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Open access

Kohei Ishikawa, Hideki Endo, Koichiro Shindo, Ryota Nomura, Koji Oka, and Hirohiko Nakamura

BACKGROUND

Fetal posterior cerebral artery occlusion is rare and often presents with severe neurological symptoms. Although acute recanalization therapy is commonly used for cerebral vessel occlusion, unruptured cerebral aneurysms can be hidden distal to the occluded vessels.

OBSERVATIONS

An 87-year-old man presented with consciousness disturbance and right hemiparesis. The authors diagnosed left fetal posterior cerebral artery occlusion and performed mechanical thrombectomy. A stent retriever was deployed from the middle cerebral artery M1 segment across the mural thrombus of the internal carotid artery. After the first pass, the fetal posterior cerebral artery remained occluded, with confirmation of a contrast effect around the thrombus. Because the anatomical course of the fetal posterior cerebral artery was unidentified, the procedure was stopped. At 1-week recovery, magnetic resonance imaging revealed complete recanalization and a fetal posterior cerebral artery aneurysm hidden within the occluded site. Blood flow was directed to the aneurysm, and the thrombus within the aneurysm simultaneously occluded the fetal posterior cerebral artery.

LESSONS

To avoid critical complications following mechanical thrombectomy for fetal posterior cerebral artery occlusion, hidden aneurysms should be suspected when a “fried egg–like” contrast effect is observed around the thrombus.

Open access

Belinda Shao, Bryan Zheng, David D. Liu, Matthew N. Anderson, Konstantina Svokos, Luca Bartolini, and Wael F. Asaad

BACKGROUND

For patients with difficult-to-lateralize temporal lobe epilepsy, the use of chronic recordings as a diagnostic tool to inform subsequent surgical therapy is an emerging paradigm that has been reported in adults but not in children.

OBSERVATIONS

The authors reported the case of a 15-year-old girl with pharmacoresistant temporal lobe epilepsy who was found to have bitemporal epilepsy during a stereoelectroencephalography (sEEG) admission. She underwent placement of a responsive neurostimulator system with bilateral hippocampal depth electrodes. However, over many months, her responsive neurostimulation (RNS) recordings revealed that her typical, chronic seizures were right-sided only. This finding led to a subsequent right-sided laser amygdalohippocampotomy, resulting in seizure freedom.

LESSONS

In this case, RNS chronic recording provided real-world data that enabled more precise seizure localization than inpatient sEEG data, informing surgical decision-making that led to seizure freedom. The use of RNS chronic recordings as a diagnostic adjunct to seizure localization procedures and laser ablation therapies in children is an area with potential for future study.

Open access

Keisuke Onoda, Yoshifumi Ogasawara, Yu Hirokawa, Ryohei Sashida, Ren Fujiwara, Tomihiro Wakamiya, Yuhei Michiwaki, Tatsuya Tanaka, Kazuaki Shimoji, Eiichi Suehiro, Fumitaka Yamane, Masatou Kawashima, and Akira Matsuno

BACKGROUND

A vestibular schwannoma (VS) presenting with paroxysmal facial electric shock pain, that is, trigeminal neuralgia (TN), is relatively rare. Furthermore, TN is extremely rare in small VSs.

OBSERVATIONS

Herein, the authors report the case of a 52-year-old woman with a complaint of right TN. Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging revealed a right VS of 12-mm diameter that compressed the trigeminal nerve. Although she did not report any hearing impairment, audiometry revealed decreased high-frequency range on the right side. The tumor was excised using the right retrosigmoid approach, and TN was confirmed to be caused by direct compression of the trigeminal nerve by the VS. Sufficient decompression of trigeminal nerve was done. The proximity of the trigeminal nerve root to the vestibular nerve root was the cause of TN. TN disappeared immediately after surgery, and there was no worsening of hearing impairment and facial paralysis.

LESSONS

It is important to remember that TN may occur with direct tumor compression, even in small VSs. A preoperative 3-dimensional MR cisternogram/angiogram fusion image clearly showed direct tumor compression of the trigeminal nerve and the absence of responsible vessels, which was useful for surgical planning.

Open access

Ako Matsuhashi, Taichiro Yoshimoto, and Gakushi Yoshikawa

BACKGROUND

Solitary fibrous tumor (SFT) is a rare mesenchymal tumor known for its propensity for recurrence and metastasis. Furthermore, aneurysmal bone cyst (ABC) is a benign osteolytic lesion. ABC-like areas can be seen in bone tumors that have undergone hemorrhagic cystic change. They are formed by disruptions in the osseous circulation caused by the associated lesion. The most common associated lesions are giant cell tumor, chondroblastoma, osteoblastoma, osteosarcoma, chondromyxoid fibroma, and fibrous dysplasia. There has been no reported case of SFT being the associated lesion.

OBSERVATIONS

A 42-year-old woman presented with a 6-month history of headache and impaired memory. Radiological examinations revealed a 50-mm cystic lesion with multiple fluid levels arising from the left temporal bone. Total resection of the tumor was conducted, and postoperative course was uneventful. Histopathological examination was consistent with SFT with ABC-like change.

LESSONS

This is the first documented case of SFT with ABC-like change in the cranial fossa. This should be considered a differential diagnosis when treating a lesion in the cranial fossa, such as in this case, to achieve complete resection of the tumor and have close follow-up postoperatively.

Open access

Sarah DeCou, Pablo F. Recinos, Richard A. Prayson, Christopher Karakasis, Anzar Haider, and Neha Patel

BACKGROUND

Xanthomatous lesions of the pituitary have been linked to ruptured or hemorrhagic Rathke’s cleft cysts. Most cases are reported to resolve following radical resection. When recurrence does occur, there is no established treatment regimen. High-dose glucocorticoids have been reported to be beneficial in several published cases; however, their effects are often not sustained once therapy is discontinued.

OBSERVATIONS

The authors report the case of an adolescent male who developed recurrent xanthogranulomatous hypophysitis associated with a Rathke’s cleft cyst despite two surgical interventions. He was treated with a short course of dexamethasone followed by a maintenance course of celecoxib and mycophenolate mofetil. This regimen proved to be safe and well-tolerated, and it successfully prevented another recurrence of his xanthogranulomatous hypophysitis.

LESSONS

This case demonstrates a novel nonsurgical approach to the management of recurrent xanthogranulomatous hypophysitis. It suggests a potential application of a combined corticosteroid-sparing immunosuppressive and anti-inflammatory regimen in other cases of refractory xanthogranulomatous hypophysitis.

Restricted access

Virendra R. Desai, Audrey Grossen, Huy Gia Vuong, Nicholas Hopkins, Mikayla Peters, and Andrew Jea

OBJECTIVE

COVID-19 has not only impacted healthcare systems directly via hospitalizations and resource utilization, but also indirectly via adaptations in healthcare practice, such as the evolution of the academic environment and the rise of telemedicine and virtual education. This void in clinical responsibilities has been filled with academic productivity in various fields. In this study the authors investigate the influence of COVID-19 on the academic focus within pediatric neurosurgery.

METHODS

All data were obtained from the Journal of Neurosurgery: Pediatrics (JNS Peds). The number of submissions for each month from January 2017 to December 2021 was collected. Data including number of publications, publication level of evidence (LOE), and COVID-19–related articles were collected and verified. Each publication was categorized by manuscript and LOE according to adaptations from the Canadian Task Force on Periodic Health Examination. Publication groups were categorized as pre–COVID-19 (January 2017–February 2020), peri–COVID-19 (March 2020–July 2020), and post–COVID-19 (August 2020–December 2021). Statistical analysis was performed to compare pre–COVID-19, peri–COVID-19, and post–COVID-19 academic volume and quality.

RESULTS

During the study time period, a total of 3116 submissions and 997 publications were identified for JNS Peds. Only 2 articles specifically related to COVID-19 and its impact on pediatric neurosurgery were identified, both published in 2021. When analyzing submission volume, a statistically significant increase was seen during the shutdown relative to pre–COVID-19 and post-shutdown time periods, and a significant decrease was seen post-shutdown relative to pre–COVID-19. LOE changed significantly as well. When comparing pre–COVID-19 versus post–COVID-19 articles, a statistically significant increase was identified only in level 4 publications. When analyzing pre–COVID-19 versus post–COVID-19 (2020) and post–COVID-19 (2021), a statistically significant decrease in level 3 and increases in levels 4 and 5 were identified during post–COVID-19 (2020), with a rebound increase in level 3 and a decrease in level 5 during post–COVID-19 (2021).

CONCLUSIONS

There was a significant increase in manuscript submission during the initial pandemic period. However, there was no change during subsequent spikes in COVID-19–related hospitalizations. Coincident with the initial surge in academic productivity, despite steady publication volume, was an inverse decline in quality as assessed by LOE.

Restricted access

Aixing Pan, Honghao Yang, Yong Hai, Yuzeng Liu, Xinuo Zhang, Hongtao Ding, Yue Li, Hongyi Lu, Zihao Ding, Yangyang Xu, and Baoqing Pei

OBJECTIVE

Achieving solid fusion of the lumbosacral junction continues to be a challenge in long-segment instrumentation to the sacrum. The purpose of this study was to test the condition of adding sacral anchors through an S1 alar screw (S1AS) and multirod construct relative to using S1 pedicle screws (S1PSs) alone with sacroiliac fixation in lumbosacral junction augmentation.

METHODS

Seven fresh-frozen human lumbar-pelvic spine cadaveric specimens were tested under nondestructive moments (7.5 Nm). The ranges of motion (ROMs) in extension, flexion, left and right lateral bending (LB), and axial rotation (AR) of instrumented segments (L3–S1); the lumbosacral region (L5–S1); and the adjacent segment (L2–3) were measured, and the axial construct stiffness (ACS) was recorded. The testing conditions were 1) intact; 2) bilateral pedicle screw (BPS) fixation at L3–S1 (S1PS alone); 3) BPS and unilateral S2 alar iliac screw (U-S2AIS) fixation; 4) BPS and unilateral S1AS (U-S1AS) fixation; 5) BPS and bilateral S2AIS (B-S2AIS) fixation; and 6) BPS and bilateral S1AS (B-S1AS) fixation. Accessory rods were used in testing conditions 3–6.

RESULTS

In all directions, the ROMs of L5–S1 and L3–S1 were significantly reduced in B-S1AS and B-S2AIS conditions, compared with intact and S1PS alone. There was no significant difference in reduction of the ROMs of L5–S1 between B-S1ASs and B-S2AISs. Greater decreased ROMs of L3–S1 in extension and AR were detected with B-S2AISs than with B-S1ASs. Both B-S1ASs and B-S2AISs significantly increased the ACS compared with S1PSs alone. The ACS of B-S2AISs was significantly greater than that of B-S1ASs, but with greater increased ROMs of L2–3 in extension.

CONCLUSIONS

Adding sacral anchors through S1ASs and a multirod construct was as effective as sacropelvic fixation in lumbosacral junction augmentation. The ACS was less than the sacropelvic fixation but with lower ROMs of the adjacent segment. The biomechanical effects of using S1ASs in the control of long-instrumented segments were moderate (better than S1PSs alone but worse than sacropelvic fixation). This strategy is appropriate for patients requiring advanced lumbosacral fixation, and the risk of sacroiliac joint violation can be avoided.

Restricted access

Andrew K. Chan, Christopher I. Shaffrey, Oren N. Gottfried, Christine Park, Khoi D. Than, Erica F. Bisson, Mohamad Bydon, Anthony L. Asher, Domagoj Coric, Eric A. Potts, Kevin T. Foley, Michael Y. Wang, Kai-Ming Fu, Michael S. Virk, John J. Knightly, Scott Meyer, Paul Park, Cheerag Upadhyaya, Mark E. Shaffrey, Avery L. Buchholz, Luis M. Tumialán, Jay D. Turner, Giorgos D. Michalopoulos, Brandon A. Sherrod, Nitin Agarwal, Dean Chou, Regis W. Haid Jr., and Praveen V. Mummaneni

OBJECTIVE

The aim of this study was to determine whether multilevel anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF) or posterior cervical laminectomy and fusion (PCLF) is superior for patients with cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM) and high preoperative neck pain.

METHODS

This was a retrospective study of prospectively collected data using the Quality Outcomes Database (QOD) CSM module. Patients who received a subaxial fusion of 3 or 4 segments and had a visual analog scale (VAS) neck pain score of 7 or greater at baseline were included. The 3-, 12-, and 24-month outcomes were compared for patients undergoing ACDF with those undergoing PCLF.

RESULTS

Overall, 1141 patients with CSM were included in the database. Of these, 495 (43.4%) presented with severe neck pain (VAS score > 6). After applying inclusion and exclusion criteria, we compared 65 patients (54.6%) undergoing 3- and 4-level ACDF and 54 patients (45.4%) undergoing 3- and 4-level PCLF. Patients undergoing ACDF had worse Neck Disability Index scores at baseline (52.5 ± 15.9 vs 45.9 ± 16.8, p = 0.03) but similar neck pain (p > 0.05). Otherwise, the groups were well matched for the remaining baseline patient-reported outcomes. The rates of 24-month follow-up for ACDF and PCLF were similar (86.2% and 83.3%, respectively). At the 24-month follow-up, both groups demonstrated mean improvements in all outcomes, including neck pain (p < 0.05). In multivariable analyses, there was no significant difference in the degree of neck pain change, rate of neck pain improvement, rate of pain-free achievement, and rate of reaching minimal clinically important difference (MCID) in neck pain between the two groups (adjusted p > 0.05). However, ACDF was associated with a higher 24-month modified Japanese Orthopaedic Association scale (mJOA) score (β = 1.5 [95% CI 0.5–2.6], adjusted p = 0.01), higher EQ-5D score (β = 0.1 [95% CI 0.01–0.2], adjusted p = 0.04), and higher likelihood for return to baseline activities (OR 1.2 [95% CI 1.1–1.4], adjusted p = 0.002).

CONCLUSIONS

Severe neck pain is prevalent among patients undergoing surgery for CSM, affecting more than 40% of patients. Both ACDF and PCLF achieved comparable postoperative neck pain improvement 3, 12, and 24 months following 3- or 4-segment surgery for patients with CSM and severe neck pain. However, multilevel ACDF was associated with superior functional status, quality of life, and return to baseline activities at 24 months in multivariable adjusted analyses.

Restricted access

Nathan J. Lee, Paul J. Park, Varun Puvanesarajah, William E. Clifton, Kevin Kwan, Cole R. Morrissette, Jaques L. Williams, Michael W. Fields, Eric Leung, Fthimnir M. Hassan, Peter D. Angevine, Christopher E. Mandigo, Joseph M. Lombardi, Zeeshan M. Sardar, Ronald A. Lehman Jr., and Lawrence G. Lenke

OBJECTIVE

There is a paucity of literature on pelvic fixation failure after adult spine surgery in the early postoperative period. The purpose of this study was to determine the incidence of acute pelvic fixation failure in a large single-center study and to describe the lessons learned.

METHODS

The authors performed a retrospective review of adult (≥ 18 years old) patients who underwent spinal fusion with pelvic fixation (iliac, S2-alar-iliac [S2AI] screws) at a single academic medical center between 2015 and 2020. All patients had a minimum of 3 instrumented levels. The minimum follow-up was 6 months after the index spine surgery. Patients with prior pelvic fixation were excluded. Acute pelvic fixation failure was defined as revision of the pelvic screws within 6 months of the primary surgery. Patient demographics and operative, radiographic, and rod/screw parameters were collected. All rods were cobalt-chrome. All iliac and S2AI screws were closed-headed screws.

RESULTS

In 358 patients, the mean age was 59.5 ± 13.6 years, and 64.0% (n = 229) were female. The mean number of instrumented levels was 11.5 ± 5.5, and 79.1% (n = 283) had ≥ 6 levels fused. Three-column osteotomies were performed in 14.2% (n = 51) of patients, and 74.6% (n = 267) had an L5–S1 interbody fusion. The mean diameter/length of pelvic screws was 8.5/86.6 mm. The mean number of pelvic screws was 2.2 ± 0.5, the mean rod diameter was 6.0 ± 0 mm, and 78.5% (n = 281) had > 2 rods crossing the lumbopelvic junction. Accessory rods extended to S1 (32.7%, n = 117) or S2/ilium (45.8%, n = 164). Acute pelvic fixation failure occurred in 1 patient (0.3%); this individual had a broken S2AI screw near the head-neck junction. This 76-year-old woman with degenerative lumbar scoliosis and chronic lumbosacral zone 1 fracture nonunion had undergone posterior instrumented fusion from T10 to pelvis with bilateral S2AI screws (8.5 × 90 mm); i.e., transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion L4–S1. The patient had persistent left buttock pain postoperatively, with radiographically confirmed breakage of the left S2AI screw 68 days after surgery. Revision included instrumentation removal at L2–pelvis and a total of 4 pelvic screws.

CONCLUSIONS

The acute pelvic fixation failure rate was exceedingly low in adult spine surgery. This rate may be the result of multiple factors including the preference for multirod (> 2), closed-headed pelvic screw constructs in which large-diameter long screws are used. Increasing the number of rods and screws at the lumbopelvic junction may be important factors to consider, especially for patients with high risk for nonunion.

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Benedito Jamilson Araújo Pereira, Antonio Marcondes Lerario, Paula Rodrigues Sola, Talita de Sousa Laurentino, Dipika R. Mohan, Antonio Nogueira de Almeida, Paulo Henrique Pires de Aguiar, Wellingson da Silva Paiva, Alda Wakamatsu, Manoel Jacobsen Teixeira, Sueli Mieko Oba-Shinjo, and Suely Kazue Nagahashi Marie

OBJECTIVE

The authors searched for genetic and transcriptional signatures associated with tumor progression and recurrence in their cohort of patients with meningiomas, combining the analysis of targeted exome, NF2-LOH, transcriptome, and protein expressions.

METHODS

The authors included 91 patients who underwent resection of intracranial meningioma at their institution between June 2000 and November 2007. The search of somatic mutations was performed by Next Generation Sequencing through a customized panel and multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification for NF2 loss of heterozygosity. The transcriptomic profile was analyzed by QuantSeq 3′ mRNA-Seq. The differentially expressed genes of interest were validated at the protein level analysis by immunohistochemistry.

RESULTS

The transcriptomic analysis identified an upregulated set of genes related to metabolism and cell cycle and downregulated genes related to immune response and extracellular matrix remodeling in grade 2 (atypical) meningiomas, with a significant difference in recurrent compared with nonrecurrent cases. EZH2 nuclear positivity associated with grade 2, particularly with recurrent tumors and EZH2 gene expression level, correlated positively with the expression of genes related to cell cycle and negatively to genes related to immune response and regulation of cell motility.

CONCLUSIONS

The authors identified modules of dysregulated genes in grade 2 meningiomas related to the activation of oxidative metabolism, cell division, cell motility due to extracellular remodeling, and immune evasion that were predictive of survival and exhibited significant correlations with EZH2 expression.