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Open access

First use of intraventricular nicardipine in a pediatric patient with vasospasm secondary to meningitis: illustrative case

V. Jane Horak, Nirali Patel, Sunny Abdelmageed, Jonathan Scoville, Melissa A LoPresti, and Sandi Lam

BACKGROUND

Cerebral vasospasm is commonly associated with adult aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage but can develop in children. The standard vasospasm treatment includes induced hypertension, avoidance of hypovolemia, systemic use of the calcium channel blocker (CCB) nimodipine, and cerebral angiography for intraarterial therapy. Emerging treatments in adults, such as intraventricular CCB administration, have not been investigated in children. This study demonstrates the successful use of an intraventricular CCB in a pediatric patient with refractory vasospasm secondary to meningitis.

OBSERVATIONS

A 12-year-old female presented with Streptococcus pneumoniae meningitis and ventriculitis with refractory symptomatic cerebral vasospasm. She received a 5-day course of intrathecal nicardipine through an existing external ventricular drain. Her clinical status, transcranial Doppler studies, and radiography improved. Treatment was well tolerated.

LESSONS

Pediatric vasospasm is uncommon and potentially devastating. The management of vasospasm in adults occurs frequently. Principles of this management are adapted to pediatric care given the rarity of vasospasm in children. The use of intraventricular nicardipine has been reported in the care of adults with level 3 evidence. It has not been adequately reported in children with refractory vasospasm. Here, the first use of intraventricular nicardipine in treating pediatric cerebral vasospasm in the setting of meningitis is described and highlighted.

Open access

Acute large-vessel occlusion due to an infected thrombus formation induced by invasive sphenoid sinus aspergillosis: illustrative case

Yoshiyasu Matsumoto, Yosuke Akamatsu, Koji Yoshida, Yasushi Ogasawara, Toshinari Misaki, Shunichi Sasou, Hiromu Konno, and Kuniaki Ogasawara

BACKGROUND

The authors describe a rare case of acute large-vessel occlusion due to an infected thrombus formation that was induced by invasive sphenoid sinus aspergillosis.

OBSERVATIONS

An 82-year-old man with a history of immunoglobulin G4–related disease and long-term use of steroids and immunosuppressants was admitted to the authors’ hospital with severe right hemiparesis. Cerebral angiography revealed occlusion of the left internal carotid artery (ICA). He underwent thrombectomy, resulting in successful recanalization. However, severe stenosis was evident in the left ICA cavernous segment. Pathological analysis of the retrieved thrombus identified Aspergillus. Postoperative magnetic resonance imaging revealed sinusitis in the left sphenoid sinus as a possible source of the infection. The patient’s general condition deteriorated during the course of hospitalization due to refractory aspiration pneumonia, and he died 46 days after thrombectomy. Pathological autopsy and histopathological investigation of the left ICA and the left sphenoid sinus showed that Aspergillus had invaded the wall of the left ICA from the adjacent sphenoid sinus. These findings indicate a diagnosis of acute large-vessel occlusion due to infected thrombus formation induced by invasive sphenoid sinus aspergillosis.

LESSONS

Pathological analysis of a retrieved thrombus appears useful for identifying rare stroke etiologies such as fungal infection.

Open access

Continuous direct intraarterial treatment of meningitis-induced vasospasm in a pediatric patient: illustrative case

Aubrey C Rogers, Aditya D Goyal, and Alexandra R Paul

BACKGROUND

Bacterial meningitis–induced ischemic stroke continues to cause significant long-term complications in pediatric patients. The authors present a case of severe right internal carotid artery terminus and M1 segment vasospasm in a 9-year-old with an infected cholesteatoma, which was refractory to multiple intraarterial treatments with verapamil and milrinone. This is the first report of continuous intraarterial antispasmodic treatment in a pediatric patient as well as the first report of continuous treatment in an awake and extubated patient.

OBSERVATIONS

Arterial narrowing was successfully treated by continuous direct intraarterial administration of both a calcium channel blocker (verapamil) and a phosphodiesterase-3 inhibitor (milrinone). The patient recovered remarkably well and was discharged home with no neurological deficit (National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score 0) and ambulatory without assistance after 22 days. The authors report a promising outcome of this technique performed in a pediatric patient.

LESSONS

This represents a novel treatment option for the prevention of stroke in pediatric bacterial meningitis. Continuous, direct intraarterial administration of antispasmodic medications can successfully prevent long-term neurological deficit in pediatric meningitis-associated vasospasm. The described method has the potential to significantly improve outcomes in severe pediatric meningitis-associated vasospasm.

Open access

De novo expansion formation in the outer curvature of the internal carotid artery after flow diverter deployment for an infectious cavernous carotid aneurysm: illustrative case

Takuya Osuki, Hiroyuki Ikeda, Minami Uezato, Masanori Kinosada, Yoshitaka Kurosaki, and Masaki Chin

BACKGROUND

Infectious aneurysms very rarely occur in the cavernous carotid artery. Recently, treatment by flow diverter implantation with preservation of the parent artery has been the treatment of choice.

OBSERVATIONS

A 64-year-old woman presented with stenosis at the C5 segment of the left internal carotid artery (ICA), followed by ocular symptoms within 2 weeks, with a de novo aneurysm in the left cavernous carotid artery and wall irregularity with stenosis from the C2 to C5 segments of the left ICA. Antimicrobial therapy was given for 6 weeks, and a Pipeline Flex Shield was implanted. Angiography 6 months after treatment showed complete obliteration of the infectious aneurysm and improvement of the stenosis. However, de novo expansions were formed in the outer curvature of C3 and C4 segments of the ICA where the Pipeline device had been deployed.

LESSONS

Aneurysms that develop rapidly and show shape changes over time, accompanied by fever and inflammation, may be associated with an infection. Because of the fragility in the irregular wall of the parent vessel associated with infectious aneurysms, de novo expansion may form in the outer curvature of the parent vessel after flow diverter placement; thus, careful follow-up is necessary.

Open access

Management of refractory bacterial meningitis–associated cerebral vasospasm: illustrative case

Sofya Norman, Jon Rosenberg, Sri Hari Sundararajan, Ali Al Balushi, Srikanth Reddy Boddu, and Judy H. Ch’ang

BACKGROUND

Cerebral vasospasm is an alarming complication of acute bacterial meningitis with potentially devastating consequences. It is essential for providers to recognize and treat it appropriately. Unfortunately, there is no well-established approach to the management of postinfectious vasospasm, which makes it especially challenging to treat these patients. More research is needed to address this gap in care.

OBSERVATIONS

Here, the authors describe a patient with postmeningitis vasospasm that was refractory to induced hypertension, steroids, and verapamil. He eventually responded to a combination of intravenous (IV) and intra-arterial (IA) milrinone followed by angioplasty.

LESSONS

To our knowledge, this is the first report of successfully using milrinone as vasodilator therapy in a patient with postbacterial meningitis-associated vasospasm. This case supports the use of this intervention. In future cases of vasospasm after bacterial meningitis, IV and IA milrinone should be trialed earlier with consideration of angioplasty.

Open access

Acute worsening of CADASIL in a patient with COVID-19 infection: illustrative case

Jared S. Rosenblum, Jessa M. Tunacao, Matthew A. Nazari, Halle Ronk, Danielle D. Dang, Chad Downing, Zhengping Zhuang, John D. Heiss, James G. Smirniotopoulos, Avraham Bluestone, James Badia, and Joseph White

BACKGROUND

Reports of cerebrovascular ischemia and stroke occurring as predominant neurological sequelae of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection, which causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), are increasingly evident within the literature. While various pathophysiological mechanisms have been postulated, including hypercoagulability, endothelial invasion, and systemic inflammation, discrete mechanisms for viral neurotropism remain unclear and controversial.

OBSERVATIONS

The authors present a unique case study of a 64-year-old male with acute COVID-19 infection and acute worsening of previously stable cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy (CADASIL), a rare heritable arteriopathy due to mutation in the Notch3 gene, which is critical for vascular development and tone. Delayed cranial neuropathies, brainstem fluid-attenuated inversion recovery signal, and enhancement of olfactory and vagus nerves on magnetic resonance neurography in this patient further support viral neurotropism via cranial nerves in addition to cerebral vasculature.

LESSONS

To the authors’ knowledge, this is the first case in the literature that not only demonstrates the consequences of COVID-19 infection in a patient with altered cerebrovascular autoregulation such as CADASIL but also highlights the tropism of SARS-CoV-2 for (1) cranial nerves as a mode of entry to the central nervous system and (2) vessels as a cause of cerebrovascular ischemia.

Open access

De novo hemorrhagic sporadic cavernous malformation appearance after COVID-19 respiratory infection: illustrative case

Carmen R. Holmes, Giuseppe Lanzino, and Kelly D. Flemming

BACKGROUND

Little is known about whether coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) influences cavernous malformation (CM) formation or hemorrhage risk.

OBSERVATIONS

The authors present the case of a 31-year-old patient who developed a hemorrhagic, de novo CM in the setting of a developmental venous anomaly within 3 months of COVID-19 respiratory disease. The authors speculate that COVID-19 disease stimulated formation of the CM through TLR4 inflammatory pathways and subsequently led to the hemorrhagic presentation because of hypercoagulability related to the disease.

LESSONS

This case raises the possibility that COVID-19 may be a risk factor for de novo development of CMs in predisposed patients.

Open access

Coccidioidal meningitis with multiple aneurysms presenting with pseudo–subarachnoid hemorrhage: illustrative case

Rohin Singh, Visish M. Srinivasan, Joshua S. Catapano, Joseph D. DiDomenico, Jacob F. Baranoski, and Michael T. Lawton

BACKGROUND

Coccidioidomycosis is a primarily self-limiting fungal disease endemic to the western United States and South America. However, severe disseminated infection can occur. The authors report a severe case of coccidioidal meningitis that appeared to be a subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) on initial inspection.

OBSERVATIONS

A man in his early 40s was diagnosed with coccidioidal pneumonia after presenting with pulmonary symptoms. After meningeal spread characterized by declining mental status and hydrocephalus, coccidioidal meningitis was diagnosed. The uniquely difficult aspect of this case was the deceptive appearance of SAH due to the presence of multiple aneurysms and blood draining from the patient’s external ventricular drain.

LESSONS

Coccidioidal infection likely led to the formation of multiple intracranial aneurysms in this patient. Although few reports exist of coccidioidal meningitis progressing to aneurysm formation, patients should be closely monitored for this complication because outcomes are poor. The presence of basal cistern hyperdensities from a coccidioidal infection mimicking SAH makes interpreting imaging difficult. Surgical management of SAH can be considered safe and viable, especially when the index of suspicion is high, such as in the presence of multiple aneurysms. Even if it is unclear whether aneurysmal rupture has occurred, prompt treatment is advisable.

Open access

Human herpesvirus DNA occurrence in intracranial aneurysmal wall: illustrative case

Nícollas Nunes Rabelo, Antonio Carlos Samaia da Silva Coelho, João Paulo Mota Telles, Giselle Coelho, Caio Santos de Souza, Tania Regina Tozetto-Mendoza, Natan Ponzoni Galvani de Oliveira, Paulo Henrique Braz-Silva, Manoel Jacobsen Teixeira, and Eberval Gadelha Figueiredo

BACKGROUND

Subarachnoid hemorrhages secondary to intracranial aneurysms (IAs) are events of high mortality. These neurological vascular diseases arise from local and systemic inflammation that culminates in vessel wall changes. They may also have a possible relationship with chronic viral infections, such as human herpesvirus (HHV), and especially Epstein–Barr virus (EBV), which causes several medical conditions. This is the first description of the presence of HHV deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) in a patient with IA.

OBSERVATIONS

A 61-year-old woman with a downgraded level of consciousness underwent radiological examinations that identified a 10-mm ruptured aneurysm in the anterior communicating artery. A microsurgery clip was performed to definitively treat the aneurysm and occurred without surgical complications. Molecular analysis of the material obtained revealed the presence of EBV DNA in the aneurysm wall. The patient died 21 days after admission due to clinical complications and brain swelling.

LESSONS

This is the first description of the presence of herpesvirus DNA in a patient with IA, presented in 2.8% of our data. These findings highlight that viral infection may contribute to the pathophysiology and is an additional risk factor for IA formation, progression, and rupture by modulating vessel wall inflammation and structural changes in chronic infections.

Open access

Erratum. Cerebral vasculopathy and strokes in a child with COVID-19 antibodies: illustrative case

Gillian Shasby