then on sagittal midline cuts the authors identified the most cranial point of the torcular Herophili (defined as the “Herophilus point”) and the lowest point of the inferior profile of the vein of Galen (defined as the “Galen point”). The line joining these two points (defined as the "Herophilus-Galen line" [H-G line]) was used to identify the "Herophilus-Galen plane" (H-G plane) perpendicular to the sagittal plane. Tumor volumes located below and above this plane were measured. EOR was evaluated by measuring residual tumor volume visible on T1 volumetric injected sequences of immediate postoperative MRI.

RESULTS

Thirty patients were selected for study inclusion. The preoperative mean tumor volume was 15.120 cm3 (range 0.129–104.3 cm3). The mean volumes were 2.717 cm3 (range 0–31 cm3) above the H-G plane and 12.40 cm3 (median 5.27 cm3, range 0.12–72.87 cm3) below the H-G plane. Three patients underwent only biopsy. Of the remaining 27 patients, gross-total resection (GTR; 100% tumor volume) was achieved in 20 patients (74%). In the remaining 7 patients, the mean residual tumor volume was 7.3 cm3 (range 0.26–17.88 cm3). In 3 of these patients, GTR was accomplished after further surgical procedures (1 in 2 patients, 3 in 1 patient) for an overall GTR rate of 85.18%. Larger tumor volume was significantly associated with incomplete resection (p < 0.001). A tumor volume ≤ 2 cm3 above the H-G plane (p = 0.003), linear extension ≤ 1 mm above the H-G line, and pineal histology were predictive of GTR at first OITA procedure (p = 0.001).

CONCLUSIONS

The H-G line is an intuitive, easy-to-use, and reliable indicator of the superior anatomical limit of visibility during the microsurgical OITA. This anatomical landmark may be useful as a predictor of EOR for pineal tumors performed through this approach. The main limitations of this study are the small number of patients and the exclusively pediatric age of the patient population.

Open access

Bernhard Meyer, Claudius Thomé, Peter Vajkoczy, Victoria Kehl, Richard Dodel, Florian Ringel, and

OBJECTIVE

Fusion is the standard of treatment for degenerative lumbar symptomatic instabilities. Dynamic stabilization is a potential alternative, with the aim of reducing pathological motion. Potential advantages are a reduction of surgical complexity and morbidity. The aim of this study was to assess whether dynamic stabilization is associated with a higher degree of functional improvement while reducing surgical complexity and thereby surgical duration and perioperative complications in comparison with lumbar fusion.

METHODS

This was a multicenter, double-blind, prospective, randomized, 2-arm superiority trial. Patients with symptomatic mono- or bisegmental lumbar degenerative disease with or without stenosis and instability were randomized 1:1 to instrumented fusion or pedicle-based dynamic stabilization. Patients underwent either rigid internal fixation and interbody fusion or pedicle-based dynamic stabilization. The primary endpoint was the Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) score, and secondary endpoints were pain, health-related quality of life, and patient satisfaction at 24 months.

RESULTS

Of 293 patients randomized to fusion or dynamic stabilization, 269 were available for analysis. The duration of surgery was significantly shorter for dynamic stabilization versus fusion, and the blood loss was significantly less for dynamic stabilization (380 ml vs 506 ml). Assessment of primary and secondary outcome parameters revealed no significant differences between groups. There were no differences in the incidence of adverse events.

CONCLUSIONS

Dynamic pedicle-based stabilization can achieve similar clinical outcome as fusion in the treatment of lumbar degenerative instabilities. Secondary failures are not different between groups. However, dynamic stabilization is less complex than fusion and is a feasible alternative.

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Antoine Kourilsky, Clément Palpacuer, Alister Rogers, Dorian Chauvet, Catherine Wiart, Pierre Bourdillon, and Caroline Le Guérinel

OBJECTIVE

Percutaneous balloon compression (PBC) is a popular treatment option for trigeminal neuralgia. However, the efficacy of PBC is widely considered to be associated with the occurrence of sensitive complications, although neither this correlation nor the underlying mechanisms have been established. The objectives of the present study were to identify factors predicting time to pain recurrence after PBC and identify factors predicting a severe sensitive complication.

METHODS

The authors conducted a retrospective study on patients who underwent PBC for the first time between 1985 and 2019 in two French hospitals. Data were retrieved from patients’ medical records. Potential clinical and radiological predictors for time to pain recurrence and severe sensitive complication were evaluated using a Cox model and a logistic regression, respectively.

RESULTS

A total of 131 patients were included in the study, with a median follow-up of 3.0 years. Pain recurrence occurred in 77 patients, and the median time to pain recurrence was 2.0 years. In the multivariate analysis, six independent factors predicting pain recurrence were identified: 1) longer duration of presurgical symptoms; 2) localization of the pain along the mandibular branch of the trigeminal nerve (V3); 3) atypical pain; 4) diagnosis of multiple sclerosis; 5) use of a medical device not specifically adapted for trigeminal neuralgia surgery; and 6) duration of balloon compression > 60 seconds. Regarding the secondary objective, 26 patients presented a severe sensitive complication after PBC, which the authors defined as the development of a new sensitivity disorder of the cornea, deafferentation pain known as anesthesia dolorosa, and/or long-lasting hypoesthesia augmentation characterized by the new appearance or increase in size or intensity of an area of hypoesthesia in the face for at least 3 months. The only predictor associated with a severe sensitive complication in the multivariate analysis was compression duration > 60 seconds.

CONCLUSIONS

These results show that the risk of postoperative complications can be assessed at the patient level, the most important modifiable parameter being the time of compression by the balloon. Although this study shows the relevance of a personalized medicine approach, its clinical application remains to be validated.

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Hun Ho Park, Jihwan Yoo, Hyeong-Cheol Oh, Yoon Jin Cha, Se Hoon Kim, Chang-Ki Hong, and Kyu-Sung Lee

OBJECTIVE

The role of adjuvant radiation therapy following incomplete resection of WHO grade I skull base meningiomas (SBMs) is controversial, and little is known regarding the behavior of residual tumors. The authors investigated the factors that influence regrowth of residual WHO grade I SBMs following incomplete resection.

METHODS

From 2005 to 2019, a total of 710 patients underwent surgery for newly diagnosed WHO grade I SBMs. The data of 115 patients (16.2%) with incomplete resection and without any adjuvant radiotherapy were retrospectively assessed during a mean follow-up of 78 months (range 27–198 months). Pre-, intra-, and postoperative clinical and molecular factors were analyzed for relevance to regrowth-free survival (RFS).

RESULTS

Eighty patients were eligible for analysis, excluding those who were lost to follow-up (n = 10) or had adjuvant radiotherapy (n = 25). Regrowth occurred in 39 patients (48.7%), with a mean RFS of 50 months (range 3–191 months). Significant predictors of regrowth were Ki-67 proliferative index (PI) ≥ 4% (p = 0.017), Simpson resection grades IV and V (p = 0.005), and invasion of the cavernous sinus (p = 0.027) and Meckel’s cave (p = 0.027). After Cox regression analysis, only Ki-67 PI ≥ 4% (hazard ratio [HR] 9.39, p = 0.003) and Simpson grades IV and V (HR 8.65, p = 0.001) showed significant deterioration of RFS. When stratified into 4 scoring groups, the mean RFSs were 110, 70, 38, and 9 months for scores 1 (Ki-67 PI < 4% and Simpson grade III), 2 (Ki-67 PI < 4% and Simpson grades IV and V), 3 (Ki-67 PI ≥ 4% and Simpson grade III), and 4 (Ki-67 PI ≥ 4% and Simpson grades IV and V), respectively. RFS was significantly longer for score 1 versus scores 2–4 (p < 0.01). Tumor consistency, histology, location, peritumoral edema, vascular encasement, and telomerase reverse transcriptase promoter mutation had no impact on regrowth.

CONCLUSIONS

Ki-67 PI and Simpson resection grade showed significant associations with RFS for WHO grade I SBMs following incomplete resection. Ki-67 PI and Simpson resection grade could be utilized to stratify the level of risk for regrowth.

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Athan G. Zavras, Navya Dandu, Michael T. Nolte, Alexander J. Butler, Vincent P. Federico, Arash J. Sayari, T. Barrett Sullivan, and Matthew W. Colman

OBJECTIVE

As an alternative procedure to anterior cervical discectomy and fusion, total disc arthroplasty (TDA) facilitates direct neural decompression and disc height restoration while also preserving cervical spine kinematics. To date, few studies have reported long-term functional outcomes after TDA. This paper reports the results of a systematic review and meta-analysis that investigated how segmental range of motion (ROM) at the operative level is maintained with long-term follow-up.

METHODS

PubMed and MEDLINE were queried for all published studies pertaining to cervical TDA. The methodology for screening adhered strictly to the PRISMA guidelines. All English-language prospective studies that reported ROM preoperatively, 1 year postoperatively, and/or at long-term follow-up of 5 years or more were included. A meta-analysis was performed using Cochran’s Q and I2 to test data for statistical heterogeneity, in which case a random-effects model was used. The mean differences (MDs) and associated 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were reported.

RESULTS

Of the 12 studies that met the inclusion criteria, 8 reported the long-term outcomes of 944 patients with an average (range) follow-up of 99.86 (60–142) months and were included in the meta-analysis. There was no difference between preoperative segmental ROM and segmental ROM at 1-year follow-up (MD 0.91°, 95% CI −1.25° to 3.07°, p = 0.410). After the exclusion of 1 study from the comparison between preoperative and 1-year ROM owing to significant statistical heterogeneity according to the sensitivity analysis, ROM significantly improved at 1 year postoperatively (MD 1.92°, 95% CI 1.04°–2.79°, p < 0.001). However, at longer-term follow-up, the authors again found no difference with preoperative segmental ROM, and no study was excluded on the basis of the results of further sensitivity analysis (MD −0.22°, 95% CI −1.69° to −1.23°, p = 0.760). In contrast, there was a significant decrease in ROM from 1 year postoperatively to final long-term follow-up (MD −0.77°, 95% CI −1.29° to −0.24°, p = 0.004).

CONCLUSIONS

Segmental ROM was found to initially improve beyond preoperative values for as long as 1 year postoperatively, but then ROM deteriorated back to values consistent with preoperative motion at long-term follow-up. Although additional studies with further longitudinal follow-up are needed, these findings further support the notion that cervical TDA may successfully maintain physiological spinal kinematics over the long term.

Open access

Isabella Watson, Patrick J. McDonald, Paul Steinbok, Brendon Graeber, and Ashutosh Singhal

BACKGROUND

Arachnoid cysts are benign, often asymptomatic intracranial mass lesions that, when ruptured, may cause seizures, raised intracranial pressure, hemorrhage, and/or loss of consciousness. There is no widely agreed upon treatment, and there is debate as to whether a nonoperative or surgical approach is the best course of action. The carbonic anhydrase inhibitor acetazolamide may be an effective nonoperative approach in treating ruptured arachnoid cysts.

OBSERVATIONS

The Pediatric Neurosurgery Clinical Database at BC Children’s Hospital from 2000 to 2020 was queried, and four pediatric patients who were treated with acetazolamide after presentation with a ruptured middle cranial fossa arachnoid cyst were identified. All patients showed some degree of symptom improvement. Three of the patients showed complete reabsorption of their subdural collections in the ensuing 6 months. One patient had an inadequate response to acetazolamide and required surgical management.

LESSONS

Acetazolamide is a safe and reasonable primary treatment option in pediatric patients with ruptured middle cranial fossa arachnoid cysts, and it may help avoid the need for surgery.

Open access

Fumiaki Kanamori, Yoshio Araki, Kinya Yokoyama, Kenji Uda, Takashi Mamiya, Shota Nohira, Kai Takayanagi, Kazuki Ishii, Masahiro Nishihori, Takashi Izumi, and Ryuta Saito

BACKGROUND

In patients with moyamoya disease (MMD) who receive superficial temporal artery (STA) to middle cerebral artery (MCA) bypass, hypoperfusion remote from the anastomosis site rarely occurs. Watershed shift due to direct bypass has been proposed as the mechanism; however, no report has confirmed this phenomenon using angiography.

OBSERVATIONS

A 48-year-old man presented with transient weakness in his left arm. Angiography revealed severe bilateral stenosis of the MCAs and moyamoya vessels. The right anterior cerebral artery (ACA) had short stenosis at A2 but ample blood supply to the cortical area of the right ACA and MCA regions. The patient was diagnosed with MMD and received a single STA-MCA bypass. The next day, he had difficulty communicating, and a cerebral infarction away from the anastomosis site was identified. Perfusion examination revealed hyperperfusion around the direct bypass and hypoperfusion away from the anastomosis site. Angiography revealed bypass patency; however, the original anterograde flow of the right ACA decreased significantly at the stenosed point, indicating an improper watershed shift.

LESSONS

STA-MCA bypass for patients with MMD can cause an improper watershed shift decreasing cerebral flow. Donor flow should be prepared based on each angiographic characteristic, and the risk of the improper watershed shift should be considered.

Open access

Daniel D. Cummins, Ramin A. Morshed, Tarik Tihan, and Sandeep Kunwar

BACKGROUND

There are numerous atypical lesions of the sellar and suprasellar region that are often mistaken for pituitary adenomas. It is important to consider rare mimics of more common pathologies in this region.

OBSERVATIONS

The authors detail the case of a 37-year-old woman with hypopituitarism who was found to have an atypical sellar mass with slow growth on interval imaging. The lesion was debulked via a microscopic endonasal transsphenoidal approach and found to be a calcifying pseudoneoplasm of the neuraxis (CAPNON).

LESSONS

CAPNON is a rare disease entity that may affect the sellar region. CAPNON should be on the differential diagnosis for sellar masses that are associated with T1 and T2 hypointensity on magnetic resonance imaging with minimal enhancement. Although CAPNON is not at risk for malignant progression, these benign lesions can continue to grow after a subtotal resection and require follow-up.