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Open access

BRAF-mutated suprasellar glioblastoma mimicking craniopharyngioma: illustrative case

Bryan Zheng, Belinda Shao, Jennifer Mingrino, Jonathan Poggi, Richard S Dowd, Douglas C Anthony, John E Donahue, and Curtis E Doberstein

BACKGROUND

Suprasellar masses commonly include craniopharyngiomas and pituitary adenomas. Suprasellar glioblastoma is exceedingly rare with only a few prior case reports in the literature. Suprasellar glioblastoma can mimic craniopharyngioma or other more common suprasellar etiologies preoperatively.

OBSERVATIONS

A 65-year-old male with no significant history presented to the emergency department with a subacute decline in mental status. Work-up revealed a large suprasellar mass with extension to the right inferior medial frontal lobe and right lateral ventricle, associated with significant vasogenic edema. The patient underwent an interhemispheric transcallosal approach subtotal resection of the interventricular portion of the mass. Pathological analysis revealed glioblastoma, MGMT partially methylated, with a BRAF V600E mutation.

LESSONS

Malignant glioblastomas can mimic benign suprasellar masses and should remain on the differential for a diverse set of brain masses with a broad range of radiological and clinical features. For complex cases accessible from the ventricle where the pituitary complex cannot be confidently preserved via a transsphenoidal approach, an interhemispheric approach is also a practical initial surgical option. In addition to providing diagnostic value, molecular profiling may also reveal therapeutically significant gene alterations such as BRAF mutations.

Open access

Rapidly progressive diffuse leptomeningeal glioneuronal tumor in an adult female: illustrative case

Jonathan Bao, Jared F. Sweeney, Yang Liu, Frank L. Genovese, Matthew A. Adamo, and Robert S. Heller

BACKGROUND

Diffuse leptomeningeal glioneuronal tumor (DLGNT) is a rare brain tumor only recently classified by the World Health Organization in 2016 and has few reports on its incidence in adults.

OBSERVATIONS

The authors describe a case of DLGNT presenting in a 47-year-old female with seizures, cranial neuropathies, and communicating hydrocephalus with rapid clinical progression. Workup demonstrated progressive leptomeningeal enhancement of the skull base, cranial nerves, and spine, and communicating hydrocephalus. Elevated serum rheumatological markers and early response to systemic corticosteroids and immunosuppressant therapy complicated the diagnosis. Multiple biopsy attempts were required to obtain diagnostic tissue. Pathology demonstrated hypercellularity surrounding leptomeningeal vessels with nuclear atypia, staining positive for GFAP, Olig2, S100, and synaptophysin. Molecular pathology demonstrated loss of chromosome 1p, BRAF overexpression but no rearrangement, and H3K27 mutation. Repeat cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) diversion procedures were required for hydrocephalus management due to high CSF protein content.

LESSONS

This report describes a rare, aggressive, adult presentation of DLGNT. Leptomeningeal enhancement and communicating hydrocephalus should raise suspicion for this disease process. Biopsy at early stages of disease progression is essential for early diagnosis and prompt treatment. Further study into the variable clinical presentation, histological and molecular pathology, and optimal means of diagnosis and management is needed.

Open access

Endoscope-assisted far lateral craniotomy for resection of posterior fossa neurocysticercosis: illustrative case

Jerrell Fang, Christopher Banerjee, Amanda Barrett, Bruce C. Gilbert, and Martin J. Rutkowski

BACKGROUND

Neurocysticercosis is a parasitic infection that commonly affects the ventricles, subarachnoid spaces, and spinal cord of the central nervous system. The authors report an unusual manifestation of purely posterior fossa neurocysticercosis treated with endoscope-assisted open craniotomy for resection.

OBSERVATIONS

A 67-year-old male presented with 2 months of progressive dizziness, gait ataxia, headaches, decreased hearing, and memory impairment. Imaging revealed an extra-axial cystic lesion occupying the foramen magnum and left cerebellopontine angle with significant mass effect and evidence of early hydrocephalus. Gross-total resection was accomplished via a left far lateral craniotomy with open endoscopic assistance, and pathological findings were consistent with neurocysticercosis. Postoperatively, he was noted to have a sixth nerve palsy, and adjuvant therapy included albendazole. By 9 months postoperatively, he exhibited complete resolution of an immediate postoperative sixth nerve palsy in addition to all preoperative symptoms. His hydrocephalus resolved and did not require permanent cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) diversion.

LESSONS

When combined with traditional skull base approaches, open endoscopic techniques allow for enhanced visualization and resection of complex lesions otherwise inaccessible under the microscope alone. Recognition and obliteration of central nervous system neurocysticercosis can facilitate excellent neurological recovery without the need for CSF diversion.