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Open access

Fusion mass to pelvis internal distraction technique using multiple-hook fixation for scoliosis correction: illustrative case

J. Manuel Sarmiento, Christina C Rymond, Abdulbaki Kozan, and Lawrence G Lenke

BACKGROUND

Internal distraction rods have been described as an alternative to halo gravity traction for the treatment of severe scoliosis. Distraction rods can be challenging to use in patients with existing fusion masses. The authors report an internal distraction, construct-to-construct rod technique using multiple-hook fixation in a patient with a sharply angulated cervicothoracic scoliosis fusion mass.

OBSERVATIONS

A 12-year-old female with previously diagnosed congenital scoliosis who had undergone cervical fusion in situ at age 2 presented to the clinic with shortness of breath exacerbated by increased levels of activity. Standing anteroposterior and lateral scoliosis radiographs revealed a left >150° cervicothoracic curve, right 140° thoracolumbar curve, and left 28° lumbosacral fractional curve with pelvic obliquity. The authors indicated this patient for a 3-stage all-posterior approach for spinal fusion and deformity correction. In the final fusion surgery, the authors set up a construct-to-construct internal distraction configuration connecting the left hemipelvis to the cervicothoracic fusion mass to aid in deformity correction.

LESSONS

A construct-to-construct internal distraction rod technique connecting a fusion mass to the pelvis can assist with curve correction in severe scoliosis.

Open access

Multiple three-column osteotomies successfully correcting cervicothoracic kyphosis in the setting of ankylosing spondylitis: illustrative case

Luke Mugge, Paul Gorka, Cristie Brewer, and Brian McHugh

BACKGROUND

Ankylosing spondylitis (AS) is an autoimmune spondylarthritis often associated with rigid kyphoscoliosis. The authors describe a surgical approach that employs multilevel three-column osteotomies for the restoration of normal global alignment.

OBSERVATIONS

A 48-year-old male with a past medical history of AS presented to the clinic with a stooped-over posture: his chin-brow vertical angle (CBVA) was 58.0°; T1 slope (T1S), 97.8°; thoracic kyphosis (TK; T1–12), 94.2°; proximal TK (T1–5), 50.8°; distal TK (T5–12), 43.5°; and sagittal vertical axis (SVA), 22.6 cm. A two-stage procedure was planned. During stage 1, instrumentation was placed from C5 to T10, followed by a T3 vertebral column resection. During stage 2, bilateral pedicle screws were placed from T11 to the pelvis. An L3 pedicle subtraction osteotomy (PSO) was completed and was followed by a T7 PSO. Postoperatively, the patient had significant postural improvement: CBVA was 29.3°; T1S, 57.8°; TK, 77.3°; proximal TK, 33.5°; distal TK, 43.8°; and SVA, 15 cm. At 6 years postoperatively, the patient continued to do well and was without evidence of construct breakdown.

LESSONS

The authors propose that multilevel three-column osteotomies, if optimally located, successfully correct spinal malalignment associated with AS.

Open access

Oblique anterior column realignment with a mini-open posterior column osteotomy for minimally invasive adult spinal deformity correction: illustrative case

Zach Pennington, Nolan J Brown, Seyedamirhossein Pishva, Hernán F. J González, and Martin H Pham

BACKGROUND

Adult spinal deformity (ASD) occurs from progressive anterior column collapse due to disc space desiccation, compression fractures, and autofusion across disc spaces. Anterior column realignment (ACR) is increasingly recognized as a powerful tool to address ASD by progressively lengthening the anterior column through the release of the anterior longitudinal ligament during lateral interbody approaches. Here, we describe the application of minimally invasive ACR through an oblique antepsoas corridor for deformity correction in a patient with adult degenerative scoliosis and significant sagittal imbalance.

OBSERVATIONS

A 65-year-old female with a prior history of L4–5 transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion and morbid obesity presented with refractory, severe low-back and lower-extremity pain. Preoperative radiographs showed significant sagittal imbalance. Computed tomography showed a healed L4–5 fusion and a vacuum disc at L3–4 and L5–S1, whereas magnetic resonance imaging was notable for central canal stenosis at L3–4. The patient was treated with a first-stage L5–S1 lateral anterior lumbar interbody fusion with oblique L2–4 ACR. The second-stage posterior approach consisted of a robot-guided minimally invasive T10–ilium posterior instrumented fusion with a mini-open L2–4 posterior column osteotomy (PCO). Postoperative radiographs showed the restoration of her sagittal balance. There were no complications.

LESSONS

Oblique ACR is a powerful minimally invasive tool for sagittal plane correction. When combined with a mini-open PCO, substantial segmental lordosis can be achieved while eliminating the need for multilevel PCO or invasive three-column osteotomies.

Open access

Treatment of an anterior cervicothoracic myelomeningocele together with spine deformity correction in a child: illustrative case

Hudin N Jackson, Nealen Laxpati, and David F Bauer

BACKGROUND

Anterior cervicothoracic myelomeningoceles are a rare pathology. In reported cases, treatment has included shunting, isolated resection and repair without deformity correction, or isolated deformity correction without meningocele repair. The authors describe a pediatric patient with an anterior cervicothoracic myelomeningocele presenting with progressive neurological decline, who underwent simultaneous treatment of the myelomeningocele to detether the spinal cord and achieve major correction of the scoliotic deformity.

OBSERVATIONS

A 15-year-old girl was born with C7-T1-T2 hemivertebrae and anterior cervical myelomeningocele at C7–T1. She developed progressive cervical thoracic scoliosis, left hemiparesis initially, and additional right hemiparesis eventually. She underwent surgical repair via C7, T1, and T2 corpectomies with intradural detethering of the spinal cord. The scoliosis was treated with C7–T2 Ponte osteotomies and C2–T5 posterior fixation, followed by anterior reconstruction with a titanium cage and anterior plate from C6 to T3. The myelomeningocele was adequately treated with good correction of the patient’s deformity. The patient had postoperative improvement in her strength and solid arthrodesis on postoperative imaging.

LESSONS

The authors describe the successful treatment of an anterior cervicothoracic myelomeningocele and associated scoliosis in a child. This is a unique report of a combined strategy to achieve both deformity correction and detethering of the spinal cord.

Open access

The complex treatment paradigms for concomitant tethered cord and scoliosis: illustrative case

Rose Fluss, Riana Lo Bu, Andrew J Kobets, and Jaime A Gomez

BACKGROUND

Scoliosis associated with tethered cord syndrome is one of the most challenging spinal deformities to manage. Multiple surgical approaches have been developed, including traditional staged and concomitant procedures, spine-shortening osteotomies, and individual vertebral column resections.

OBSERVATIONS

A 10-year-old female presented with congenital kyphoscoliosis with worsening curve progression, tethered spinal cord, and a history of enuresis. The scoliosis had progressed to a 26° coronal curve and 55° thoracolumbar kyphosis. Preoperative magnetic resonance imaging of the spine revealed a tethered cord between the levels of L3–4 and a large kyphotic deformity at L1. The patient underwent laminectomy, during which intraoperative motor signals were lost. A planned hemivertebrectomy at L1 was performed prior to an L4 laminectomy, untethering of the filum terminale, and posterior spinal fusion from T11 to L2. After surgery, the patient experienced transient lower-extremity weakness, with her neurological function improving from baseline over the next 2 months. Ultimately, the goal of this surgery was to halt the progressive decline in motor function, which was successfully achieved.

LESSONS

Much remains to be learned about the treatment of this complicated disease, especially in the setting of concomitant scoliosis. This case serves to exemplify the complex treatment paradigms that exist when attempting to manage this clinical syndrome and that more remains to be learned.

Open access

Early outcomes in hybrid fixation for idiopathic scoliosis: posterior fusion combined with anterior vertebral body tethering. Patient series

Daniel Cherian, Amer F Samdani, Alexander J Schüpper, Alan A Stein, Zan Naseer, Joshua M Pahys, Emily Nice, and Steven W Hwang

BACKGROUND

Anterior vertebral body tethering (AVBT) and posterior spinal fusion (PSF) are options for patients with idiopathic scoliosis. Combining both procedures in patients with double curves, a procedure in which PSF is performed for the thoracic curve and AVBT for the lumbar curve, provides maximal correction of the thoracic curve with a theoretical maintenance of motion in the lumbar spine.

OBSERVATIONS

The authors retrospectively reviewed 20 skeletally immature patients diagnosed with idiopathic scoliosis at a single institution with an average age of 12.7 ± 1.6 years and who had undergone hybrid treatment with an average follow-up of 8 months. The PSF procedures averaged 276 ± 63 minutes with 442.8 ± 295 mL of blood loss, and the AVBT averaged 275 ± 54 minutes with 118.3 ± 80 mL of blood loss. Following the hybrid correction, the thoracic and lumbar coronal curve angles improved from 67.6° to 21.6° and from 65.2° to 24°, respectively. The three-dimensional kyphosis improved from 3.3° to 24°.

LESSONS

A combined approach of PSF and AVBT is safe and effective for idiopathic scoliosis. This approach combines the gold standard of thoracic fusion with the motion preservation benefits of AVBT in the lumbar spine. This study will continue to refine indications for AVBT.

Open access

Three-stage correction of severe idiopathic scoliosis with limited skeletal traction during a humanitarian surgical mission: illustrative case

J. Manuel Sarmiento, Jordan Fakhoury, Angadh Singh, Cameron Hawk, Khalid Sethi, and Ravi Bains

BACKGROUND

Underprivileged and underserved patients from developing countries often present late with advanced, untreated spinal deformities. We report a three-stage all-posterior approach using limited skeletal traction with Gardner-Wells tongs (GWTs) for the management of severe idiopathic scoliosis during a humanitarian surgical mission trip.

OBSERVATIONS

A 17-year-old high-school female was previously diagnosed with juvenile idiopathic scoliosis (diagnosed at age 8) and progressed to a severe 135° kyphoscoliosis. Procedural stage 1 involved spinal instrumentation and posterior releases via posterior column osteotomies from T3 to L4. She then underwent 7 days of skeletal traction with GWTs in the intensive care unit as stage 2. In stage 3, rod engagement, posterior spinal fusion, and partial T10 vertebral column resection were performed. There were no changes in intraoperative neuromonitoring during either surgery and she woke up neurologically intact after both stages of the surgical procedure.

LESSONS

Skeletal traction with GWTs is a viable alternative to traditional halo-gravity traction in settings with limited resources. Three-stage spinal deformity correction using limited skeletal traction is a feasible and effective approach for managing severe scoliosis during humanitarian surgical mission trips.

Open access

Multidisciplinary management of thoracic esophageal fistula secondary to traumatic upper thoracic fracture (T3–4) with associated discitis/osteomyelitis and spinal epidural abscess: illustrative case

Peter Schaible, Paul Gordon, Ramasamy Kalimuthu, Ellen Omi, and Keith Schaible

BACKGROUND

An esophageal fistula secondary to a traumatic upper thoracic (T3–4) fracture with resultant thoracic discitis/osteomyelitis and an epidural abscess with neurological compromise is a rare clinical entity. Early diagnosis is critical for an optimal clinical outcome avoiding grave and progressive spinal dissemination with structural instability and neurological deterioration.

OBSERVATIONS

The following case, not clearly described previously in the literature, highlights the clinical course and multidisciplinary approach to management including a single-stage posterior cervicothoracic (C3–T6) decompression with vertebral reconstruction with an expandable interbody cage (T2–4) and posterior cervicothoracic fusion and instrumentation (C3–T6), followed by direct esophageal fistula closure with AlloDerm and a vascularized latissimus dorsi muscle flap.

LESSONS

Early diagnosis and the potential treatment of a posttraumatic esophageal fistula requires a multidisciplinary approach.

Open access

Thoracic pediculectomy for acute spinal cord decompression in high-risk spinal deformity correction: illustrative case

J. Manuel Sarmiento, Christina Rymond, Alondra Concepcion-Gonzalez, Chris Mikhail, Fthimnir M Hassan, and Lawrence G Lenke

BACKGROUND

Neurological complications are higher in patients with severe spinal deformities (Cobb angle >100°). The authors highlight a known technique for thoracic concave apical pedicle resection that is useful for spinal cord decompression in patients with high-risk spinal deformities in the setting of intraoperative neuromonitoring (IONM) changes.

OBSERVATIONS

A 14-year-old female with progressive idiopathic scoliosis presented for evaluation of her clinical deformity. Scoliosis radiographs showed a double major curve pattern comprising a 107° right main thoracic curve and a compensatory 88° left thoracolumbar curve. She underwent 2 weeks of halo-gravity traction that reduced her major thoracic curve to 72°. During thoracic posterior column osteotomies, the authors were alerted to decreases in IONM signals that were not responsive to increases in mean arterial pressure, traction weight reduction, and convex compression maneuvers. The dural surface was tightly draped over the two thoracic apical pedicles of T7 and T8, so emergent pediculectomies were performed at both levels for spinal cord decompression. IONM signals gradually improved and eventually became even better than baseline. The patient woke up without any neurological deficits.

LESSONS

Pediculectomy of the concave apical pedicle(s) should be considered for spinal cord decompression if there are IONM changes during high-risk spinal deformity surgery.

Open access

Intravascular ultrasound to aid in the diagnosis and revision of an intra-aortic pedicle screw: illustrative case

Landon D. Ehlers, Patrick J. Opperman, Jack E. Mordeson, Jonathan R. Thompson, and Daniel L. Surdell

BACKGROUND

Pedicle screw impingement on vessel walls has the potential for complications due to pulsatile effects and wall erosion. Artifacts from spinal instrumentation create difficulty in accurately evaluating this interface. The authors present the first case of intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) used to characterize a pedicle screw breach into the aortic lumen.

OBSERVATIONS

A 21-year-old female with surgically corrected scoliosis underwent computed tomography angiography (CTA) 3 years postoperatively, which revealed a pedicle screw within the thoracic aorta lumen. Metal artifact distorted the CTA images, which prompted the decision to use intraoperative IVUS. The IVUS confirmed the noninvasive imaging findings and guided final decisions regarding aortic endograft size and location during spine hardware revision.

LESSONS

For asymptomatic patients presenting with pedicle screws malpositioned in or near the aorta, treatment decisions revolve around the extent of vessel wall penetration. Intraluminal depth can be obscured by artifact on computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging or inadequately evaluated by a transesophageal echocardiogram. In our intraoperative experience, IVUS confirmed the depth of vessel lumen violation by a single pedicle screw and no wall penetration by two additional screws of concern. This was useful in deciding on thoracic endovascular aortic repair graft size and landing zone and facilitated safe spinal instrumentation removal and revision.