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Open access

Using a low-metal–density stent for thrombectomy-resistant vertebrobasilar occlusion due to thrombus migration from a thrombosed vertebral artery aneurysm: illustrative case

Koji Yoshida, Yosuke Akamatsu, Shota Tsutsui, Yasushi Ogasawara, Toshinari Misaki, Hiromu Konno, and Kuniaki Ogasawara

BACKGROUND

Thrombosed intracranial aneurysms can lead to large vessel occlusion as a result of spontaneous thrombosis. Although mechanical thrombectomy is likely effective, recurrent thromboembolism can occur if the thrombotic source remains untreated. The authors describe a case of recurrent vertebrobasilar artery occlusion due to thrombus migration from a large thrombosed vertebral artery (VA) aneurysm that was successfully treated with mechanical thrombectomy followed by stenting.

OBSERVATIONS

A 61-year-old male previously diagnosed with a large, thrombosed VA aneurysm presented with right hypoesthesia. Imaging on admission showed left VA occlusion and an acute ischemic lesion in the left medial medulla. His symptoms worsened, with complete right hemiparesis and tongue deviation occurring 3 hours after admission, and mechanical thrombectomy was performed to recanalize the left-dominant VA. Despite several attempts, reocclusion of the vertebrobasilar system occurred after each mechanical thrombectomy because of repeated thrombus formation in the thrombosed aneurysm. Therefore, a low-metal–density stent was deployed to prevent thrombus migration into the parent artery, which resulted in complete recanalization and rapid improvement of the symptoms.

LESSONS

Stenting with a low-metal–density stent for recurrent embolism secondary to thrombus migration from a large thrombosed aneurysm was feasible in the acute stroke setting.

Open access

Cervical radiculopathy due to extracranial vertebral artery dissection treated by stent placement with a flow diversion effect: illustrative case

Hiroaki Matsumoto, Ikuya Yamaura, Atsushi Matsumoto, Shiro Miyata, Yusuke Tomogane, Hiroaki Minami, Atsushi Masuda, and Yasuhisa Yoshida

BACKGROUND

Cervical radiculopathy due to extracranial vertebral artery dissection (VAD) is extremely rare. The disease is usually treated with conservative treatment because of its favorable prognosis. However, there is a possibility that conservative treatment may bring about no improvement in radiculopathy. Although stent placement with a flow diversion effect may be effective in such cases, there are no reported cases that were treated with stent placement.

OBSERVATIONS

A 40-year-old healthy man presented with severe right neck pain, right arm pain, and right arm weakness after cracking his neck. A neurological examination revealed right C5 radiculopathy. Neuroimaging studies revealed right extracranial VAD. The VAD compressed the right C5 nerve root. Although medications were administered, there was no improvement in the symptoms. He experienced severe radicular pain. The authors performed stent placement with a flow diversion effect 10 days after the onset of VAD. His radicular pain improved immediately after the procedure, and the remaining radiculopathy completely improved within 1 month. Follow-up angiography showed complete improvement of the VAD.

LESSONS

Stent placement with a flow diversion effect may be considered when radiculopathy that hinders a patient’s daily life exists. Stent placement may bring about rapid improvement in radiculopathy, especially radicular pain.

Open access

Long-term hemodynamic changes in cerebral proliferative angiopathy presenting with intracranial hemorrhage: illustrative case

Takaya Saito, Kei Harada, Masahito Kajihara, Chihiro Sanbongi, and Kozo Fukuyama

BACKGROUND

Cerebral proliferative angiopathy (CPA) is a rare vascular proliferative disease; however, long-term follow-up reports are scarce. The authors report a rare case and document a patient’s medical history over 20 years.

OBSERVATIONS

A 5-year-old girl developed left frontal lobe hemorrhage, presenting with headache. At 8 years of age, angiography showed diffuse capillary ectasia without an arteriovenous shunt. Single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) showed normal cerebral blood flow (CBF). She had normal growth without systemic disease. At 25 years of age, an intraventricular hemorrhage occurred, presenting with sudden headache. Angiography revealed vascular lesion enlargement, increased feeding arteries, dural supply to the nidus and peri-nidal lesion, and flow-related aneurysm. SPECT showed remarkable decreases in CBF in the nidus and peri-nidal lesion. Cerebral proliferative angiopathy (CPA) was diagnosed, and the aneurysm arising at the lateral posterior choroidal artery caused the hemorrhage. Coil embolization of the aneurysm was performed with a flow-guide catheter and extremely soft platinum coils. New aneurysms were not noted 1.5 years after the procedure.

LESSONS

This is the first report to demonstrate hemodynamic changes in CPA on angiography and SPECT over 17 years. The development of endovascular devices has enabled the embolization of ruptured aneurysms at the peripheral cerebral artery.

Open access

Intraoperative air embolism diagnosis and treatment using hyperbaric oxygen therapy after craniotomy: illustrative case

Armaan K. Malhotra, Ashton P. Chang, Joseph P. Lawton, Aderaldo Costa Alves Jr., Angela Jerath, Bourke W. Tillmann, Harry Foster, Azad Mashari, Leodante da Costa, and Ashish Kumar

BACKGROUND

This report describes the use of hyperbaric oxygen therapy for the acute management of an intraoperative air embolism encountered during a neurosurgical procedure. Furthermore, the authors highlight the concomitant diagnosis of tension pneumocephalus requiring evacuation prior to hyperbaric therapy.

OBSERVATIONS

A 68-year-old male developed acute ST-segment elevation and hypotension during elective disconnection of a posterior fossa dural arteriovenous fistula. The semi-sitting position had been used to minimize cerebellar retraction, raising the concern for acute air embolism. Intraoperative transesophageal echocardiography was utilized to establish the diagnosis of air embolism. The patient was stabilized on vasopressor therapy, and immediate postoperative computed tomography revealed air bubbles in the left atrium along with tension pneumocephalus. He underwent urgent evacuation for the tension pneumocephalus followed by hyperbaric oxygen therapy to manage the hemodynamically significant air embolism. The patient was eventually extubated and went on to fully recover; a delayed angiogram revealed complete cure of the dural arteriovenous fistula.

LESSONS

Hyperbaric oxygen therapy should be considered for an intracardiac air embolism resulting in hemodynamic instability. In the postoperative neurosurgical setting, care should be taken to exclude pneumocephalus requiring operative intervention prior to hyperbaric therapy. A multidisciplinary management approach facilitated expeditious diagnosis and management for the patient.

Open access

Mesencephalic developmental venous anomaly causing obstructive hydrocephalus: illustrative case

Kota Hiraga, Shigemasa Hayashi, Ryosuke Oshima, Tatsuma Kondo, Fumiaki Kanamori, and Ryuta Saito

BACKGROUND

Developmental venous anomalies (DVAs) are congenital anatomical variants of the normal deep parenchymal veins. DVAs are occasionally found incidentally on brain imaging, and most cases are asymptomatic. However, they rarely cause central nervous disorders. Herein, a case of mesencephalic DVA that caused aqueduct stenosis and hydrocephalus and discuss its diagnosis and treatment is reported.

OBSERVATIONS

The patient was a 48-year-old female who presented with depression. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the head revealed obstructive hydrocephalus. Contrast-enhanced MRI revealed an abnormally distended linear region with enhancement on the top of the cerebral aqueduct, which was confirmed as a DVA by digital subtraction angiography. An endoscopic third ventriculostomy (ETV) was performed to improve the patient’s symptoms. Intraoperative endoscopic imaging showed obstruction of the cerebral aqueduct by the DVA.

LESSONS

This report describes a rare case of obstructive hydrocephalus caused by DVA. It highlights the usefulness of contrast-enhanced MRI for diagnosing cerebral aqueduct obstructions due to DVAs and the effectiveness of ETV as a treatment option.

Open access

Sinus pericranii in the setting of a posterior fossa pilocytic astrocytoma: illustrative case

Youngkyung Jung, Jennifer L. Quon, and James M. Drake

BACKGROUND

Sinus pericranii (SP) is a rare vascular anomaly, with an uncertain etiology. Often discovered as superficial lesions, they can be primary or secondary in nature. Herein, we report a rare case of SP in the setting of a large posterior fossa pilocytic astrocytoma associated with a significant venous network.

OBSERVATIONS

A 12-year-old male presented with acute clinical deterioration in extremis with a 2-month history of lethargy and headaches. Outside plain computed tomography imaging revealed a large posterior fossa cystic lesion, probably a tumor, with severe hydrocephalus. There was also a midline small skull defect at the opisthocranion, without visible vascular anomalies. An external ventricular drain was placed with rapid recovery. Contrast imaging revealed a large midline SP emanating from occipital bone with a large intraosseous, and subcutaneous venous plexus in the midline draining inferiorly into venous plexus around the craniocervical junction. A posterior fossa craniotomy without contrast imaging could have resulted in catastrophic hemorrhage. A small modified off-center craniotomy provided access to the tumor with a gross total excision.

LESSONS

SP is a rare but significant phenomenon. Its presence does not necessarily preclude resection of underlying tumors, provided that a careful preoperative assessment of the venous anomaly is undertaken.

Open access

The use of vessel wall imaging to detect a de novo microaneurysm on the periventricular anastomoses in moyamoya disease: illustrative case

Atsuhiko Ninomiya, Hidenori Endo, Ryosuke Tashiro, Atsushi Kanoke, and Teiji Tominaga

BACKGROUND

Moyamoya disease (MMD) is linked to the formation of intracranial aneurysms. The authors recently observed an effective use of magnetic resonance vessel wall imaging (MR-VWI) to detect de novo unruptured MMD-associated microaneurysms.

OBSERVATIONS

The authors describe a 57-year-old female who was diagnosed with MMD 6 years ago after suffering a left putaminal hemorrhage. MR-VWI revealed point-like enhancement in the right posterior paraventricular region during the annual follow-up. On the T2-weighted image, this lesion was surrounded by high intensity. Angiography revealed a microaneurysm in the periventricular anastomosis. Right combined revascularization surgery was performed to prevent future hemorrhagic events. Another de novo circumferential enhanced lesion on MR-VWI appeared in the left posterior periventricular region 3 months after surgery. Angiography revealed that the enhanced lesion was a de novo microaneurysm on the periventricular anastomosis. The left combined revascularization surgery went well. The bilateral microaneurysms vanished on follow-up angiography.

LESSONS

Unruptured MMD-associated microaneurysms on the periventricular anastomosis can be detected using MR-VWI. Revascularization surgery can eliminate microaneurysms by reducing hemodynamic stress on the periventricular anastomosis.

Open access

Transvenous embolization of the direct carotid-cavernous fistula via the pterygoid plexus: illustrative case

Yuki Matsuda, Masafumi Hiramatsu, Kenji Sugiu, Tomohito Hishikawa, Jun Haruma, Kazuhiko Nishi, Yoko Yamaoka, Yuki Ebisudani, Ryu Kimura, Hisanori Edaki, and Isao Date

BACKGROUND

Endovascular treatment is the mainstay of treatment for carotid-cavernous fistulas, but endovascular approaches vary widely. The authors report a rare case of a direct carotid-cavernous fistula with cranial nerve symptoms caused by rupture of a giant aneurysm in which selective transvenous embolization via the pterygoid plexus was performed.

OBSERVATIONS

An 81-year-old man presented with headache and various progressive cranial nerve symptoms due to a direct carotid-cavernous fistula caused by a ruptured giant aneurysm. All the draining veins visualized on preoperative examination immediately before the treatment were occluded except for the pterygoid plexus. Therefore, the authors chose the dilated pterygoid plexus to approach the shunted pouch at the cavernous sinus and achieve shunt obliteration by selective embolization with coils and n-butyl cyanoacrylate.

LESSONS

Careful study of the three-dimensional rotational images in the preoperative examination is important when considering the various approaches to surgery. The pterygoid plexus can be an effective venous approach route to reach the cavernous sinus area.

Open access

Compartment syndrome associated with vascular avulsion caused by transradial access in neurointervention for unruptured intracranial aneurysm: illustrative case

Michiyasu Fuga, Toshihide Tanaka, Rintaro Tachi, Kyoichi Tomoto, Shun Okawa, Toshihiro Ishibashi, Yuzuru Hasegawa, and Yuichi Murayama

BACKGROUND

Transradial access (TRA) has a lower risk of access-site complications than transfemoral access but can cause major puncture-site complications, including acute compartment syndrome (ACS).

OBSERVATIONS

The authors report a case of ACS associated with radial artery avulsion after coil embolization via TRA for an unruptured intracranial aneurysm. An 83-year-old woman underwent embolization via TRA for an unruptured basilar tip aneurysm. Following embolization, strong resistance was felt during removal of the guiding sheath due to vasospasm of the radial artery. One hour after neurointervention via TRA, the patient complained of severe pain in the right forearm, with motor and sensory disturbance of the first 3 fingers. The patient was diagnosed with ACS causing diffuse swelling and tenderness over the entire right forearm due to elevated intracompartmental pressure. The patient was successfully treated by decompressive fasciotomy of the forearm and carpal tunnel release for neurolysis of the median nerve.

LESSONS

TRA operators should be aware that radial artery spasm and the brachioradial artery pose a risk of vascular avulsion and resultant ACS and warrant precautionary measures. Prompt diagnosis and treatment are essential because ACS can be treated without the sequelae of motor or sensory disturbance if properly addressed.

Open access

Dorsal medullary cavernous hemangioma presenting as obstinate hiccups and its surgical treatment: illustrative case

Sumirini Puppala, Abhijit Acharya, Atmaranjan Dash, and Surjyaprakash S. Choudhury

BACKGROUND

Hiccups are characterized by involuntary, intermittent, repetitive, myoclonic, and spasmodic contractions of the diaphragm. Hiccups are termed “intractable” when they last for over 1 month.

OBSERVATIONS

A rare case of intractable hiccups due to an uncommon location of cavernous hemangioma in the dorsal medulla is illustrated. With respect to the management, surgical excision was performed, and postsurgical complete recovery was witnessed, which has been reported only in six cases worldwide to date.

LESSONS

A mechanism of the hiccups reflex arc is discussed in detail with special reference to the need for equal emphasis on evaluating central nervous system causes and peripheral etiologies for pertinent hiccups.