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Open access

Which is a more appropriate recipient for posterior circulation bypass surgery: V3 or V2? Differences in underlying disease and lesion sites between extracranial vertebral artery dissection and atherosclerotic changes. Illustrative cases

Shinjitsu Nishimura, Makoto Saito, Sumito Okuyama, Keiichi Kubota, Junko Matsuyama, Atsuhito Takemura, Tadao Matsushima, and Kazuo Watanabe

BACKGROUND

Revascularization for extracranial vertebral artery dissection or vertebral artery atherosclerotic occlusive lesions caused by vertebrobasilar insufficiency or posterior circulation infarction is relatively rare. When bypassing the cervical external carotid artery (ECA) or common carotid artery (CCA) using a radial artery (RA) or saphenous vein (SV) graft, it is difficult to determine whether the recipient site should be the V2 or V3 portion.

OBSERVATIONS

In case 1, cervical ECA-RA-V3 bypass was performed for bilateral extracranial vertebral artery dissection with the onset of ischemia, and cervical CCA-SV-V3 bypass was added 12 days later. Nine years after surgery, the bilateral vertebral artery dissection had improved, and the patient still had a patent bypass. In case 2, cervical ECA-RA-V2 bypass was performed for arteriosclerotic bilateral extracranial vertebral artery occlusion. The bypass was patent 5 years after surgery. The postoperative course was uneventful in both patients.

LESSONS

The authors present cases of posterior fossa revascularization using the vertebral artery V3 and V2 portions via skull base surgery and note that it is important to consider each patient’s individual characteristics when selecting the V3 or V2 portion.

Open access

Acute management of ruptured cavernous malformation of the optic nerve: illustrative case

Philip Kawalec, Marc R Del Bigio, and Anthony M Kaufmann

BACKGROUND

A cavernous malformation of the optic nerve (CMON) is a rare condition that often presents with an abrupt decline in vision. Acute management of ruptured optic nerve cavernous malformations is generally surgical, although the timing of surgery is controversial.

OBSERVATIONS

A 47-year-old female experienced the sudden loss of vision in her left eye. Examination showed that this eye was nearly blind, and her right eye had a temporal field defect. Neuroimaging showed hemorrhage in her left optic nerve and optic chiasm. She was taken to the operating room on an emergent basis where the optic canal was decompressed, the hemorrhage was evacuated, and a vascular malformation with features of a cavernoma was removed from the optic nerve. Over the next 2 days, the vision in her right eye significantly recovered.

LESSONS

CMONs remain rare, and it is unlikely that enough cases can be gathered to form a larger trial to compare the role and timing of surgery. On the basis of our experience with this case, the authors recommend that acute CMON-related hematomas should be treated as a surgical emergency and managed with acute optic nerve decompression, hematoma evacuation, and cavernoma resection to improve chances of vision recovery and prevent further vision loss.

Open access

Cerebral arterial vasospasm complicating supratentorial meningioma resection: illustrative cases

Andrew C Pickles, John T Tsiang, Alexandria A Pecoraro, Nathan C Pecoraro, Ronak H Jani, Brandon J Bond, Anand V Germanwala, Joseph C Serrone, and Vikram C Prabhu

BACKGROUND

Cerebral arterial vasospasm is a rare complication after supratentorial meningioma resection. The pathophysiology of this condition may be similar to vasospasm after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage, and treatment options may be similar.

OBSERVATIONS

The authors present two cases of cerebral vasospasm after supratentorial meningioma resection and perform a systematic literature review of similar cases.

LESSONS

Cerebral arterial vasospasm after supratentorial meningioma resection may be associated with significant morbidity due to cerebral ischemia if not addressed in a timely manner. Treatment paradigms may be adopted from the management of arterial vasospasm associated with subarachnoid hemorrhage.

Open access

Microvascular decompression for developmental venous anomaly causing hemifacial spasm: illustrative case

Margaret Tugend and Raymond F Sekula Jr.

BACKGROUND

Developmental venous anomaly (DVA) is a rare cause of hemifacial spasm (HFS). The treatment of HFS caused by a DVA varies in the literature and includes medication management, botulinum toxin injections, and microvascular decompression (MVD).

OBSERVATIONS

A 64-year-old woman presented with right-sided HFS. Preoperative magnetic resonance imaging showed a DVA in the right inferior pons, with an enlarged segment compressing the facial nerve at its root detachment point prior to drainage into the superior petrosal sinus. MVD was performed, and the facial nerve was decompressed without sacrifice of the vein. Immediately following the procedure, the patient had significantly reduced spasms. The patient became spasm-free 3 months after MVD and maintained spasm freedom for 3 months. Six months after MVD, the patient had a partial return of spasms. At 8 months, the patient continued to have reduced and intermittent spasms in the right orbicularis oculi muscle.

LESSONS

MVD for HFS caused by a DVA is a safe procedure and can be effective at reducing spasm frequency and severity.

Open access

Disconnection of a jugular foramen dural arteriovenous fistula with cortical venous reflux via an intradural retrosigmoid approach: illustrative case

Richard Shaw, Johnny Wong, Hugo Andrade, and Ivan Radovanovic

BACKGROUND

Jugular foramen dural arteriovenous fistulas (DAVFs) are rare and challenging lesions. Described methods of treatment include embolization and microsurgical disconnection through a far lateral transcondylar approach. The authors present the case of a Borden type III jugular foramen DAVF, which was treated with a novel, less invasive retrosigmoid approach with intradural skeletonization and packing of the sigmoid sinus.

OBSERVATIONS

The patient presented with headache and visual field deficit. Neuroimaging demonstrated a right temporal intracerebral hematoma with mass effect. This was due to a Borden type III jugular foramen DAVF with cortical venous reflux into the vein of Labbe secondary to recanalization of a previously thrombosed sigmoid sinus. Microsurgical disconnection was performed via a retrosigmoid approach, in which the sigmoid sinus was identified intradurally at the jugular foramen. The sigmoid sinus was isolated by drilling at the pre- and retrosigmoid spaces to permit packing and clip ligation. Postoperative angiography revealed complete occlusion of the DAVF.

LESSONS

Jugular foramen DAVFs are rare entities, which have been traditionally treated through a far lateral transcondylar approach. An intradural retrosigmoid approach is a safe, less invasive alternative, which involves less soft tissue and bony dissection and does not have the associated morbidity of craniocervical instability and hypoglossal neuropathy.

Open access

A cavernous sinus dural arteriovenous fistula treated by direct puncture of the superior ophthalmic vein with craniotomy: illustrative case

Katsuma Iwaki, Koichi Arimura, Shunichi Fukuda, Soh Takagishi, Keisuke Ido, Ryota Kurogi, Kenichi Matsumoto, Akira Nakamizo, and Koji Yoshimoto

BACKGROUND

The authors report a case of symptomatic cavernous sinus (CS) dural arteriovenous fistula (dAVF) that was successfully treated using direct puncture of the superior ophthalmic vein (SOV) with craniotomy. CS dAVF is commonly treated using transvenous embolization (TVE), with the most common access route via the inferior petrosal sinus (IPS). However, this route is sometimes unavailable because of an occluded, hypoplastic, aplastic, or tortuous IPS. The SOV is an alternative, albeit tortuous and long, route to the CS; therefore, direct SOV puncture is occasionally performed. Direct SOV puncture is mostly percutaneous; however, in this case, it was difficult because of subcutaneous SOV narrowing.

OBSERVATIONS

As the patient experienced increased intraocular pressure, decreased vision, and eye movement disorders, CS embolization was performed via direct puncture with a craniotomy because of other access difficulties.

LESSONS

Several reports have described CS dAVF in patients receiving endovascular treatment via direct SOV puncture using a transorbital approach. However, to the best of the authors’ knowledge, this is the first reported case of a CS dAVF treated using TVE with craniotomy. This approach is useful when the SOV cannot be reached intravenously and its distance from the epidermis is long.

Open access

Extra-axial cavernous malformations of the foramen magnum: illustrative cases

Bo-Han Yao, Da Li, Liang Wang, and Zhen Wu

BACKGROUND

Extra-axial cavernous malformations involving the foramen magnum are rare, and preoperative diagnosis becomes difficult when they mimic meningiomas.

OBSERVATIONS

The authors present 2 cases of extra-axial cavernous malformations involving the foramen magnum. Surgical removal of the lesions was performed via far lateral craniotomy. The authors investigate the disease and elaborate the differential diagnosis.

LESSONS

The authors recommend that extra-axial cavernous malformations should be considered in the differential diagnosis of lesions in the foramen magnum region. Intraoperative frozen sections are helpful to the diagnosis, and resection warranted a favorable long-term outcome.

Open access

Management of a challenging dura-embedded anterior inferior cerebellar artery loop during a retrosigmoid hearing-preserving vestibular schwannoma resection: microsurgical technique and operative video. Illustrative case

Jaime L. Martínez Santos, Robert C. Sterner, and Mustafa K. Başkaya

BACKGROUND

Anatomical variants of the anterior inferior cerebellar artery (AICA), such as an anomalous “AICA loop” embedded in the dura and bone of the subarcuate fossa, increase the complexity and risk of vestibular schwannoma resections. Classically, osseous penetrating AICA loops are the most challenging to mobilize, as the dura must be dissected and the surrounding petrous bone must be drilled to mobilize the AICA away from the surgical corridor and out of harm.

OBSERVATIONS

The authors present a rare case of a dura-embedded, osseous-penetrating AICA loop encountered during a hearing-preserving retrosigmoid approach in which they demonstrate safe and efficient microdissection and mobilization of the AICA loop without having to drill the surrounding bone.

LESSONS

Although preoperative recognition of potentially dangerous AICA loops has been challenging, thin-sliced petrous bone computed tomography scanning and high-quality magnetic resonance imaging can be useful in preoperative diagnosis. Furthermore, this report suggests that a retrosigmoid approach is superior, as it allows early intradural recognition and proximal vascular control and facilitates more versatile mobilization of AICA loops.

Open access

Bilateral visual disturbances caused by a glomus vagale: illustrative case

Enrique Jimenez Hakim, Luis Garcia Rairan, Julian Guzman, and Yessid Araque

BACKGROUND

A glomus vagale tumor is an infrequent paraganglioma primarily characterized by auditory symptoms, cranial nerve involvement, or autonomic symptoms. However, visual involvement is not commonly observed, and to date, no cases have been reported in the literature.

OBSERVATIONS

The case involves a 62-year-old female patient with a history of right carotid body tumor resection. She presented to the emergency department with a sudden decrease in visual acuity and bitemporal hemianopsia, accompanied by a left parietal headache. Initial brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed a pituitary macroadenoma, which was completely resected. However, postoperatively, the patient developed left amaurosis. Subsequent brain MRI showed the presence of hemostatic material mixed with blood in the sellar region, causing displacement of the optic chiasm. A repeat intervention was performed, identifying bleeding from both cavernous sinuses. Head and neck angiography demonstrated a right glomus vagale tumor with abundant blood drainage into the right cavernous sinus. Embolization of the glomus vagale tumor was performed, resulting in no further bleeding and improvement of symptoms.

LESSONS

The aim of this case report is to describe a rare occurrence of bilateral visual disturbances caused by bleeding in both cavernous sinuses due to venous hypertension caused by a right glomus vagale tumor.

Open access

Acute unilateral orbital varix thrombosis in preexisting bilateral orbital varices: illustrative case

Chanokgarn Pichayawat, Weerawan Chokthaweesak, Sasikant Leelawongs, Ekachat Chanthanaphak, Oranan Tritanon, and Bunyada Putthirangsiwong

OBJECTIVE

Orbital varix is a rare distensible orbital venous malformation. Most patients present with unilateral intermittent periorbital pain and positional proptosis that is exacerbated by the Valsalva maneuver. Complications include hemorrhage and thrombosis, leading to sudden painful proptosis and visual disturbance.

OBSERVATIONS

A 42-year-old female with a history of bilateral intermittent painless proptosis that was accentuated by a postural head-down position presented with acute painful proptosis in her right eye. Ophthalmic examination revealed right eye proptosis with a bluish mass at the right upper eyelid, and another bluish mass at the left lower eyelid that was prominent during the Valsalva maneuver. Computed tomography scans of the orbits indicated right orbital varix thrombosis and left orbital varix. Surgical excision of the right thrombosed varix was performed along with intralesional bleomycin injection in the left orbital varix. Histopathological examination confirmed the right thrombosed varix diagnosis. The patient had good clinical improvement at the 6-month follow-up.

LESSONS

Orbital varices have a spectrum of clinical manifestations, from asymptomatic to severe visual loss. Most cases are successfully treated conservatively; however, in complicated cases, interventions with a multidisciplinary team approach such as sclerotherapy, embolization, and surgical excision should be considered.