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Pituitary macroadenoma causing vision loss in Wyburn-Mason syndrome: illustrative case

Nicholas F. Hug, David A. Purger, Heather E. Moss, and Robert L. Dodd

BACKGROUND

Wyburn-Mason syndrome (WMS) is a neurocutaneous disorder consisting of vascular malformations of the brain, eye, and skin. These include characteristically high-flow intracranial and intraorbital arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) that present commonly with visual deterioration, headache, and hemiplegia. Complete removal of these lesions is challenging. Most patients are followed closely, and intervention occurs only in the setting of worsening symptoms secondary to AVM growth or hemorrhage. Here the authors present the first known case of a patient with WMS and a pituitary macroadenoma.

OBSERVATIONS

A 62-year-old man with a 30-year history of WMS with right basal ganglia and orbital AVMs and right eye blindness presented for new-onset left-sided vision loss. A pituitary adenoma was identified compressing the optic chiasm and left optic nerve. Magnetic resonance imaging and digital subtraction angiography studies were obtained for surgical planning, and the patient underwent an endoscopic transnasal transsphenoidal resection, with significant postoperative vision improvement.

LESSONS

Given the variable presentation and poor characterization of this rare syndrome, patients with WMS presenting with new symptoms must undergo evaluation for growth and hemorrhage of known AVMs, as well as new lesions. Further, in patients undergoing intracranial surgery, extensive preoperative imaging and planning are crucial for safe and successful procedures.