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Delayed fatal intracranial hemorrhage in a pediatric patient following resection and adjuvant cranial radiotherapy for ependymoma: illustrative case

Matthew L. Farmer, Adam M. Conley, and Joseph F. Dilustro

BACKGROUND

Cranial radiotherapy (CRT) is an important treatment modality for malignancies of the central nervous system. CRT has deleterious effects that are commonly classified into acute, early delayed, and late delayed. Late-delayed effects include weakening of the cerebral vasculature and the development of structurally abnormal vasculature, potentially leading to ischemic or hemorrhagic events within the brain parenchyma. Such events are not well reported in the pediatric population.

OBSERVATIONS

The authors present the case of a 14-year-old patient 8.2 years after CRT who experienced intracerebral hemorrhage. Autopsy demonstrated minimal pathological change without evidence of vascular malformation or aneurysm. These findings were unexpected given the degree of hemorrhage in this case. However, in the absence of other etiologies, it was believed that late-delayed radiation effect was the cause of this patient’s fatal hemorrhage.

LESSONS

Although not all cases of pediatric spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage will have a determined etiology, the authors’ patient’s previous CRT may represent a poorly defined risk for late-delayed hemorrhage. This correlation has not been previously reported and should be considered in pediatric patients presenting with spontaneous hemorrhage in a delayed fashion after CRT. Neurosurgeons must not be dismissive of unexpected events in the remote postoperative period.

Open access

Skull base chondroblastoma with aneurysmal bone cyst–like changes treated with percutaneous radiofrequency ablation and doxycycline sclerotherapy: illustrative case

Madeline I. Foo, Kathleen Nicol, and James W. Murakami

BACKGROUND

Chondroblastomas (CBs) are rare benign bone tumors that are often difficult to treat because of their locations. CBs can be even more challenging to successfully manage when they present alongside aneurysmal bone cyst (ABC)-like changes. To minimize operative morbidity, especially in hard-to-reach lesions, percutaneous approaches for both lesions have been individually described. We present a skull base CB with associated ABC-like changes treated by combining two different previously described percutaneous modalities.

OBSERVATIONS

The authors report successful percutaneous treatment of a skull base CB with adjacent ABC-like changes in a 17-year-old male. The CB was treated with radiofrequency ablation (RFA) and the adjacent ABC area with doxycycline sclerotherapy. After 3 years of follow-up, there has been no clinical or radiological evidence of recurrence.

LESSONS

CBs occur in the skull base and, as elsewhere in the body, can be associated with ABC-like changes. Successful percutaneous treatment of such a CB with ABC-like changes is possible by combining previously described techniques of RFA and doxycycline sclerotherapy.