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Franz E. Babl, Vanessa C. Rausa, Meredith L. Borland, Amit Kochar, Mark D. Lyttle, Natalie Phillips, Yuri Gilhotra, Sarah Dalton, John A. Cheek, Jeremy Furyk, Jocelyn Neutze, Silvia Bressan, Gavin A. Davis, Vicki Anderson, Amanda Williams, Ed Oakley, Stuart R. Dalziel, Louise M. Crowe, and Stephen J. C. Hearps

OBJECTIVE

Children with concussion frequently present to emergency departments (EDs). There is limited understanding of the differences in signs, symptoms, and epidemiology of concussion based on patient age. Here, the authors set out to assess the association between age and acute concussion presentations.

METHODS

The authors conducted a multicenter prospective observational study of head injuries at 10 EDs in Australia and New Zealand. They identified children aged 5 to < 18 years, presenting with a Glasgow Coma Scale score of 13–15, presenting < 24 hours postinjury, with no abnormalities on CT if performed, and one or more signs or symptoms of concussion. They extracted demographic, injury-related, and signs and symptoms information and stratified it by age group (5–8, 9–12, 13 to < 18 years).

RESULTS

Of 8857 children aged 5 to < 18 years, 4709 patients met the defined concussion criteria (5–8 years, n = 1546; 9–12 years, n = 1617; 13 to < 18 years, n = 1546). The mean age of the cohort was 10.9 years, and approximately 70% of the patients were male. Sport-related concussion accounted for 43.7% of concussions overall, increasing from 19.1% to 48.9% to 63.0% in the 5–8, 9–12, and 13 to < 18 years age groups. The most common acute symptoms postinjury were headache (64.6%), disorientation (36.2%), amnesia (30.0%), and vomiting (27.2%). Vomiting decreased with increasing age and was observed in 41.7% of the 5–8 years group, 24.7% of the 9–12 years group, and 15.4% of the 13 to < 18 years group, whereas reported loss of consciousness (LOC) increased with increasing age, occurring in 9.6% in the 5–8 years group, 21.0% in the 9–12 years group, 36.7% in the 13 to < 18 years group, and 22.4% in the entire study cohort. Headache, amnesia, and disorientation followed the latter trajectory. Symptom profiles were broadly similar between males and females.

CONCLUSIONS

Concussions presenting to EDs were more sports-related as age increased. Signs and symptoms differed markedly across age groups, with vomiting decreasing and headache, LOC, amnesia, and disorientation increasing with increasing age.

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Sarfraz Akmal, Fareed Jumah, Elizabeth E. Ginalis, Bharath Raju, and Anil Nanda

Charles Jacques Bouchard was a distinguished French physician and scientist of the early 19th century. Despite his humble beginnings, Bouchard was able to achieve meteoric success within the scientific and medical fields, establishing himself as one of the most influential physician-scientists of his time. This was in part due to his superb commitment, as well as the prosperity engendered by the strong influence of his teachers, which can be seen as a testament to the importance of mentorship in medicine. Besides his myriad contributions, Bouchard is most well known for describing the Charcot-Bouchard aneurysm in 1866 alongside his mentor Jean-Martin Charcot, linking them for the first time to intracranial hemorrhage. Bouchard’s thesis entitled “A Study of Some Points in the Pathology of Cerebral Hemorrhage” was regarded by some as the most original and important of all recent works on the subject of cerebral hemorrhage at the time of publication. Sadly, the great relationship Bouchard shared with his mentor Charcot would later deteriorate into perhaps one of the most well-known student-mentor quarrels in the history of medicine. Herein, the authors present a historical recollection of Bouchard’s life, career, and contributions to medicine, as well as the famous controversy with Jean-Martin Charcot.

Open access

Usman A. Khan, Jillian H. Plonsker, Rick A. Friedman, and Marc S. Schwartz

The natural history of neurofibromatosis type 2 (NF2) is profound bilateral hearing loss. The decision to pursue microsurgery may be more complicated in NF2 than with sporadic tumors. Schwannomas in NF2 often occur with other skull base tumors. Treatment should be tailored to preserve auditory perception for as long as possible. The authors present the case of a man with NF2 and a vestibular schwannoma who has poor hearing on the same side as a large petrous apex meningioma, both opposite to a well-hearing ear. This case highlights surgical decision-making and technical nuances during resection of collision tumors in NF2.

The video can be found here: https://stream.cadmore.media/r10.3171/2021.7.FOCVID21130

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Norimasa Ikeda, Shunsuke Fujibayashi, Bungo Otsuki, Kazutaka Masamoto, Takayoshi Shimizu, Yu Shimizu, Koichi Murata, and Shuichi Matsuda

OBJECTIVE

The goal of this study was to investigate clinical outcomes and risk factors for the progression of sacroiliac joint (SIJ) degeneration and bone formation after S2 alar-iliac screw (S2AIS) insertion.

METHODS

Using preoperative and follow-up CT scan findings (median follow-up 26 months, range 16–43 months), the authors retrospectively studied 100 SIJs in 50 patients who underwent S2AIS placement. The authors measured the progression of SIJ degeneration and bone formation after S2AIS insertion, postoperative new-onset SIJ pain, S2AIS-related reoperation, and instrumentation failures. Stepwise multivariate logistic regression modeling was performed to clarify the risk factors associated with the progression of SIJ degeneration.

RESULTS

Significant progression of SIJ degeneration was observed in 10% of the group with preoperative SIJ degeneration (p = 0.01). Bone formation was observed in 6.9% of joints. None of the patients with these radiographic changes had new-onset SIJ pain or underwent reoperation related to instrumentation failures. Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that preoperative SIJ degeneration (p < 0.01) and a young age at surgery (p = 0.03) significantly affected the progression of SIJ degeneration.

CONCLUSIONS

The progression of SIJ degeneration and bone formation neither led to major screw-related complications nor affected the postoperative clinical course during the median follow-up period of 26 months. Although S2AIS insertion is a safe procedure for most patients, the results of this study suggested that preoperative degeneration and younger age at surgery affected SIJ degeneration after S2AIS insertion. Further long-term observation may reveal other effects of S2AIS insertion on SIJ degeneration.

Open access

Julia Shawarba, Cand Med, Matthias Tomschik, and Karl Roessler

Facial and cochlear nerve preservation in large vestibular schwannomas is a major challenge. Bimanual pincers or plate-knife dissection techniques have been described as crucial for nerve preservation. The authors demonstrate a recently applied diamond knife dissection technique to peel the nerves from the tumor capsule. This technique minimizes the nerve trauma significantly, and complete resection of a large vestibular schwannoma without any facial nerve palsy and hearing preservation is possible. The authors illustrate this technique during surgery of a 2.6-cm vestibular schwannoma in a 27-year-old male patient resulting in normal facial function and preserved hearing postoperatively.

The video can be found here: https://stream.cadmore.media/r10.3171/2021.7.FOCVID21104

Open access

Gustavo S. Jung, Joel Fernando Sanabria Duarte, Afonso H. de Aragão, Ronaldo Pereira Vosgerau, and Ricardo Ramina

The course of the facial nerve (FN) has been extensively investigated in patients with vestibular schwannomas (VSs). FN running dorsally to the tumor capsule accounts for less than 3% of the cases. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI)–based fiber tracking helps to preoperatively identify the FN. During surgery, a higher risk of injury is associated with the dorsal location of the FN. The authors demonstrate the nuances and tricks to identify and preserve a dorsal displaced FN during resection of a large VS, T3b according to the Hannover classification, through the retrosigmoid-transmeatal approach.

The video can be found here: https://stream.cadmore.media/r10.3171/2021.7.FOCVID2182

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Sepideh Amin-Hanjani, Howard A. Riina, and Fred G. Barker II

Open access

Gang Song, Liyong Sun, Yuhai Bao, and Jiantao Liang

The main objectives of microsurgery for vestibular schwannoma are total tumor removal and preservation of facial and cochlear nerve function. For giant tumors, total tumor removal and facial nerve function preservation are challenging. The semisitting position has some advantages. In this video the authors show the removal of a giant vestibular schwannoma with the patient in a semisitting position. They demonstrate the advantages of the semisitting technique, such as the two-handed microsurgical dissection technique and a clear operative field. Finally, a small residual tumor in the internal auditory canal was removed by endoscopy. The patient’s facial function was House-Brackmann grade I at discharge.

The video can be found here: https://stream.cadmore.media/r10.3171/2021.7.FOCVID2176