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Jun Muto, Yutaka Mine, Sota Nagai, Naoyuki Shizu, Hiroki Takeda, Daiki Ikeda, Akifumi Saito, Masahiro Joko, Mitsuhiro Hasegawa, Shinjiro Kaneko, Tatsushi Inoue, John Y. K. Lee, and Yuichi Hirose

The authors report the first cases of fluorescence-guided spinal surgery of schwannomas using near-infrared fluorescence imaging with the delayed window indocyanine (ICG) green (DWIG) technique for accurate real-time intraoperative tumor visualization.

Patients with intradural spinal schwannomas received 0.5 mg/kg ICG at the beginning of surgery. After 1 hour, using the DWIG technique, near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) detected the spinal schwannomas, showing the exact tumor location and boundaries. DWIG with NIRS microscopy confirmed the exact location of spinal schwannomas before and after opening of the dura mater, thereby facilitating successful tumor dissection from the surrounding tissues, tumor resection, and confirmation of tumor removal.

The video can be found here: https://stream.cadmore.media/r10.3171/2021.10.FOCVID21158

Free access

Paul Kendlbacher, Dimitri Tkatschenko, Marcus Czabanka, Simon Bayerl, Georg Bohner, Johannes Woitzik, Peter Vajkoczy, and Nils Hecht

OBJECTIVE

A direct comparison of intraoperative CT (iCT), cone-beam CT (CBCT), and robotic cone-beam CT (rCBCT) has been necessary to identify the ideal imaging solution for each individual user’s need. Herein, the authors sought to analyze workflow, handling, and performance of iCT, CBCT, and rCBCT imaging for navigated pedicle screw instrumentation across the entire spine performed within the same surgical environment by the same group of surgeons.

METHODS

Between 2014 and 2018, 503 consecutive patients received 2673 navigated pedicle screws using iCT (n = 1219), CBCT (n = 646), or rCBCT (n = 808) imaging during the first 24 months after the acquisition of each modality. Clinical and demographic data, workflow, handling, and screw assessment and accuracy were analyzed.

RESULTS

Intraoperative CT showed image quality and workflow advantages for cervicothoracic cases, obese patients, and long-segment instrumentation, whereas CBCT and rCBCT offered independent handling, around-the-clock availability, and the option of performing 2D fluoroscopy. All modalities permitted reliable intraoperative screw assessment. Navigated screw revision was possible with each modality and yielded final accuracy rates > 92% in all groups (iCT 96.2% vs CBCT 92.3%, p < 0.001) without a difference in the accuracy of cervical pedicle screw placement or the rate of secondary screw revision surgeries.

CONCLUSIONS

Continuous training and an individual setup of iCT, CBCT, and rCBCT has been shown to permit safe and precise navigated posterior instrumentation across the entire spine with reliable screw assessment and the option of immediate revision. The perceived higher image quality and larger scan area of iCT should be weighed against the around-the-clock availability of CBCT and rCBCT technology with the option of single-handed robotic image acquisition.

Restricted access

Andrew S. Little and Sherry J. Wu

Open access

Eric Suero Molina, Sönke J. Hellwig, Anna Walke, Astrid Jeibmann, Herbert Stepp, and Walter Stummer

OBJECTIVE

Fluorescence-guided resections performed using 5-aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA) have been studied extensively using the BLUE400 system. The authors introduce a triple–light-emitting diode (LED) headlight/loupe device for visualizing fluorescence, and compare this to the BLUE400 gold standard in order to assure similar and not more or less sensitive protoporphyrin-IX visualization.

METHODS

The authors defined the spectral requirements for a triple-LED headlight/loupe device for reproducing the xenon-based BLUE400 module. The system consisted of a white LED (normal surgery), a 409-nm LED for excitation, a 450-nm LED for background illumination, and appropriate observation filters. The prototype’s excitation and emission spectra, illumination and detection intensities, and spot homogeneity were determined. The authors further performed a prospectively randomized and blinded study for fluorescence assessments of fresh, marginal, fluorescing and nonfluorescing tumor samples comparing the LED/loupe device with BLUE400 in patients with malignant glioma treated with 20 mg/kg body weight 5-ALA. Tumor samples were immediately assessed in turn, both with a Kinevo and with a novel triple-LED/loupe device by different surgeons.

RESULTS

Seven triple-LED/loupe devices were analyzed. Illumination intensities in the 409- and 450-nm range were comparable to BLUE400, with high spot homogeneity. Fluorescence intensities measured distally to microscope oculars/loupes were 9.9-fold higher with the loupe device. For validation 26 patients with malignant gliomas with 240 biopsies were analyzed. With BLUE400 results as the reference, sensitivity for reproducing fluorescence findings was 100%, specificity was 95%, positive predictive value was 98%, negative predictive value was 100%, and accuracy was 95%. This study reached its primary aim, with agreement in 226 of 240 (94.2%, 95% CI 0.904–0.968).

CONCLUSIONS

The authors observed only minor differences regarding spectra and illumination intensities during evaluation. Fluorescence intensities available to surgeons were 9.9-fold higher with the loupe device. Importantly, the independent perception of fluorescence achieved using the new system and BLUE400 was statistically equivalent. The authors believe the triple-LED/loupe device to be a useful and safe option for surgeons who prefer loupes to the microscope for resections in appropriate patients.

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Runting Li, Fa Lin, Yu Chen, Junlin Lu, Heze Han, Debin Yan, Ruinan Li, Jun Yang, Zhipeng Li, Haibin Zhang, Kexin Yuan, Yongchen Jin, Qiang Hao, Hongliang Li, Linlin Zhang, Guangzhi Shi, Jianxin Zhou, Yang Zhao, Yukun Zhang, Youxiang Li, Shuo Wang, Xiaolin Chen, and Yuanli Zhao

OBJECTIVE

More than 10 years have passed since the two best-known clinical trials of ruptured aneurysms (International Subarachnoid Aneurysm Trial [ISAT] and Barrow Ruptured Aneurysm Trial [BRAT]) indicated that endovascular coiling (EC) was superior to surgical clipping (SC). However, in recent years, the development of surgical techniques has greatly improved; thus, it is necessary to reanalyze the impact of the differences in treatment modalities on the prognosis of patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH).

METHODS

The authors retrospectively reviewed all aSAH patients admitted to their institution between January 2015 and December 2020. The functional outcomes at discharge and 90 days after discharge were assessed using the modified Rankin Scale (mRS). In-hospital complications, hospital charges, and risk factors derived from multivariate logistic regression were analyzed in the SC and EC groups after 1:1 propensity score matching (PSM). The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was used to calculate each independent predictor’s prediction ability between treatment groups.

RESULTS

A total of 844 aSAH patients were included. After PSM to control for sex, aneurysm location, Hunt and Hess grade, World Federation of Neurosurgical Societies (WFNS) grade, modified Fisher Scale grade, and current smoking and alcohol abuse status, 329 patients who underwent SC were compared with 329 patients who underwent EC. Patients who underwent SC had higher incidences of unfavorable discharge and 90-day outcomes (46.5% vs 33.1%, p < 0.001; and 19.6% vs 13.8%, p = 0.046, respectively), delayed cerebral ischemia (DCI) (31.3% vs 20.1%, p = 0.001), intracranial infection (20.1% vs 1.2%, p < 0.001), anemia (42.2% vs 17.6%, p < 0.001), hypoproteinemia (46.2% vs 21.6%, p < 0.001), and pneumonia (33.4% vs 24.9%, p = 0.016); but a lower incidence of urinary tract infection (1.2% vs 5.2%, p = 0.004) and lower median hospital charges ($12,285 [IQR $10,399–$15,569] vs $23,656 [IQR $18,816–$30,025], p < 0.001). A positive correlation between the number of in-hospital complications and total hospital charges was indicated in the SC (r = 0.498, p < 0.001) and EC (r = 0.411, p < 0.001) groups. The occurrence of pneumonia and DCI, WFNS grade IV or V, and age were common independent risk factors for unfavorable outcomes at discharge and 90 days after discharge in both treatment modalities.

CONCLUSIONS

EC shows advantages in discharge and 90-day outcomes, in-hospital complications, and the number of risk factors but increases the economic cost on patients during their hospital stay. Severe in-hospital complications such as pneumonia and DCI may have a long-lasting impact on the prognosis of patients.

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Takao Nozaki, Kenji Sugiyama, Tetsuya Asakawa, Hiroki Namba, Masamichi Yokokura, Tatsuhiro Terada, Tomoyasu Bunai, and Yasuomi Ouchi

OBJECTIVE

Subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation (STN-DBS) in Parkinson’s disease is effective; however, its mechanism is unclear. To investigate the degree of neuronal terminal survival after STN-DBS, the authors examined the striatal dopamine transporter levels before and after treatment in association with clinical improvement using PET with [11C]2β-carbomethoxy-3β-(4-fluorophenyl)tropane ([11C]CFT).

METHODS

Ten patients with Parkinson’s disease who had undergone bilateral STN-DBS were scanned twice with [11C]CFT PET just before and 1 year after surgery. Correlation analysis was conducted between [11C]CFT binding and off-period Unified Parkinson’s Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) scores assessed preoperatively and postoperatively.

RESULTS

[11C]CFT uptake reduced significantly in the posterodorsal putamen contralateral to the parkinsonism-dominant side after 1 year; however, an increase was noted in the contralateral anteroventral putamen and ipsilateral ventral caudate postoperatively (p < 0.05). The percentage increase in [11C]CFT binding was inversely correlated with the preoperative binding level in the bilateral anteroventral putamen, ipsilateral ventral caudate, contralateral anterodorsal putamen, contralateral posteroventral putamen, and contralateral nucleus accumbens. The percentage reduction in UPDRS-II score was significantly correlated with the percentage increase in [11C]CFT binding in the ipsilateral anteroventral putamen (p < 0.05). The percentage reduction in UPDRS-III score was significantly correlated with the percentage increase in [11C]CFT binding in the ipsilateral anteroventral putamen, ventral caudate, and nucleus accumbens (p < 0.05).

CONCLUSIONS

STN-DBS increases dopamine transporter levels in the anteroventral striatum, which is correlated with the motor recovery and possibly suggests the neuromodulatory effect of STN-DBS on dopaminergic terminals in Parkinson’s disease patients. A preoperative level of anterior striatal dopamine transporter may predict reserve capacity of STN-DBS on motor recovery.

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Francesco Sammartino, Fang-Cheng Yeh, and Vibhor Krishna

OBJECTIVE

Outcomes after focused ultrasound ablation (FUSA) for essential tremor remain heterogeneous, despite therapeutic promise. Clinical outcomes are directly related to the volume and location of the therapeutic lesions, consistent with CNS ablative therapies. Recent data demonstrate that postoperative diffusion MRI, specifically the quantification of intracellular diffusion by restricted diffusion imaging (RDI), can accurately characterize focused ultrasound lesions. However, it is unclear whether RDI can reliably detect focused ultrasound lesions intraoperatively (i.e., within a few minutes of lesioning) and whether the intraoperative lesions predict delayed clinical outcomes.

METHODS

An intraoperative imaging protocol was implemented that included RDI and T2-weighted imaging in addition to intraoperative MR thermography. Lesion characteristics were defined with each sequence and then compared. An imaging-outcomes analysis was performed to determine lesion characteristics associated with delayed clinical outcomes.

RESULTS

Intraoperative RDI accurately identified the volume and location of focused ultrasound lesions. Intraoperative T2-weighted imaging underestimated the lesion volume but accurately identified the location. Intraoperative RDI revealed that lesions of the ventral border of the ventral intermediate nucleus were significantly associated with postoperative tremor improvement. In contrast, the lesions extending into the inferolateral white matter were associated with postoperative ataxia.

CONCLUSIONS

These data support the acquisition of intraoperative RDI to characterize focused ultrasound lesions. Future research should test the histological correlates of intraoperative RDI and test whether it can be developed as feedback to optimize the current technique of FUSA.

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Alaa S. Montaser, Harishchandra Lalgudi Srinivasan, Steven J. Staffa, David Zurakowski, Anna L. Slingerland, Darren B. Orbach, Moran Hausman-Kedem, Jonathan Roth, and Edward R. Smith

OBJECTIVE

Ivy sign is a radiographic finding on FLAIR MRI sequences and is associated with slow cortical blood flow in moyamoya. Limited data exist on the utility of the ivy sign as a diagnostic and prognostic tool in pediatric patients, particularly outside of Asian populations. The authors aimed to investigate a modified grading scale with which to characterize the prevalence and extent of the ivy sign in children with moyamoya and evaluate its efficacy as a biomarker in predicting postoperative outcomes, including stroke risk.

METHODS

Pre- and postoperative clinical and radiographic data of all pediatric patients (21 years of age or younger) who underwent surgery for moyamoya disease or moyamoya syndrome at two major tertiary referral centers in the US and Israel, between July 2009 and August 2019, were retrospectively reviewed. Ivy sign scores were correlated to Suzuki stage, Matsushima grade, and postoperative stroke rate to quantify the diagnostic and prognostic utility of ivy sign.

RESULTS

A total of 171 hemispheres in 107 patients were included. The median age at the time of surgery was 9 years (range 3 months–21 years). The ivy sign was most frequently encountered in association with Suzuki stage III or IV disease in all vascular territories, including the anterior cerebral artery (53.7%), middle cerebral artery (56.3%), and posterior cerebral artery (47.5%) territories. Following surgical revascularization, 85% of hemispheres with Matsushima grade A demonstrated a concomitant, statistically significant reduction in ivy sign scores (OR 5.3, 95% CI 1.4–20.0; p = 0.013). Postoperatively, revascularized hemispheres that exhibited ivy sign score decreases had significantly lower rates of postoperative stroke (3.4%) compared with hemispheres that demonstrated no reversal of the ivy sign (16.1%) (OR 5.5, 95% CI 1.5–21.0; p = 0.008).

CONCLUSIONS

This is the largest study to date that focuses on the role of the ivy sign in pediatric moyamoya. These data demonstrate that the ivy sign was present in approximately half the pediatric patients with moyamoya with Suzuki stage III or IV disease, when blood flow was most unstable. The authors found that reversal of the ivy sign provided both radiographic and clinical utility as a prognostic biomarker postoperatively, given the statistically significant association with both better Matsushima grades and a fivefold reduction in postoperative stroke rates. These findings can help inform clinical decision-making, and they have particular value in the pediatric population, as the ability to minimize additional radiographic evaluations and tailor radiographic surveillance is requisite.

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Tadatsugu Morimoto, Takaomi Kobayashi, Masaya Ueno, Hirohito Hirata, and Masaaki Mawatari

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Lei Zhao, Liwei Peng, Peng Wang, and Weixin Li