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Open access

Percutaneous lumbopelvic fixation for pathologic sacral fractures and spinopelvic dissociation: patient series

Nikolas Baksh, Caleb Yeung, and Max Vaynrub

BACKGROUND

Because patients with advanced cancer live longer, the number of patients with the sequelae of metastatic spine disease has increased. Pathologic instability of the mobile spine has been classified, and minimally invasive surgery has been well described. However, pathologic sacral instability is uncommon and often underdiagnosed. Although most sacral fractures are stable, patients with unstable U- or H-type fractures have spinopelvic dissociation and can experience progressive pain, sacral kyphosis, and neurological injury. Open lumbopelvic fusion carries a high perioperative risk for this patient population, which has often been previously radiated and is medically frail. The authors investigated the utility and safety of percutaneous lumbopelvic fixation, as previously described for traumatic spinopelvic dissociation, in the oncological setting. The authors retrospectively reviewed five consecutive patients with unstable pathologic sacral fractures who had undergone percutaneous lumbopelvic fixation after conservative management failed.

OBSERVATIONS

Patients experienced significant improvement between pre- and postoperative visual analog scale scores (9.2 and 1.6, respectively) and Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group grades (median 3 and 1, respectively). All patients were independently ambulatory at the final follow-up. Sagittal alignment remained stable in four patients and worsened in one. There were no major medical or surgical complications.

LESSONS

Percutaneous lumbopelvic fixation shows promising results for palliation, durability, and safety for pathologic sacropelvic instability.

Open access

Percutaneous transjugular approach without arterial monitoring for the treatment of a direct carotid-cavernous fistula with vascular Ehlers–Danlos syndrome: illustrative case

Naoyuki Uchiyama, Yosuke Kawahara, Wataru Uchida, Ayumu Nitta, Atsushi Nohara, and Yutaka Hayashi

BACKGROUND

Vascular Ehlers–Danlos syndrome (vEDS) because of COL3A1 mutations is a rare inherited collagen vascular disease associated with spontaneous arterial dissections, aneurysms, vessel rupture, and organ rupture. A direct carotid-cavernous fistula (CCF) is the most common central nervous system vascular anomaly in vEDS; however, its treatment is challenging due to extremely fragile arteries and veins.

OBSERVATIONS

A 22-year-old woman presented with pulsatile tinnitus and mild diplopia. CCF formation without trauma, cervical dissecting aneurysms, thin skin, and multiple ligament tears, as well as a genetic analysis, led to a diagnosis of vEDS. To minimize the risk of vascular injury in the thoracoperitoneal cavity, the internal jugular vein was directly punctured and the CCF was embolized transvenously using the triple-overlay road-mapping technique without arterial monitoring. The CCF was completely occluded, and the patient showed an excellent clinical course without neurological or vascular complications.

LESSONS

Physicians and neurosurgeons should consider vEDS when treating younger patients with spontaneous CCF without trauma and investigate the possibility of genetic abnormalities and systemic vascular pathology. Transvenous embolization of a CCF through the transjugular route using the triple-overlay road-mapping technique can minimize the risk of vascular injury in a patient with vEDS.

Open access

Lateral ventricle subependymoma resected with a transcallosal approach: illustrative case

Franco Rubino, Michael P. Catalino, Romulo A. Andrade de Almeida, and Sujit S. Prabhu

BACKGROUND

Subependymomas are World Health Organization grade I tumors, and 30% occur in the lateral ventricles. Surgery is the mainstay of treatment, and the transcallosal or transcortical/transsulcal approaches are preferred for those tumors occurring near the foramen of Monro or atrium. Visualization, proximity to the fornix and basal ganglia, hydrocephalus, and brain retraction during surgery make these operations challenging. The authors present the case of a 65-year-old male with a subependymoma located in the left lateral ventricle. The tumor was completely resected using an interhemispheric/transcallosal approach.

OBSERVATIONS

The authors analyze the anatomopathological features of subependymoma, along with the clinical behavior and therapeutic options. The authors discuss in detail the advantages and disadvantages of the interhemispheric/transcallosal approach for resection of these tumors.

LESSONS

Subependymomas are slow-growing lesions with an indolent yet complicated course making surgical removal challenging yet feasible using the correct techniques. The interhemispheric transcallosal approach offers an excellent route for the resection of large subependymomas, but there is still a significant risk for postoperative complications.

Open access

Pachymeningeal en plaque metastasis from gastric cancer mimicking subdural hematoma: illustrative case

Hsuan-Yi Wu, Chee-Tat Lam, Ai Seon Kuan, Tong-Jong Chen, Chen-Shu Wu, and Ming-Cheng Tsai

BACKGROUND

Pachymeningeal metastasis associated with gastric cancer, especially in its early stages, is extremely rare.

OBSERVATIONS

The authors describe a 77-year-old man with a past medical history of lung cancer and previously treated chronic subdural hematoma who was admitted to their hospital because of hematemesis and newly diagnosed gastric cancer. He became unconscious during the hospitalization. The preoperative brain imaging studies had the appearance of recurrent subdural hematoma and extracranial tumor with skull invasion. Craniotomy revealed pachymeningeal carcinomatosis and en plaque metastasis of tumor. The histopathology of the tumors was consistent with metastatic gastric adenocarcinoma.

LESSONS

This is the first reported case of metastatic gastric cancer as a pachymeninges-based en plaque entity. This report highlights the rare radiological presentation and operative findings in this case. The authors also summarize those case reports associated with dural metastasis arising from gastric cancer.

Open access

Selective transarterial embolization for arterial hemorrhage after upper third molar extraction: illustrative cases

Kohei Tokuyama, Hiro Kiyosue, Ryuichi Shimada, Satomi Miyamoto, Ayaka Abe, Kenji Kawano, and Yoshiki Asayama

BACKGROUND

The present report describes 2 cases of arterial bleeding after removal of the upper third molar that were successfully treated with selective transarterial embolization.

OBSERVATIONS

The first patient underwent removal of the left upper third molar. A few hours later, facial swelling and massive bleeding appeared near the extraction socket involving the posterolateral wall of the maxillary sinus. Angiography showed a pseudoaneurysm involving the posterior superior dental artery, and the lesion was selectively embolized with an N-butyl cyanoacrylate (NBCA)-lipidiol mixture. The second patient underwent removal of the left upper third molar, and massive bleeding occurred from the extraction socket involving the greater palatine foramen. Angiography revealed the pseudoaneurysm of the greater palatine artery, and the lesion was selectively embolized with an NBCA-lipiodol mixture. Both patients were discharged uneventfully, and no recurrent bleeding was observed during the 82- and 5-month follow-up periods.

LESSONS

Massive arterial bleeding after a third molar extraction occurs from either the posterior superior dental artery or the greater palatine artery, which is associated with the location of the extraction socket. Selective transarterial glue embolization is a useful option for the treatment of arterial bleeding after the removal of the upper third molars.

Open access

Disappearance of a moyamoya-related distal anterior cerebral artery aneurysm after target bypass revascularization: illustrative case

Taro Kusakabe, Kazunori Oda, Hiromasa Kobayashi, Dai Kawano, Shintaro Yoshinaga, Hironori Fukumoto, Koichiro Takemoto, Takashi Morishita, and Hiroshi Abe

BACKGROUND

Aneurysm formation is a complication of moyamoya disease (MMD). Distal anterior cerebral artery (ACA) aneurysms account for approximately 1% of MMD-related aneurysms. We report a case of target bypass for adult patients with MMD who presented with intracranial hemorrhage due to rupture of a distal ACA aneurysm, whose disappearance was confirmed postoperatively.

OBSERVATIONS

A 45-year-old woman presented with sudden-onset headache and loss of consciousness. Head computed tomography showed hemorrhage in the genu of the corpus callosum with intraventricular extension. Digital subtraction angiography (DSA) revealed Suzuki stage III MMD and a left A3 segment aneurysm. Superficial temporal artery (STA)–middle cerebral artery (MCA) bypass and STA-ACA target bypass were performed to reduce hemodynamic stress on the left ACA. DSA 6 months after surgery showed patency of both bypasses and disappearance of the aneurysm. At the 20-month follow-up, the patient was asymptomatic and neurologically intact.

LESSONS

Bypass revascularization may be an effective treatment to reduce hemodynamic stress and eliminate MMD-related aneurysms.

Open access

Pedicle subtraction metallectomy with complex posterior reconstruction for fixed cervicothoracic kyphosis: illustrative case

Harman Chopra, José Manuel Orenday-Barraza, Alexander E. Braley, Alfredo Guiroy, Olivia E. Gilbert, and Michael A. Galgano

BACKGROUND

Iatrogenic cervical deformity is a devastating complication that can result from a well-intended operation but a poor understanding of the individual biomechanics of a patient’s spine. Patient factors, such as bone fragility, high T1 slope, and undiagnosed myopathies often play a role in perpetuating a deformity despite an otherwise successful surgery. This imbalance can lead to significant morbidity and a decreased quality of life.

OBSERVATIONS

A 55-year-old male presented to the authors’ clinic with a chin-to-chest deformity and cervical myelopathy. He previously had an anterior C2–T2 fixation and a posterior C1–T6 instrumented fusion. He subsequently developed screw pullout at multiple levels, so the original surgeon removed all of the posterior hardware. The T1 cage (original corpectomy) severely subsided into the body of T2, generating an angular kyphosis that eventually developed a rigid osseous circumferential union at the cervicothoracic junction with severe cord compression. An anterior approach was not feasible; therefore, a 3-column osteotomy/fusion in the upper thoracic spine was planned whereby 1 of the T2 screws would need to be removed from a posterior approach for the reduction to take place.

LESSONS

This case highlights the devastating effect of a hardware complication leading to a fixed cervical spine deformity and the complex decision making involved to safely correct the challenging deformity and restore function.

Open access

Severe hyperglycorrhachia and status epilepticus after endoscopic aqueductoplasty: illustrative case

Anand A. Dharia, Ahmad Masri, Jay F. Rilinger, and Christian B. Kaufman

BACKGROUND

While hypoglycorrhachia is observed and managed frequently, there are few reports in the literature of clinically significant hyperglycorrhachia after neurosurgery. Understanding the effects and management of severe hyperglycorrhachia is important to the neurosurgeon and neurocritical care teams who care for patients in these rare scenarios.

OBSERVATIONS

The authors present the case of a 3-month-old male with congenital hydrocephalus who faced profound hyperglycorrhachia and status epilepticus after an endoscopic aqueductoplasty using an irrigant composed of lactated Ringer’s solution with dextrose 5% in water. A multidisciplinary approach was developed to monitor and treat the patient’s seizures and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) osmolytes.

LESSONS

This case provides several learning opportunities for understanding CSF physiology, pathogenesis of common brain injuries related to osmotic shifts and inflammatory states, as well as clinical management of hyperglycorrhachia. It also reiterates the significance of meticulous intraoperative assessment to avoid preventable medical errors.

Open access

Deep brain stimulation in an adolescent with hypomyelination with atrophy of the basal ganglia and cerebellum due to a TUBB4A mutation: illustrative case

Jennifer A. MacLean, Jaya Nataraj, Joffre Olaya, Mark A. Liker, and Terence D. Sanger

BACKGROUND

Hypomyelination with atrophy of the basal ganglia and cerebellum (H-ABC) is a rare genetic disease due to a TUBB4A mutation, with motor features including dystonia. Deep brain stimulation (DBS) can be used to treat dystonia in pediatric populations, although the response is highly variable and preferential toward specific etiologies.

OBSERVATIONS

A single pediatric subject with H-ABC received DBS using a staged procedure involving temporary depth electrode placement, identification of optimal stimulation targets, and permanent electrode implantation. After surgery, the patient significantly improved on both the Burke-Fahn-Marsden Dystonia Rating Scale and the Barry-Albright Dystonia Scale. The patient’s response suggests that DBS can have potential benefit in H-ABC.

LESSONS

TUBB4A mutations are associated with a variety of clinical phenotypes, and there is a lack of clearly identified targets for DBS, with this case being the second reported instance of DBS in this condition. The staged procedure with temporary depth electrode testing is recommended to identify optimal stimulation targets. The response seen in this patient implies that such a staged procedure may provide benefit in other conditions where DBS targets are currently unknown, including rare genetic or metabolic conditions associated with movement disorders.

Open access

Robot-assisted screw fixation in a cadaver utilizing magnetic resonance imaging–based synthetic computed tomography: toward radiation-free spine surgery. Illustrative case

A. Daniel Davidar, Brendan F. Judy, Andrew M. Hersh, Carly Weber-Levine, Safwan Alomari, Arjun K. Menta, Kelly Jiang, Meghana Bhimreddy, Mir Hussain, Neil R. Crawford, Majid Khan, Gary Gong, and Nicholas Theodore

BACKGROUND

Synthetic computed tomography (sCT) can be created from magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) utilizing newer software. sCT is yet to be explored as a possible alternative to routine CT (rCT). In this study, rCT scans and MRI-derived sCT scans were obtained on a cadaver. Morphometric analysis was performed comparing the 2 scans. The ExcelsiusGPS robot was used to place lumbosacral screws with both rCT and sCT images.

OBSERVATIONS

In total, 14 screws were placed. All screws were grade A on the Gertzbein-Robbins scale. The mean surface distance difference between rCT and sCT on a reconstructed software model was –0.02 ± 0.05 mm, the mean absolute surface distance was 0.24 ± 0.05 mm, and the mean absolute error of radiodensity was 92.88 ± 10.53 HU. The overall mean tip distance for the sCT versus rCT was 1.74 ± 1.1 versus 2.36 ± 1.6 mm (p = 0.24); mean tail distance for the sCT versus rCT was 1.93 ± 0.88 versus 2.81 ± 1.03 mm (p = 0.07); and mean angular deviation for the sCT versus rCT was 3.2° ± 2.05° versus 4.04°± 2.71° (p = 0.53).

LESSONS

MRI-based sCT yielded results comparable to those of rCT in both morphometric analysis and robot-assisted lumbosacral screw placement in a cadaver study.