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Open access

Rare simultaneous fetal posterior cerebral artery and conventional posterior cerebral artery duplication in a patient with a ruptured posterior communicating artery aneurysm: illustrative case

Abrar A Ahmed, Gökce Hatipoglu Majernik, Alonso Alvarado-Bolaño, Maria Bres-Bullrich, and Sachin K Pandey

BACKGROUND

The fetal-type posterior cerebral artery (PCA) is defined as a variant anatomy in which the posterior communicating artery (PCOM) is larger than the hypoplastic or aplastic P1 segment of the PCA. The authors present the novel case of a patient with a duplicated right PCA in parallel with fetal-type and conventional PCAs supplying adjacent components of the PCA cerebral territory.

OBSERVATIONS

A 59-year-old woman presented with a modified Fisher Scale score 4 subarachnoid hemorrhage. A right irregular PCOM aneurysm that measured 9.5 mm × 4.5 mm × 4.5 mm arose from the base of a variant branch supplying a portion of the PCA, rather than a conventional PCOM, and was found on digital subtraction angiography. Following endovascular coil embolization, the patient was discharged home.

LESSONS

The fetal-type variant has implications for thromboembolic events. If an embolism occludes the anterior circulation in a patient with a fetal-type PCA, it may result in an infarct in the PCA territory. Awareness of cerebral arterial anatomy, including an atypical collateral supply, informs a treating team’s latitude in tolerance of which sites must be preserved and which can be safely sacrificed.

https://thejns.org/doi/10.3171/CASE23735

Open access

Splenic rupture following prone lateral discectomy and arthrodesis: illustrative case

Alexandra Echevarria, Benjamin Hershfeld, Emily Arciero, and Rohit Verma

BACKGROUND

The prone lateral approach to lumbar spine surgery is known to have a multitude of potential complications, including damage to neurovascular structures, surrounding viscera, and intra-abdominal structures near the surgical site. However, iatrogenic injury to the spleen following prone lateral lumbar discectomy and arthrodesis as a potential complication has not yet been described in the literature.

OBSERVATIONS

The authors present the case of a 71-year-old female with a history of L3–S1 laminectomy and L3–5 arthrodesis who underwent a prone lateral discectomy of L2–3 with arthrodesis of the endplates for chronic lower-back pain. On postoperative day 1, the patient developed hypotension unresponsive to pressor medications, significant abdominal pain, and anemia requiring 2 transfusions. Bedside ultrasound revealed free fluid in the abdomen. She then underwent an exploratory laparotomy for splenic injury.

LESSONS

Although rare, splenic rupture should be considered as part of the differential diagnosis for patients with hemodynamic instability after lateral surgical approaches to the lumbar spine. Any patient with evidence of hypotension, anemia, and/or abdominal pain following lumbar surgery should be evaluated for splenic injury with an abdominal computed tomography scan and considered for surgical intervention.

https://thejns.org/doi/10.3171/CASE23639

Open access

Angiographic evidence of an inadvertent cannulation of the marginal sinus following central line migration: illustrative case

Abdelaziz Amllay, Edwin Owolo, Kamil W Nowicki, Nanthiya Sujijantarat, Andrew Koo, Joseph P Antonios, Daniela Renedo, Charles C Matouk, and Ryan M Hebert

BACKGROUND

Central venous catheters (CVCs) play an indispensable role in clinical practice. Catheter malposition and tip migration can lead to severe complications. The authors present a case illustrating the endovascular management of inadvertent marginal sinus cannulation after an internal jugular vein (IJV) catheter tip migration.

OBSERVATIONS

A triple-lumen CVC was inserted without complications into the right IJV of a patient undergoing a repeat sternotomy for aortic valve replacement. Two weeks postinsertion, it was discovered that the tip had migrated superiorly, terminating below the torcula in the posterior fossa. In the interventional suite, a three-dimensional venogram confirmed the inadvertent marginal sinus cannulation. The catheter was carefully retracted to the sigmoid sinus to preserve the option of catheter exchange if embolization became necessary. After a subsequent venogram, which displayed an absence of contrast extravasation, the entire catheter was safely removed. The patient tolerated the procedure well.

LESSONS

Clinicians must be vigilant of catheter tip migration and malposition risks. Relying solely on postinsertion radiographs is insufficient. Once identified, prompt management of the malpositioned catheter is paramount in reducing morbidity and mortality and improving patient outcomes. Removing a malpositioned catheter constitutes a critical step, best performed by a specialized team under angiographic visualization.

Open access

Successful coil embolization of a ruptured pseudoaneurysm of the superior gluteal artery after a percutaneous awake robot-assisted sacroiliac joint fusion: illustrative case

Samah Morsi, Alyssa M Bartlett, Andrew A Hardigan, Mounica Paturu, Shawn W Adams, Malcolm R DeBaun, Waleska Pabon-Ramos, and Muhammad M Abd-El-Barr

BACKGROUND

Robot-assisted sacroiliac joint (SIJ) fusion has gained popularity, but it carries the risk of complications such as injury to the superior gluteal artery (SGA). The authors present the case of an awake percutaneous robot-assisted SIJ fusion leading to an SGA pseudoaneurysm.

OBSERVATIONS

An 80-year-old male, who had undergone an awake percutaneous robot-assisted SIJ fusion, experienced postoperative left hip pain and bruising. Subsequent arteriography demonstrated an SGA branch pseudoaneurysm requiring coil embolization.

LESSONS

An SGA injury, although uncommon (1.2% incidence), can arise from percutaneous screw placement, aberrant anatomy, or hardware contact. Thorough preoperative imaging, precise robot-assisted screw insertion, and soft tissue protection are crucial to mitigate risks. Immediate angiography aids in prompt diagnosis and effective intervention. Comprehensive knowledge of anatomical variants is essential for managing complications and optimizing preventative measures in robot-assisted SIJ fusion.

Open access

Ruptured pial-pial collateral aneurysm associated with left internal carotid artery occlusion: nuances of surgical management. Illustrative case

Juan Silvestre G Pascual, Eddie Guo, Runze Yang, Kristopher D Langdon, Sanju Lama, and Garnette R Sutherland

BACKGROUND

Carotid occlusion often leads to the formation of a collateral network. On rare occasions, due to hemodynamic influence, aneurysms can occur. Here, the authors describe a 69-year-old male presenting with intracerebral hemorrhage secondary to a ruptured aneurysm within such a network.

OBSERVATIONS

The patient presented to the emergency department with an altered level of consciousness. Imaging showed a left temporal lobe hemorrhage extending into the ventricle, subdural hematoma, and evidence of contrast extravasation. Digital subtraction angiography revealed an occluded left internal carotid artery with the left middle cerebral artery territory reconstituted by flow through an external carotid artery–internal carotid artery anastomosis. The latter was formed by the superficial temporal artery–superior orbital artery, as well as pial-pial collaterals from the posterior temporal artery. Notably, a 4-mm aneurysm arising from the pial-pial collateral network was identified. Surgical intervention involved a left temporal craniectomy and aneurysm excision, with special attention paid to preserving the anastomotic flow through the superficial temporal artery.

LESSONS

This case underscores the importance of recognizing and preserving collateral vascular pathways in cases of carotid occlusion with an associated aneurysm. It emphasizes the necessary balance between managing aneurysm risk and maintaining cerebral perfusion, highlighting the need for careful preoperative planning and intraoperative caution.

Open access

Microvascular decompression of a vertebral artery loop causing cervical radiculopathy: illustrative case

Alexa Semonche, Lorenzo Rinaldo, Young Lee, Todd Dubnicoff, Harlan Matles, Dean Chou, Adib Abla, and Edward F Chang

BACKGROUND

Vertebral artery loops are a rare cause of cervical radiculopathy. Surgical options for nerve root decompression include an anterior or posterior approach, with or without additional microvascular decompression.

OBSERVATIONS

The authors describe a case of a 49-year-old man with a long-standing history of left-sided neck pain and migraines, who was found to have a vertebral artery loop in the left C3–4 neural foramen compressing the left C4 nerve root. The patient underwent a posterior cervical decompression with instrumented fusion and macrovascular decompression of the left C4 nerve root via Teflon felt insertion. In a literature review, we identified 20 similar cases that had also been managed surgically.

LESSONS

Although the anterior approach is more frequently described in the literature, a posterior approach for nerve compression by a vertebral artery loop is also a safe and effective treatment. The authors report the third case of this surgical approach with a good outcome.

Open access

Arteriovenous malformation with unique drainage through the emissary vein of the foramen ovale: illustrative case

Xiaochun Zhao, Alexander R Evans, Ali Tayebi Meybodi, Nicholas Hopkins, Ira Bowen, Shyian S Jen, Mark C Preul, and Karl Balsara

BACKGROUND

As part of the laterotrigeminal venous system (LTVS), the emissary vein of the foramen ovale (EVFO) is an underrecognized venous structure communicating between the cavernous sinus and pterygoid plexus. The sphenobasal sinus is an anatomical variation of the sphenoparietal sinus that drains directly into the EVFO. The authors present the case of a ruptured arteriovenous malformation (AVM) with a unique drainage pattern through the sphenobasal sinus and EVFO.

OBSERVATIONS

A 9-year-old female initially presented with loss of consciousness and was subsequently found to have a ruptured AVM in the left basal frontal area. She underwent an immediate decompressive hemicraniectomy, with a computed tomography angiogram demonstrating a unique anatomical variation in which the sphenobasal sinus communicated with the EVFO and LTVS. The final venous drainage returned to the pterygoid plexus and external jugular vein. Postoperatively, the patient made a substantial recovery, with generalized right-sided weakness remaining as the sole deficit.

LESSONS

The authors present the case of a ruptured AVM with unique venous drainage into the sphenobasal sinus and EVFO, for which the current literature remains limited. As exemplified by this illustrative case, technique modification may be warranted in the setting of this unique anatomical variation to avoid venous sinus injury.

Open access

Coexistence of anterior choroidal artery and posterior cerebral artery retia mirabilia presenting with subarachnoid hemorrhage: illustrative case

Izumi Yamaguchi, Yasuhisa Kanematsu, Kenji Shimada, Masaaki Korai, Kazuhisa Miyake, Shu Sogabe, Manabu Ishihara, Tatsuya Haboshi, Natsumi Teshima, Kaito Suzuki, and Yasushi Takagi

BACKGROUND

A rete mirabile is a rare vascular anomaly, with posterior cerebral artery (PCA) involvement being especially rare. Its pathogenesis has been speculated as a remnant of “distal annexation” between the primitive anterior choroidal artery (AchA) and the PCA at this site, but the exact mechanisms remain unclear.

OBSERVATIONS

A 29-year-old man presented with subarachnoid hemorrhage. Arteriovenous malformation in the medial temporal lobe was initially suspected, but an arteriovenous shunt was not detected. First, conservative treatment was administered; however, rebleeding occurred 1 month later. Carotid angiography revealed a network-like cluster of blood vessels at the choroidal point of the AchA, suggesting a rete mirabile; these vessel clusters led to the persistent temporo-occipital branch of the AchA. Furthermore, an aneurysm was detected at the junction between the rete mirabile and the persistent temporo-occipital branch of the AchA. Additionally, vertebral angiography demonstrated a rete mirabile at the P2 segment. These findings suggested the coexistence of AchA and PCA retia mirabilia. Consequently, the aneurysm was clipped using a subtemporal approach to prevent re-rupture, and the postoperative course was uneventful.

LESSONS

This first report of coexisting AchA and PCA retia mirabilia supports the remnant of distal annexation between the primitive AchA and the PCA as the reason for rete formation at this site.

Open access

A cavernous sinus dural arteriovenous fistula treated by direct puncture of the superior ophthalmic vein with craniotomy: illustrative case

Katsuma Iwaki, Koichi Arimura, Shunichi Fukuda, Soh Takagishi, Keisuke Ido, Ryota Kurogi, Kenichi Matsumoto, Akira Nakamizo, and Koji Yoshimoto

BACKGROUND

The authors report a case of symptomatic cavernous sinus (CS) dural arteriovenous fistula (dAVF) that was successfully treated using direct puncture of the superior ophthalmic vein (SOV) with craniotomy. CS dAVF is commonly treated using transvenous embolization (TVE), with the most common access route via the inferior petrosal sinus (IPS). However, this route is sometimes unavailable because of an occluded, hypoplastic, aplastic, or tortuous IPS. The SOV is an alternative, albeit tortuous and long, route to the CS; therefore, direct SOV puncture is occasionally performed. Direct SOV puncture is mostly percutaneous; however, in this case, it was difficult because of subcutaneous SOV narrowing.

OBSERVATIONS

As the patient experienced increased intraocular pressure, decreased vision, and eye movement disorders, CS embolization was performed via direct puncture with a craniotomy because of other access difficulties.

LESSONS

Several reports have described CS dAVF in patients receiving endovascular treatment via direct SOV puncture using a transorbital approach. However, to the best of the authors’ knowledge, this is the first reported case of a CS dAVF treated using TVE with craniotomy. This approach is useful when the SOV cannot be reached intravenously and its distance from the epidermis is long.

Open access

Middle meningeal artery pseudoaneurysm and pterygoid plexus fistula following percutaneous radiofrequency rhizotomy: illustrative case

Rahim Ismail, Derrek Schartz, Timothy Hoang, and Alexander Kessler

BACKGROUND

Percutaneous treatment for trigeminal neuralgia is a safe and effective therapeutic methodology and can be accomplished in the form of balloon compression, glycerol rhizotomy, and radiofrequency thermocoagulation. These procedures are generally well tolerated and demonstrate minimal associated morbidity. Moreover, vascular complications of these procedures are exceedingly rare.

OBSERVATIONS

We present the case of a 64-year-old female with prior microvascular decompression and balloon rhizotomy who presented after symptom recurrence and underwent a second balloon rhizotomy at our institution. Soon thereafter, she presented with pulsatile tinnitus and a right preauricular bruit on physical examination. Subsequent imaging revealed a middle meningeal artery (MMA) to pterygoid plexus fistula and an MMA pseudoaneurysm. Coil and Onxy embolization were used to manage the pseudoaneurysm and fistula.

LESSONS

This case illustrates the potential for MMA pseudoaneurysm formation as a complication of percutaneous trigeminal balloon rhizotomy, which has not been seen in the literature. Concurrent MMA-pterygoid plexus fistula is also a rarity demonstrated in this case.