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Open access

Acute large-vessel occlusion due to an infected thrombus formation induced by invasive sphenoid sinus aspergillosis: illustrative case

Yoshiyasu Matsumoto, Yosuke Akamatsu, Koji Yoshida, Yasushi Ogasawara, Toshinari Misaki, Shunichi Sasou, Hiromu Konno, and Kuniaki Ogasawara

BACKGROUND

The authors describe a rare case of acute large-vessel occlusion due to an infected thrombus formation that was induced by invasive sphenoid sinus aspergillosis.

OBSERVATIONS

An 82-year-old man with a history of immunoglobulin G4–related disease and long-term use of steroids and immunosuppressants was admitted to the authors’ hospital with severe right hemiparesis. Cerebral angiography revealed occlusion of the left internal carotid artery (ICA). He underwent thrombectomy, resulting in successful recanalization. However, severe stenosis was evident in the left ICA cavernous segment. Pathological analysis of the retrieved thrombus identified Aspergillus. Postoperative magnetic resonance imaging revealed sinusitis in the left sphenoid sinus as a possible source of the infection. The patient’s general condition deteriorated during the course of hospitalization due to refractory aspiration pneumonia, and he died 46 days after thrombectomy. Pathological autopsy and histopathological investigation of the left ICA and the left sphenoid sinus showed that Aspergillus had invaded the wall of the left ICA from the adjacent sphenoid sinus. These findings indicate a diagnosis of acute large-vessel occlusion due to infected thrombus formation induced by invasive sphenoid sinus aspergillosis.

LESSONS

Pathological analysis of a retrieved thrombus appears useful for identifying rare stroke etiologies such as fungal infection.

Open access

Rapid presentation of a de novo intracranial aneurysm: illustrative case

Anthony Diaz, Jimin Shin, and Ketan R Bulsara

BACKGROUND

Intracranial aneurysms are prevalent, particularly with advancing age. De novo aneurysms, occurring independently from the initial lesion, pose a unique challenge because of their unpredictable nature. Although risk factors such as female sex, smoking history, and hypertension have been proposed, the mechanisms underlying de novo aneurysm development remain unclear.

OBSERVATIONS

A 79-year-old female developed a de novo saccular aneurysm within a year after management of a ruptured vertebral artery dissecting aneurysm. Her complex clinical course involved subarachnoid hemorrhage with diffuse vasospasm, stent occlusion of a dissecting aneurysm, discovery of a right 7- to 8-mm de novo middle cerebral artery aneurysm at the 1-year magnetic resonance angiography follow-up, and successful coil embolization.

LESSONS

This rare occurrence challenges established timelines, as most de novo aneurysms manifest over a longer interval. Studies have attempted to identify risk factors, yet consensus remains elusive, particularly regarding the influence of treatment modality on de novo formation rates.

This unique case urges reconsideration of posttreatment surveillance protocols, proposing shorter intervals for imaging and more vigilant follow-up strategies to detect asymptomatic de novo aneurysms. Timelier identification could significantly impact patient outcomes by averting potential ruptures. This emphasizes the need for further research to delineate effective monitoring and preventive measures for these enigmatic lesions.

Open access

A vertebrobasilar junction aneurysm successfully treated with a combination of surgical clipping and flow diverter placement based on the results of computational fluid dynamics analysis: illustrative case

Tatsuya Mori, Hidehito Kimura, Atsushi Fujita, Kosuke Hayashi, Tatsuo Hori, Masahiro Sugihara, Yusuke Ikeuchi, Masaaki Kohta, Akio Tomiyama, and Takashi Sasayama

BACKGROUND

The treatment of vertebrobasilar junction (VBJ) aneurysms is challenging. Although flow diverters (FDs) are a possible treatment option, geometrical conditions hinder intervention. VBJ aneurysms possess dual inflow vessels from the bilateral vertebral arteries (VAs), one of which is ideally occluded prior to FD treatment. However, it remains unclear which VA should be occluded.

OBSERVATIONS

A 75-year-old male with a growing VBJ complex aneurysm exhibiting invagination toward the brainstem and causing perifocal edema required intervention. Preoperative computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis demonstrated that left VA occlusion would result in more stagnant flow and less impingement of flow than right VA occlusion. According to the simulated strategy, surgical clipping of the left VA just proximal to the aneurysm was performed, followed by FD placement from the basilar artery trunk to the right VA. The patient demonstrated tolerance of the VA occlusion, and follow-up computed tomography angiography at 18 months after FD treatment confirmed the disappearance of the aneurysm.

LESSONS

Preoperative flow dynamics simulations using CFD analysis can reveal an optimal treatment strategy involving a hybrid surgery that combines FD placement and direct surgical occlusion for a VBJ complex aneurysm.

Open access

Retrograde thrombectomy of acute common carotid artery occlusion with mobile thrombus: illustrative cases

Yukiya Okune, Hitoshi Fukuda, Toshiki Matsuoka, Yo Nishimoto, Keita Matsuoka, Naoki Fukui, 1 PhD, Satoru Hayashi, Tetsuya Ueba, and 1 PhD

BACKGROUND

Acute embolic occlusion of the common carotid artery (CCA) alone is rare. However, once it occurs, recanalization is challenging due to the large volume of the clot, larger diameter of the CCA, and risk of procedure-related distal embolism into the intracranial arteries.

OBSERVATIONS

The authors report two cases of acute embolic occlusion of CCA alone, caused by a cardiac embolus trapped at the proximal end of a preexisting atherosclerotic plaque at the cervical carotid bifurcation. In both cases, the CCA was successfully recanalized using retrograde thrombectomy in a hybrid operating room. In case 1, a 78-year-old male with acute right CCA occlusion underwent retrograde thrombectomy, where the cervical carotid bifurcation was exposed and incised, and the entire embolus was retrieved with forceps. Despite successful revascularization, massive bleeding from the CCA just after the retrieval remained a concern. In case 2, a 79-year-old female with acute right CCA occlusion underwent retrograde thrombectomy in the same manner. Because manual retrieval failed, a Fogarty balloon catheter inserted from the arteriotomy successfully retrieved the entire thrombus with minimal blood loss.

LESSONS

Retrograde thrombectomy through the arteriotomy of the cervical carotid bifurcation safely and effectively recanalizes acute embolic occlusion of the CCA alone.

Open access

Cerebral arterial vasospasm complicating supratentorial meningioma resection: illustrative cases

Andrew C Pickles, John T Tsiang, Alexandria A Pecoraro, Nathan C Pecoraro, Ronak H Jani, Brandon J Bond, Anand V Germanwala, Joseph C Serrone, and Vikram C Prabhu

BACKGROUND

Cerebral arterial vasospasm is a rare complication after supratentorial meningioma resection. The pathophysiology of this condition may be similar to vasospasm after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage, and treatment options may be similar.

OBSERVATIONS

The authors present two cases of cerebral vasospasm after supratentorial meningioma resection and perform a systematic literature review of similar cases.

LESSONS

Cerebral arterial vasospasm after supratentorial meningioma resection may be associated with significant morbidity due to cerebral ischemia if not addressed in a timely manner. Treatment paradigms may be adopted from the management of arterial vasospasm associated with subarachnoid hemorrhage.

Open access

A large cirsoid aneurysm of the scalp with multiple arterial supply: illustrative case

Soumya Pahari, Paawan Bahadur Bhandari, Bibek Bhattarai, Purushottam Baniya, Stuti Yadav, Prarthana Subedi, and Sarbind Mandal

BACKGROUND

Cirsoid aneurysm of the scalp is a rare arteriovenous fistula having a traumatic, congenital, iatrogenic, or idiopathic etiology. Its presentation can range from a small swelling to a large pulsatile mass with tinnitus, headache, and scalp necrosis.

OBSERVATIONS

A 67-year-old female presented with a gradually increasing swelling on her forehead and head since childhood and no history of trauma. Examination revealed 12 × 5 cm tortuous midline swelling. Computed tomography angiography revealed a mass of tortuous vessels in the right frontoparietal region of the scalp with no bony defect or intracranial extension. Contrast-enhanced computed tomography of the head showed no intracranial pathology. The diagnosis of cirsoid aneurysm was made, and surgery was planned.

A bicoronal incision was made. The feeding arteries were dissected and ligated. The nidus was carefully separated, cauterized, and excised in toto. Inadvertently, a buttonhole in the skin was created while dissecting the nidus, which was sutured. The patient developed a small area of scalp necrosis on the 10th postoperative day, which was debrided and sutured. At the 6-month follow-up, no signs of recurrence were present.

LESSONS

A large cirsoid aneurysm of the scalp with multiple arterial supplies can be treated successfully with surgery. Meticulous dissection and hemostasis are warranted to avoid perioperative complications.

Open access

Continuous direct intraarterial treatment of meningitis-induced vasospasm in a pediatric patient: illustrative case

Aubrey C Rogers, Aditya D Goyal, and Alexandra R Paul

BACKGROUND

Bacterial meningitis–induced ischemic stroke continues to cause significant long-term complications in pediatric patients. The authors present a case of severe right internal carotid artery terminus and M1 segment vasospasm in a 9-year-old with an infected cholesteatoma, which was refractory to multiple intraarterial treatments with verapamil and milrinone. This is the first report of continuous intraarterial antispasmodic treatment in a pediatric patient as well as the first report of continuous treatment in an awake and extubated patient.

OBSERVATIONS

Arterial narrowing was successfully treated by continuous direct intraarterial administration of both a calcium channel blocker (verapamil) and a phosphodiesterase-3 inhibitor (milrinone). The patient recovered remarkably well and was discharged home with no neurological deficit (National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score 0) and ambulatory without assistance after 22 days. The authors report a promising outcome of this technique performed in a pediatric patient.

LESSONS

This represents a novel treatment option for the prevention of stroke in pediatric bacterial meningitis. Continuous, direct intraarterial administration of antispasmodic medications can successfully prevent long-term neurological deficit in pediatric meningitis-associated vasospasm. The described method has the potential to significantly improve outcomes in severe pediatric meningitis-associated vasospasm.

Open access

Twig-like middle cerebral artery as a variety of isolated middle cerebral artery disease with new vessel formation: illustrative case

Hideki Nakajima, Ryota Miyake, Katsuma Iwaki, Taku Hongo, Morio Takasaki, and Yasuhiro Fujimoto

BACKGROUND

Twig-like middle cerebral artery (T-MCA) is reported as a rare vascular anomaly characterized by reconstitution of the M1 segment of the middle cerebral artery (MCA) by a plexiform network of small vessels. Although it is generally believed that the etiology of T-MCA is an embryological persistence, some investigators have suggested that T-MCA may be a secondary consequence. Here, the authors report a second case of de novo T-MCA formation and reconsider the concept of T-MCA in connection with isolated MCA disease.

OBSERVATIONS

A 40-year-old man’s brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) checkup showed moderate stenosis of the M1 segment of the left MCA. Annual MRI follow-up was planned, and when performed 1 year later, it showed occlusion of the M1 segment of the left MCA. Cerebral angiography revealed occlusion of that M1 segment with abnormal arterial networks. This case was diagnosed as de novo T-MCA. The patient has remained asymptomatic for 2 years.

LESSONS

The reports of de novo T-MCA indicate that acquired factors may be involved in the pathogenesis of T-MCA. We suggest that T-MCA should be defined as a variety of isolated MCA disease with new vessel formation.

Open access

Supracerebellar infratentorial resection of a torcular lesion causing fulminant intracranial hypertension: illustrative case

Jonathan Dallas, Jessica R Lane, Benjamin S Hopkins, Melinda Chang, Mark Borchert, Nestor R Gonzalez, Peter A Chiarelli, and Jason K Chu

BACKGROUND

Venous sinus stenosis has been implicated in intracranial hypertension and can lead to papilledema and blindness. The authors report the unique case of a cerebellar transtentorial lesion resulting in venous sinus stenosis in the torcula and bilateral transverse sinuses that underwent resection.

OBSERVATIONS

A 5-year-old male presented with subacute vision loss and bilateral papilledema. Imaging demonstrated a lesion causing mass effect on the torcula/transverse sinuses and findings of increased intracranial pressure (ICP). A lumbar puncture confirmed elevated pressure, and the patient underwent bilateral optic nerve sheath fenestration. Cerebral angiography and venous manometry showed elevated venous sinus pressures suggestive of venous hypertension. The patient underwent a craniotomy and supracerebellar/infratentorial approach. A stalk emanating from the cerebellum through the tentorium was identified and divided. Postoperative magnetic resonance imaging showed decreased lesion size and improved sinus patency. Papilledema resolved and other findings of elevated ICP improved. Pathology was consistent with atrophic cerebellar cortex. Serial imaging over 6 months demonstrated progressive decrease in the lesion with concurrent improvements in sinus patency.

LESSONS

Although uncommon, symptoms of intracranial hypertension in patients with venous sinus lesions should prompt additional workup ranging from dedicated venous imaging to assessments of ICP and venous manometry.

Open access

Surgically treated intracranial arteriovenous fistulas with hemorrhage, resulting in complete obliteration: illustrative cases

Ako Matsuhashi, Kei Yanai, Satoshi Koizumi, and Gakushi Yoshikawa

BACKGROUND

Intracranial arteriovenous fistula (AVF) is a rare disease, defined as anastomoses between cerebral or meningeal arteries and dural venous sinuses or cortical veins. With the development of new agents and devices, endovascular embolization has been considered safe and effective in a majority of cases. However, cases that require direct surgery do exist. Herein, the authors present 3 cases of intracranial AVFs that presented with hemorrhage and were treated with direct surgery, achieving complete obliteration and favorable outcomes.

OBSERVATIONS

Intracranial AVFs that present with hemorrhage require immediate and complete obliteration. When AVFs involve the dural sinus, transvenous embolization is usually the first choice of treatment. AVFs with single cortical venous drainage are best treated with interruption of the draining vein close to the fistula. Transarterial embolization can be a curative treatment if there are no branches supplying cranial nerves or an association with pial feeders. In cases in which endovascular treatment is technically challenging or has resulted in incomplete occlusion, surgical treatment is indicated.

LESSONS

Despite the recent rise in endovascular treatment, it is important to recognize situations in which such treatment is not suitable for intracranial AVFs. Direct surgery is effective in such cases to offer the best possible outcome.