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Open access

Wartime penetrating skull base trauma with unpredictable internal fragment ricochet and migration: illustrative case

Andrii Sirko, Alex Valadka, Rocco Armonda, Anthony J Dragun, and Yurii Cherednychenko

BACKGROUND

Transnasal transsphenoidal penetrating craniocerebral injury is very rare even in wartime. Cases with good outcomes are even less common.

OBSERVATIONS

A 20-year-old male sustained multiple fragment wounds to his head and face from a landmine explosion. One metal fragment entered his right nostril, traversed the nasal septum and anterior sphenoid sinus, and ricocheted superiorly off the clivus. The fragment then traveled almost to the surface of the left parietal lobe. Subsequently, under its own weight, it migrated back down its original track. The patient suffered cerebrospinal fluid rhinorrhea, pneumocephalus, and right-sided hemiparesis. Digital subtraction angiography was followed by microscopic transnasal skull base reconstruction supplemented by external lumbar drainage. Follow-up brain computed tomogrpahy showed further metallic fragment migration through the ventricular system. The fragment was removed through a transcortical approach. The patient’s neurological examination and brain magnetic resonance imaging results demonstrated good recovery.

LESSONS

The absence of external signs of deep injuries does not exclude the presence of a penetrating craniocerebral injury. Metal fragments may undergo ricochet and internal migration in both the brain parenchyma and the ventricular system. Timely diagnosis including three-dimensional reconstruction of a projectile’s trajectory may facilitate appropriate surgical planning in complex cases. Intraventricular fragment migration may necessitate microsurgical removal.

https://thejns.org/doi/10.3171/CASE24128

Open access

Cerebrospinal fluid fistula as a complication of reverse transcriptase–polymerase chain reaction collection for the detection of coronavirus disease 2019: illustrative cases

Lucca B. Palavani, Camila V. F. Andrade, Renato A. Andrade, Egmond Alves, Marcio Falchi Barros, and João F. Barbieri

BACKGROUND

The most used method to detect coronavirus disease 2019 during the pandemic is reverse transcriptase–polymerase chain reaction with nasal swab. Despite being highly effective, the test does not leave the patient risk-free and can lead to serious complications. These can be traumatic nasal cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) fistula and its consequences, such as meningitis.

OBSERVATIONS

In this article, the authors present 4 case reports and a literature review. The following MeSH terms in the research were used: “CSF leak case report and covid 19.” Six results were found and after searching the references and keywords 16 articles were identified. By using them, the authors tried to clarify the etiology of the fistula, its influences, and complications.

LESSONS

The authors conclude that professionals must receive training, since CSF fistula originates from technical failure and lack of anatomical knowledge. The diagnosis cannot be neglected because it can bring complications to the patient’s health.