Browse

You are looking at 1 - 10 of 38,676 items for

  • Refine by Access: all x
Clear All
Open access

Gabrielle W. Johnson, Yuxiao Xu, Ali Y. Mian, and David D. Limbrick Jr

BACKGROUND

Myxopapillary ependymoma (MPE) is typically benign and found in the conus medullaris and/or filum terminale, although rare cases of subcutaneous and extra-axial MPE have been reported. The co-occurrence of MPE, tethered cord syndrome (TCS) with lipoma of the filum terminale, and a dermal sinus tract is extremely rare, with only 6 reported cases in the literature. Here, the authors present the first case, to their knowledge, of an extra-axial, subcutaneous MPE co-presenting with TCS, lipoma of the filum terminale, and a dermal sinus tract and discuss the underlying pathobiology.

OBSERVATIONS

A 14-month-old male who presented for evaluation of a dermal sinus tract underwent magnetic resonance imaging, which revealed a tethered cord with associated lipoma. At 14 months, the patient underwent spinal cord detethering with resection of his sacral dimple and sinus tract. Histopathological evaluation revealed an incidentally found MPE within the dermal sinus tract.

LESSONS

The authors review the underlying biology of MPEs, tethered cord syndrome, and dermal sinus tracts, and explore possible points of convergence within the developmental pathways that may result in this unique concomitant presentation. Additionally, they suggest that extra-axial MPE may be underappreciated and underdiagnosed; this case suggests that extra-axial MPE may be only effectively diagnosed with histological studies.

Open access

Piiamaria S. Virtanen, Med Jimson D. Jimenez, V. Jane Horak, Virendra R. Desai, John J. Manaloor, and Jeffrey S. Raskin

BACKGROUND

Multiple bilateral brain abscesses occur rarely in immunocompetent patients. Hematogenous spread to the central nervous system (CNS) allows suppuration and abscess formation in the privileged immune environment of the CNS; hematogenous spread to the spinal cord is extremely rare and the combination of multifocal brain abscesses and intramedullary abscesses has not been reported. This report presents a rare presentation and diagrams a treatment algorithm involving iterative minimal access surgeries and prolonged medical management.

OBSERVATIONS

The authors present a case of an 18-year-old male with numerous multifocal and bilateral intraparenchymal abscesses and a medically resistant C5 intramedullary spinal cord abscess. The symptomatic patient had a left oculomotor palsy and left hemiparesis, ultimately undergoing ultrasound-guided aspiration of abscesses in the left frontal and left cerebral peduncle. Following transient motor improvement, he evolved tetraparesis prompting spinal cord imaging and emergent ultrasound-guided needle aspiration of an occult C5 intramedullary spinal cord abscess. The patient received appropriate medical therapy, completed inpatient rehabilitation, and made a full recovery.

LESSONS

Needle- and ultrasound-guided catheter drainage of CNS abscesses should be considered for symptomatic lesions. Following the neurological examination closely is extremely important; if the expected neurological improvement is delayed or regresses, then expanded imaging is warranted.

Open access

Daigo Kojima, Yosuke Akamatsu, Kenta Aso, Kazuto Kimura, Yoshiyasu Matsumoto, Shinpei Sato, Hiroshi Kashimura, Yoshitaka Kubo, and Kuniaki Ogasawara

BACKGROUND

In cases of neurofibromatosis in which the bleeding source is considered strongly related to a neurofibroma, an open surgical approach could risk uncontrollable bleeding from the vascular wall infiltration by neurofibroma. The case of a neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1)–associated arteriovenous fistula presenting with a life-threatening cervical hematoma that was successfully treated with alternative treatment is described.

OBSERVATIONS

A 68-year-old woman diagnosed with NF1 presented with sudden onset of a spontaneous right cervical mass. Neck imaging on admission showed a massive subcutaneous hematoma with tracheal deviation and abnormal vascular structure in the hematoma. Digital subtraction angiography showed that an arteriovenous fistula (AVF) fed from a vertebral artery located within the hematoma cavity was the primary source of bleeding and feeding arteries from the occipital artery to the neurofibroma. Embolization of the cervical neurofibroma, as well as the AVF, was performed to reduce the secondary risk of bleeding, and was accomplished. After endovascular treatment, needle aspiration of the cervical hematoma was performed to reduce the mass effect.

LESSONS

When performing open surgery via tissues with neurofibromatosis proliferation, uncontrollable bleeding can occur. Therefore, endovascular embolization and needle aspiration of the hematoma should be considered in this setting.

Open access

Joanna K. Tabor, Haoyi Lei, Saul F. Morales-Valero, Joseph O’Brien, Pallavi P. Gopal, E. Zeynep Erson-Omay, Robert K. Fulbright, and Jennifer Moliterno

BACKGROUND

Primary intracranial leiomyosarcomas (PILMSs) are extremely rare tumors arising from smooth muscle connective tissue. PILMSs have been shown to be associated with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). Thus far, EBV-associated PILMS has been exclusively described in immunocompromised patients.

OBSERVATIONS

A 40-year-old male presented with a 2-year history of left-sided headaches, nausea, and vomiting. Magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated a large, heterogeneously enhancing, lobulated, dura-based mass arising from the left middle cranial fossa with associated edema and mass effect. The patient underwent an uncomplicated resection of suspected meningioma; neuropathology revealed the exceedingly rare diagnosis of EBV-associated PILMS. Follow-up testing for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and other immunodeficiencies confirmed the patient’s immunocompetent status.

LESSONS

Primary intracranial smooth muscle tumors are often misdiagnosed as meningiomas due to their similar appearance on imaging. PILMSs have a poor prognosis and gross total resection is the mainstay of treatment in the absence of clear recommendations for management. Prompt diagnosis and resection are important; therefore, these tumors should be included in the differential of dura-based tumors, especially among immunocompromised patients. Although EBV-associated PILMSs usually occur in immunocompromised individuals, their presence cannot be ruled out in immunocompetent patients.

Open access

Yoshinobu Horio, Koichi Miki, Dai Kawano, Takaaki Amamoto, Hironori Fukumoto, Hiromasa Kobayashi, Koichiro Takemoto, Takashi Morishita, and Hiroshi Abe

BACKGROUND

In meningiomas that occur in the high-convexity region, the superficial temporal artery (STA) frequently feeds the tumor, and when embolizing from the middle meningeal artery (MMA), the embolic material may not reach the tumor vessels because of the pressure gradient resulting from the STA blood flow, resulting in inadequate embolization. In this case, a circular plastic material was used to apply circumferential pressure around the parietal foramen to control blood flow to the tumor.

OBSERVATIONS

A 45-year-old male underwent head magnetic resonance imaging that revealed a 2.2-cm meningioma in the right high-convexity region. Preoperative embolization was performed. When N-butyl-2-cyanoacrylate was injected from the right MMA while using a circular plastic material to compress the skin around the parietal foramen through which the bilateral STAs (the tumor feeders) flow, it was able to fully penetrate the tumor vessel and occlude the other feeders in a retrograde manner. The patient underwent tumor removal after embolization uneventfully.

LESSONS

Manual compression of the STA using a circular plastic material is useful when the tumor is fed by the STA through the parietal foramen and is also applicable to transarterial embolization of dural arteriovenous fistulas fed by the STA or occipital artery.

Open access

Nicholas F. Hug, David A. Purger, Daphne Li, Lawrence Rinsky, and David S. Hong

BACKGROUND

Chronic recurrent multifocal osteomyelitis (CRMO) is a rare pediatric autoinflammatory disorder involving 2 or more inflammatory bone lesions separated in time and space associated with pathological vertebral fractures. There are no current guidelines for the role of pediatric spine surgeons in the management of this condition. The authors demonstrate the importance of close and early involvement of neurosurgeons in caring for patients with CRMO with vertebral involvement.

OBSERVATIONS

Fifty-six pediatric patients with clinical and radiographic evidence of CRMO were identified and clinical, radiographic, laboratory, and histopathological data were reviewed. All were evaluated via Jansson and Bristol CRMO diagnostic criteria. Ten had radiographic evidence of vertebral involvement (17.9%). Nine of these had multifocal disease. Five patients had multiple vertebrae affected. Six patients were evaluated for possible surgical intervention and one required intervention due to vertebra plana leading to a progressive kyphotic deformity and significant spinal canal stenosis.

LESSONS

In conjunction with management by the primary pediatric rheumatology team using nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs, immunotherapies, and bisphosphonates, given the risk of pathological fractures and potential resulting long-term neurological deficits, the authors recommend close monitoring and management by pediatric spine surgeons for any patient with CRMO with vertebral lesions.

Open access

Seung W. Jeong, Michael Moran, Shahed Elhamdani, Dorian M. Kusyk, Chen Xu, Kymberly Gyure, and Richard Williamson

BACKGROUND

Chordoid meningioma is a rare World Health Organization (WHO) grade 2 variant of meningioma with histological features resembling those of a chordoma. This tumor type is known for having an aggressive clinical course with a propensity for local recurrence. Most cases occur within the cranium, more specifically around the cerebral convexities. Although extracranial meningiomas of various subtypes have been documented, extracranial meningioma with a chordoid subtype is an extremely rare entity.

OBSERVATIONS

The authors herein report the case of a 51-year-old female who presented with a chief complaint of dysphagia and was found to have a neck mass abutting the carotid sheath. The patient underwent resection and final pathology results revealed a WHO grade 2 chordoid meningioma.

LESSONS

This case report demonstrates an atypical case of an extracranial chordoid meningioma adjacent to the carotid sheath. To the authors’ knowledge, this is the first reported case of a chordoid meningioma occurring within the soft tissue of the neck.

Open access

Kristin Buxton, Ann Morgan, Weston T. Northam, and Scellig S. D. Stone

BACKGROUND

Intrathecal baclofen, delivered via implanted pump, has been used to manage spasticity for approximately 40 years. The device is typically subcutaneously or subfascially implanted in the abdominal wall. There are very few cases reported of the pump being implanted in other locations.

OBSERVATIONS

This case describes the complicated course of a patient presenting with multiple episodes of catheter malfunction related to pump flipping in the abdominal pocket. The patient was successfully treated with repositioning of the pump into the infraclavicular fossa.

LESSONS

Infraclavicular placement of the implanted pump allowed for a more secure pocket base for this patient and less strain applied to the pump, minimizing the risk of disruption of pump positioning and interruption of drug delivery.

Open access

Tariq Al-Saadi, Steffen Albrecht, Jean-Pierre Farmer, Daniela Toffoli, Christine Saint-Martin, Nada Jabado, and Roy W. R. Dudley

BACKGROUND

Although surgery within the tegmentum of the midbrain is challenging, resection of tegmental pilocytic astrocytomas (PAs) is a standard treatment because this has been shown to outperform chemotherapy and radiotherapy in terms of long-term tumor control. Gross total resection (GTR) assisted by intraoperative neuroelectrophysiological monitoring can be achieved with a reasonable risk-to-benefit ratio, especially for well-circumscribed tumors, but careful scrutiny of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is critical to surgical decision making. The authors present two cases of tegmental PAs, which appeared grossly similar on MRI and were operated on via the same surgical approach using the same intraoperative adjuncts.

OBSERVATIONS

The tumors had identical histopathological and molecular diagnoses but drastically different functional outcomes for the patients, with significant long-term complications for one of the children, which the authors believe was due to a slightly more invasive nature of this tumor. The authors demonstrate subtle preoperative MRI findings that might be potential clues to a more infiltrative nature of one PA versus another and present pathological findings supporting this argument.

LESSONS

This report serves as a reminder that not all tegmental PAs can be managed by the same surgical approach. Subtle signs of infiltration may indicate that GTR should not be attempted.

Restricted access

Priyanka Roy, Marcus Lo, David Tessier, Jessica Kishimoto, Soume Bhattacharya, Roy Eagleson, Aaron Fenster, and Sandrine de Ribaupierre

OBJECTIVE

Some neonates born prematurely with intraventricular hemorrhage develop posthemorrhagic hydrocephalus and require lifelong treatment to divert the flow of CSF. Early prediction of the eventual need for a ventriculoperitoneal shunt (VPS) is difficult, and early discussions with families are based on statistics and the grade of hemorrhage. The authors hypothesize that change in ventricular volume during ventricular taps that is measured with repeated 3D ultrasound (3D US) imaging of the lateral ventricles could be used to assess the risk of the future requirement of a VPS.

METHODS

A total of 92 neonates with intraventricular hemorrhage who were treated in the NICU were recruited between April 2012 and November 2019. Only patients who required ventricular taps (VTs) were included in this study, resulting in the analysis of 19 patients with a total of 61 VTs. Among them, 14 patients were treated with a VPS, and in 5 patients the hydrocephalus resolved spontaneously. Parameters studied were total ventricular volume measured with 3D US, ventricular volume change after VT, the ratio between volume reduction and tap amount, the difference between tap amount and volume reduction after tap, the average tap amount, the average number of days between taps, pre-tap head circumference, and reduction in head circumference after tap.

RESULTS

Statistically significant differences were found in ventricular volume reduction after tap (p = 0.007), the ratio between volume reduction and tap amount (p = 0.03), the difference between tap amount and volume reduction after tap (p = 0.05), and the interval of days between taps (p = 0.0115).

CONCLUSIONS

Measuring with 3D US before and after VT can be a useful tool for quantifying ventricular volume. The findings in this study showed that neonates who experience a large reduction of ventricular volume after VT are more likely to be treated with a shunt than are neonates who experience a small reduction.