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Open access

Acute large-vessel occlusion due to an infected thrombus formation induced by invasive sphenoid sinus aspergillosis: illustrative case

Yoshiyasu Matsumoto, Yosuke Akamatsu, Koji Yoshida, Yasushi Ogasawara, Toshinari Misaki, Shunichi Sasou, Hiromu Konno, and Kuniaki Ogasawara

BACKGROUND

The authors describe a rare case of acute large-vessel occlusion due to an infected thrombus formation that was induced by invasive sphenoid sinus aspergillosis.

OBSERVATIONS

An 82-year-old man with a history of immunoglobulin G4–related disease and long-term use of steroids and immunosuppressants was admitted to the authors’ hospital with severe right hemiparesis. Cerebral angiography revealed occlusion of the left internal carotid artery (ICA). He underwent thrombectomy, resulting in successful recanalization. However, severe stenosis was evident in the left ICA cavernous segment. Pathological analysis of the retrieved thrombus identified Aspergillus. Postoperative magnetic resonance imaging revealed sinusitis in the left sphenoid sinus as a possible source of the infection. The patient’s general condition deteriorated during the course of hospitalization due to refractory aspiration pneumonia, and he died 46 days after thrombectomy. Pathological autopsy and histopathological investigation of the left ICA and the left sphenoid sinus showed that Aspergillus had invaded the wall of the left ICA from the adjacent sphenoid sinus. These findings indicate a diagnosis of acute large-vessel occlusion due to infected thrombus formation induced by invasive sphenoid sinus aspergillosis.

LESSONS

Pathological analysis of a retrieved thrombus appears useful for identifying rare stroke etiologies such as fungal infection.

Open access

Rapid presentation of a de novo intracranial aneurysm: illustrative case

Anthony Diaz, Jimin Shin, and Ketan R Bulsara

BACKGROUND

Intracranial aneurysms are prevalent, particularly with advancing age. De novo aneurysms, occurring independently from the initial lesion, pose a unique challenge because of their unpredictable nature. Although risk factors such as female sex, smoking history, and hypertension have been proposed, the mechanisms underlying de novo aneurysm development remain unclear.

OBSERVATIONS

A 79-year-old female developed a de novo saccular aneurysm within a year after management of a ruptured vertebral artery dissecting aneurysm. Her complex clinical course involved subarachnoid hemorrhage with diffuse vasospasm, stent occlusion of a dissecting aneurysm, discovery of a right 7- to 8-mm de novo middle cerebral artery aneurysm at the 1-year magnetic resonance angiography follow-up, and successful coil embolization.

LESSONS

This rare occurrence challenges established timelines, as most de novo aneurysms manifest over a longer interval. Studies have attempted to identify risk factors, yet consensus remains elusive, particularly regarding the influence of treatment modality on de novo formation rates.

This unique case urges reconsideration of posttreatment surveillance protocols, proposing shorter intervals for imaging and more vigilant follow-up strategies to detect asymptomatic de novo aneurysms. Timelier identification could significantly impact patient outcomes by averting potential ruptures. This emphasizes the need for further research to delineate effective monitoring and preventive measures for these enigmatic lesions.

Open access

Successful surgical management of a superior cerebellar artery aneurysm in a patient with Marfan syndrome: illustrative case

Fangjun Liu, Mengqing Hu, Daling Ruan, Xiaoling Ruan, Ting Lei, and Xiang’en Shi

BACKGROUND

Marfan syndrome, a connective tissue disorder, poses unique challenges in neurosurgery, given the fragility of vascular structures. Superior cerebellar artery (SCA) aneurysms in patients with the syndrome are rare and present distinct surgical difficulties, necessitating innovative approaches.

OBSERVATIONS

A 29-year-old male with Marfan syndrome presented with a subarachnoid hemorrhage from a ruptured SCA aneurysm. Given the lack of a defined aneurysm neck and the small diameter of the SCA, standard clipping and endovascular therapies were unsuitable. A microsurgical approach using microsutures was successfully employed, effectively managing the aneurysm while preserving the parent artery.

LESSONS

This case underscores the efficacy of the microsuture technique in complex neurosurgical scenarios, particularly in patients with connective tissue disorders such as Marfan syndrome. The adaptability of surgical strategies, as demonstrated in this case, is crucial for achieving successful outcomes in patients with unique anatomical challenges.

Open access

A vertebrobasilar junction aneurysm successfully treated with a combination of surgical clipping and flow diverter placement based on the results of computational fluid dynamics analysis: illustrative case

Tatsuya Mori, Hidehito Kimura, Atsushi Fujita, Kosuke Hayashi, Tatsuo Hori, Masahiro Sugihara, Yusuke Ikeuchi, Masaaki Kohta, Akio Tomiyama, and Takashi Sasayama

BACKGROUND

The treatment of vertebrobasilar junction (VBJ) aneurysms is challenging. Although flow diverters (FDs) are a possible treatment option, geometrical conditions hinder intervention. VBJ aneurysms possess dual inflow vessels from the bilateral vertebral arteries (VAs), one of which is ideally occluded prior to FD treatment. However, it remains unclear which VA should be occluded.

OBSERVATIONS

A 75-year-old male with a growing VBJ complex aneurysm exhibiting invagination toward the brainstem and causing perifocal edema required intervention. Preoperative computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis demonstrated that left VA occlusion would result in more stagnant flow and less impingement of flow than right VA occlusion. According to the simulated strategy, surgical clipping of the left VA just proximal to the aneurysm was performed, followed by FD placement from the basilar artery trunk to the right VA. The patient demonstrated tolerance of the VA occlusion, and follow-up computed tomography angiography at 18 months after FD treatment confirmed the disappearance of the aneurysm.

LESSONS

Preoperative flow dynamics simulations using CFD analysis can reveal an optimal treatment strategy involving a hybrid surgery that combines FD placement and direct surgical occlusion for a VBJ complex aneurysm.

Open access

Acute management of ruptured cavernous malformation of the optic nerve: illustrative case

Philip Kawalec, Marc R Del Bigio, and Anthony M Kaufmann

BACKGROUND

A cavernous malformation of the optic nerve (CMON) is a rare condition that often presents with an abrupt decline in vision. Acute management of ruptured optic nerve cavernous malformations is generally surgical, although the timing of surgery is controversial.

OBSERVATIONS

A 47-year-old female experienced the sudden loss of vision in her left eye. Examination showed that this eye was nearly blind, and her right eye had a temporal field defect. Neuroimaging showed hemorrhage in her left optic nerve and optic chiasm. She was taken to the operating room on an emergent basis where the optic canal was decompressed, the hemorrhage was evacuated, and a vascular malformation with features of a cavernoma was removed from the optic nerve. Over the next 2 days, the vision in her right eye significantly recovered.

LESSONS

CMONs remain rare, and it is unlikely that enough cases can be gathered to form a larger trial to compare the role and timing of surgery. On the basis of our experience with this case, the authors recommend that acute CMON-related hematomas should be treated as a surgical emergency and managed with acute optic nerve decompression, hematoma evacuation, and cavernoma resection to improve chances of vision recovery and prevent further vision loss.

Open access

Microvascular decompression of a vertebral artery loop causing cervical radiculopathy: illustrative case

Alexa Semonche, Lorenzo Rinaldo, Young Lee, Todd Dubnicoff, Harlan Matles, Dean Chou, Adib Abla, and Edward F Chang

BACKGROUND

Vertebral artery loops are a rare cause of cervical radiculopathy. Surgical options for nerve root decompression include an anterior or posterior approach, with or without additional microvascular decompression.

OBSERVATIONS

The authors describe a case of a 49-year-old man with a long-standing history of left-sided neck pain and migraines, who was found to have a vertebral artery loop in the left C3–4 neural foramen compressing the left C4 nerve root. The patient underwent a posterior cervical decompression with instrumented fusion and macrovascular decompression of the left C4 nerve root via Teflon felt insertion. In a literature review, we identified 20 similar cases that had also been managed surgically.

LESSONS

Although the anterior approach is more frequently described in the literature, a posterior approach for nerve compression by a vertebral artery loop is also a safe and effective treatment. The authors report the third case of this surgical approach with a good outcome.

Open access

Retrograde thrombectomy of acute common carotid artery occlusion with mobile thrombus: illustrative cases

Yukiya Okune, Hitoshi Fukuda, Toshiki Matsuoka, Yo Nishimoto, Keita Matsuoka, Naoki Fukui, 1 PhD, Satoru Hayashi, Tetsuya Ueba, and 1 PhD

BACKGROUND

Acute embolic occlusion of the common carotid artery (CCA) alone is rare. However, once it occurs, recanalization is challenging due to the large volume of the clot, larger diameter of the CCA, and risk of procedure-related distal embolism into the intracranial arteries.

OBSERVATIONS

The authors report two cases of acute embolic occlusion of CCA alone, caused by a cardiac embolus trapped at the proximal end of a preexisting atherosclerotic plaque at the cervical carotid bifurcation. In both cases, the CCA was successfully recanalized using retrograde thrombectomy in a hybrid operating room. In case 1, a 78-year-old male with acute right CCA occlusion underwent retrograde thrombectomy, where the cervical carotid bifurcation was exposed and incised, and the entire embolus was retrieved with forceps. Despite successful revascularization, massive bleeding from the CCA just after the retrieval remained a concern. In case 2, a 79-year-old female with acute right CCA occlusion underwent retrograde thrombectomy in the same manner. Because manual retrieval failed, a Fogarty balloon catheter inserted from the arteriotomy successfully retrieved the entire thrombus with minimal blood loss.

LESSONS

Retrograde thrombectomy through the arteriotomy of the cervical carotid bifurcation safely and effectively recanalizes acute embolic occlusion of the CCA alone.

Open access

Surgical management of stylocarotid Eagle syndrome in a patient with bilateral internal carotid artery dissection: illustrative case

Nicholas Vigilante, Jane Khalife, Clint A Badger, Hamza Shaikh, Ajith J Thomas, Brian Swendseid, Tudor G Jovin, James E Siegler, and Daniel A Tonetti

BACKGROUND

Eagle syndrome is characterized by an elongated styloid process, which can cause acute neurological symptoms when the projection impinges on local structures. One method by which Eagle syndrome can cause acute stroke is via internal carotid artery dissection.

OBSERVATIONS

A patient presented with acute aphasia and right-arm weakness. Imaging revealed a left internal carotid artery dissection, which was treated with stenting. Three years later, the patient presented with left-sided weakness, and imaging revealed a new right internal carotid artery dissection. Closer review of the patient’s imaging revealed bilateral elongated styloid processes. The patient subsequently underwent staged bilateral styloidectomy and returned to his prior baseline postoperatively.

LESSONS

This case report describes a patient with Eagle syndrome who had two internal carotid artery dissections separated by several years. A literature review revealed that styloidectomy is well tolerated in patients with carotid dissection due to Eagle syndrome. Patients with carotid dissection due to Eagle syndrome remain at risk for contralateral dissection, and prophylactic contralateral styloidectomy should be considered.

Open access

Cerebral arterial vasospasm complicating supratentorial meningioma resection: illustrative cases

Andrew C Pickles, John T Tsiang, Alexandria A Pecoraro, Nathan C Pecoraro, Ronak H Jani, Brandon J Bond, Anand V Germanwala, Joseph C Serrone, and Vikram C Prabhu

BACKGROUND

Cerebral arterial vasospasm is a rare complication after supratentorial meningioma resection. The pathophysiology of this condition may be similar to vasospasm after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage, and treatment options may be similar.

OBSERVATIONS

The authors present two cases of cerebral vasospasm after supratentorial meningioma resection and perform a systematic literature review of similar cases.

LESSONS

Cerebral arterial vasospasm after supratentorial meningioma resection may be associated with significant morbidity due to cerebral ischemia if not addressed in a timely manner. Treatment paradigms may be adopted from the management of arterial vasospasm associated with subarachnoid hemorrhage.

Open access

A large cirsoid aneurysm of the scalp with multiple arterial supply: illustrative case

Soumya Pahari, Paawan Bahadur Bhandari, Bibek Bhattarai, Purushottam Baniya, Stuti Yadav, Prarthana Subedi, and Sarbind Mandal

BACKGROUND

Cirsoid aneurysm of the scalp is a rare arteriovenous fistula having a traumatic, congenital, iatrogenic, or idiopathic etiology. Its presentation can range from a small swelling to a large pulsatile mass with tinnitus, headache, and scalp necrosis.

OBSERVATIONS

A 67-year-old female presented with a gradually increasing swelling on her forehead and head since childhood and no history of trauma. Examination revealed 12 × 5 cm tortuous midline swelling. Computed tomography angiography revealed a mass of tortuous vessels in the right frontoparietal region of the scalp with no bony defect or intracranial extension. Contrast-enhanced computed tomography of the head showed no intracranial pathology. The diagnosis of cirsoid aneurysm was made, and surgery was planned.

A bicoronal incision was made. The feeding arteries were dissected and ligated. The nidus was carefully separated, cauterized, and excised in toto. Inadvertently, a buttonhole in the skin was created while dissecting the nidus, which was sutured. The patient developed a small area of scalp necrosis on the 10th postoperative day, which was debrided and sutured. At the 6-month follow-up, no signs of recurrence were present.

LESSONS

A large cirsoid aneurysm of the scalp with multiple arterial supplies can be treated successfully with surgery. Meticulous dissection and hemostasis are warranted to avoid perioperative complications.