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Open access

Sadaf Soloukey, Luuk Verhoef, Pieter Jan van Doormaal, Bastian S. Generowicz, Clemens M. F. Dirven, Chris I. De Zeeuw, Sebastiaan K. E. Koekkoek, Pieter Kruizinga, Arnaud J. P. E. Vincent, and Joost W. Schouten

OBJECTIVE

Given the high-risk nature of arteriovenous malformation (AVM) resections, accurate pre- and intraoperative imaging of the vascular morphology is a crucial component that may contribute to successful surgical results. Surprisingly, current gold standard imaging techniques for surgical guidance of AVM resections are mostly preoperative, lacking the necessary flexibility to cater to intraoperative changes. Micro-Doppler imaging is a unique high-resolution technique relying on high frame rate ultrasound and subsequent Doppler processing of microvascular hemodynamics. In this paper the authors report the first application of intraoperative, coregistered magnetic resonance/computed tomograpy, micro-Doppler imaging during the neurosurgical resection of an AVM in the parietal lobe.

OBSERVATIONS

The authors applied intraoperative two-dimensional and three-dimensional (3D) micro-Doppler imaging during resection and were able to identify key anatomical features including draining veins, supplying arteries and microvasculature in the nidus itself. Compared to the corresponding preoperative 3D-digital subtraction angiography (DSA) image, the micro-Doppler images could delineate vascular structures and visualize hemodynamics with higher, submillimeter scale detail, even at significant depths (>5 cm). Additionally, micro-Doppler imaging revealed unique microvascular morphology of surrounding healthy vasculature.

LESSONS

The authors conclude that micro-Doppler imaging in its current form has clear potential as an intraoperative counterpart to preoperative contrast-dependent DSA, and the microvascular details it provides could build new ground to further study cerebrovascular pathophysiology.

Open access

Toshinari Kawasaki, Motohiro Takayama, Yoshinori Maki, Kota Nakajima, Yoshihiko Ioroi, and Tamaki Kobayashi

BACKGROUND

Spinal cysts in the interdural space are extremely rare and are not included in the standard classification of spinal meningeal cysts.

OBSERVATIONS

A 60-year-old female presented to our hospital with a spastic gait and numbness in both palms. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed a spinal cyst from C4 to T4 compressing the spinal cord. Computed tomography myelography revealed a fistula at C4–5 and C5–6 that connected the cyst along the right C5 and C6 root sleeves. The cyst was located within the dura mater, and communication with the arachnoid space was achieved using a shunt tube. There was partial spastic gait amelioration after the procedure, but the patient experienced a relapse 2 months postoperation. A repeat procedure was performed without a shunt tube to allow greater communication between the cyst and the subarachnoid space. After this, marked improvement in gait function was observed, and MRI showed a significant reduction in cyst volume.

LESSONS

Interdural spinal meningeal cysts are rare. When the interdural cyst cannot be removed entirely, surgery may be appropriate for providing a shunt tube or establishing communication between the cyst and arachnoid space to maintain the circulation of cerebrospinal fluid collected in the cyst cavity.

Open access

Nathan Esplin, Shahed Elhamdani, Seung W. Jeong, Michael Moran, Brandon Rogowski, and Jonathan Pace

BACKGROUND

Pseudoarthrosis is a complication of spinal fixation. Risk factors include infection, larger constructs, significant medical comorbidities, and diabetes. The authors present a case report of dilated pedicle screw pseudoarthrosis salvaged with moldable, settable calcium phosphate–based putty.

OBSERVATIONS

The patient presented with back pain and radiculopathy in the setting of poorly controlled diabetes. He was taken to the operating room for laminectomy and fusion complicated by postoperative infection requiring incision and drainage. He returned to the clinic 6 months later with pseudoarthrosis of the L4 screws and adjacent segment degeneration. He was taken for revision with extension of fusion. The L4 tracts were significantly dilated. A moldable, bioabsorbable polymer-based putty containing calcium phosphate was used to augment the dilated tract after decortication back to bleeding bone, allowing good purchase of screws. The patient did well postoperatively.

LESSONS

There are several salvage options for clinically significant pseudoarthrosis after spinal fixation, including anterior or lateral constructs, extension, and revision of fusion. The authors were able to obtain good screw purchase with dilated screw tracts after addition of moldable, bioabsorbable polymer-based putty containing calcium phosphate. It appears that this may represent an effective salvage strategy for dilated pseudoarthropathy in select settings to support extension of fusion.

Open access

Zi Ling Huang, Justin K. Zhang, Michael Prim, and Jeroen Coppens

BACKGROUND

The computed tomography angiography (CTA) “spot sign” is a well-recognized radiographic marker in primary intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). Although it has been demonstrated to represent an area of active hemorrhage or contrast extravasation, the exact pathophysiology remains unclear. Vascular mimics of the spot sign have been identified; however, those representing pseudoaneurysm and small vessel aneurysm have rarely been reported.

OBSERVATIONS

A 57-year-old female with a past medical history of hypertension and diabetes mellitus presented with 2 weeks of acute-onset, worsening headache. Computed tomography scanning showed a right interior frontal lobe intraparenchymal hemorrhage. CTA demonstrated a punctate focus of hyperattenuation within the hematoma, consistent with a spot sign, which corresponded to a distal anterior cerebral artery pseudoaneurysm on a cerebral angiogram. The patient subsequently underwent emergent resection of the pseudoaneurysm and hematoma evacuation without complications. Her postoperative course was unremarkable without acute concerns or residual symptoms at the 4-month follow-up.

LESSONS

The authors present a unique case of a distal anterior cerebral artery pseudoaneurysm presenting as a spot sign in a relatively young patient without underlying vascular disease. Given the need for emergent intervention, intracranial pseudoaneurysm is an important diagnosis to consider in the presence of a spot sign in atypical clinical presentations of primary ICH.

Open access

Huan-Dong Liu, Ning Li, Wei Miao, Zheng Su, and Hui-Lin Cheng

BACKGROUND

Traumatic posterior atlantoaxial dislocation without fracture of the odontoid process is extremely rare. Only 24 cases have been documented since the first patient was reported by Haralson and Boyd in 1969. Although various treatment strategies are reported, no consensus has been yielded.

OBSERVATIONS

A 58-year-old man experienced loss of consciousness and breathing difficulties after being struck by a car from behind. An immediate computed tomography scan showed subarachnoid hemorrhage, a posterior atlantoaxial dislocation without C1–2 fracture, and a right tibiofibular fracture. After the patient’s respiration and hemodynamics were stabilized, closed reduction was attempted. However, this strategy failed due to unbearable neck pain and quadriplegia, resulting in surgical intervention with transoral odontoidectomy and posterior occipitocervical fusion. The patient developed postoperative central nervous system infection. After anti-infective and drainage treatment, the infection was controlled. At 1-year follow-up, the patient did not complain of special discomfort and was generally in good condition.

LESSONS

The authors report their experience with transoral odontoidectomy and concomitant posterior occipitocervical fusion in a case of posterior atlantoaxial dislocation without related fracture. Although these procedures are highly feasible and effective, particular attention should be paid to their complications, such as postoperative infection.

Restricted access

Bei Luo, Chang Qiu, Lei Chang, Yue Lu, Wenwen Dong, Dongming Liu, Chen Xue, Jun Yan, and Wenbin Zhang

OBJECTIVE

After deep brain stimulation (DBS), patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD) show improved motor symptoms and decreased verbal fluency, an effect that occurs before the initiation of DBS in the subthalamic nucleus. However, the underlying mechanism remains unclear. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of DBS on whole-brain degree centrality (DC) and seed-based functional connectivity (FC) in PD patients.

METHODS

The authors obtained resting-state functional MRI data of 28 PD patients before and after DBS surgery. All patients underwent MRI scans in the off-stimulation state. The DC method was used to evaluate the effects of DBS on whole-brain FC at the voxel level. Seed-based FC analysis was used to examine network function changes after DBS.

RESULTS

After DBS surgery, PD patients showed significantly weaker DC values in the left middle temporal gyrus, left supramarginal gyrus, and left middle frontal gyrus, but significantly stronger DC values in the midbrain, left precuneus, and right precentral gyrus. FC analysis revealed decreased FC values within the default mode network (DMN).

CONCLUSIONS

This study demonstrated that the DC of DMN-related brain regions decreased in PD patients after DBS surgery, whereas the DC of the motor cortex increased. These findings provide new evidence for the neural effects of DBS on voxel-based whole-brain networks in PD patients.

Restricted access

Seon Woong Choi, Sunghan Kim, Hoon Kim, Seong-Rim Kim, and Ik Seong Park

OBJECTIVE

Transradial access (TRA) has received considerable attention in the field of neurointervention owing to its advantages over transfemoral access. However, the difficulty of left internal carotid artery (ICA) navigation under certain anatomical conditions of the aortic arch and its branches is a limitation of right TRA. In this study the authors aimed to investigate the anatomical predictors that impede navigation of the left ICA in right TRA.

METHODS

From January to October 2020, 640 patients underwent transradial angiography at a single institute. Among them, 263 consecutive patients who were evaluated by contrast-enhanced MRA before transradial angiography were included in the study and assigned to success or failure groups according to whether left ICA navigation was possible or not. Several anatomical predictors were investigated to evaluate the correlation of the success of left ICA navigation in right TRA.

RESULTS

A higher grade of the aortic arch type (type I vs type III: OR 6.323, p = 0.0171), higher height of the right subclavian artery (OR 1.071, p = 0.0068), narrower turnoff angle of the left common carotid artery (CCA) (OR 0.953, p = 0.0017), wider distance between the innominate artery and the left CCA (OR 1.784, p < 0.0001), steeper angulation of the right subclavian artery (tortuous vs kinking: OR 6.323, p = 0.0066), and steeper angulation of the left CCA (normal vs tortuous: OR 7.453, p = 0.0087; normal vs kinking: OR 51.65, p < 0.0001) were significantly associated with successful navigation of the left ICA. The cutoff value of the height of the right subclavian artery, distance between the innominate artery and the left CCA, turnoff angle of the left CCA, and diameter of the left CCA were 54.83 mm, 4.25 mm, 17°, and 6.05 mm, respectively.

CONCLUSIONS

Successful left ICA navigation in right TRA was related to the specific vascular geometry of the aortic arch and its branches. Preprocedural evaluation of the anatomical predictors identified in this study may enhance the success rate of left ICA navigation in right TRA.

Restricted access

Ahmed Kashkoush, Mohamed E. El-Abtah, Shaarada Srivatsa, Ansh Desai, Mark Davison, Rebecca Achey, Ashutosh Mahapatra, Thomas Patterson, Nina Moore, and Mark Bain

OBJECTIVE

Woven EndoBridge (WEB) intrasaccular flow disruptors and stent-assisted coiling (SAC) are viable endovascular treatment options for wide-neck bifurcation intracranial aneurysms (WNBAs). Data directly comparing these two treatment options are limited. The authors aimed to compare radiographic occlusion rates and complication profiles between patients who received WEB and those who received SAC for WNBAs.

METHODS

Retrospective review of a prospectively maintained cerebrovascular procedural database was performed at a single academic medical center between 2017 and 2021. Patients were included if they underwent WEB embolization or SAC of an unruptured WNBA. SAC patients were propensity matched to WEB-embolized patients on the basis of aneurysm morphology. Complete and adequate (complete occlusion or residual neck remnant) occlusion rates at last angiographic follow-up, as well as periprocedural complications, were compared between the two groups. A cost comparison was performed for a typical 5-mm WNBA treated with WEB versus SAC by using manufacturer-suggested retail prices.

RESULTS

Thirty-five WEB and 70 SAC patients were included. Aneurysm width, neck size, and dome-to-neck ratio were comparable between groups. Follow-up duration was significantly longer in the SAC group (median [interquartile range] 545 [202–834] days vs 228 [177–494] days, p < 0.001, Mann-Whitney U-test). Complete (66% of WEB patients vs 69% of SAC patients) and adequate (94% WEB vs 91% SAC) occlusion rates were similar between groups at the last available angiographic follow-up (p = 0.744, chi-square test). Complete occlusion rates were comparable on Cox regression analysis after correction for follow-up duration (hazard ratio 1.5, 95% CI 0.8–3.1). Average time to residual aneurysm or neck formation was not statistically different between treatment groups (613 days for SAC patients vs 347 days for WEB patients, p = 0.225, log-rank test). Periprocedural complications trended higher in the SAC group (0% WEB vs 9% SAC, p = 0.175, Fisher exact test), although this finding was not significant. The equipment costs for a typical SAC case were estimated at $18,950, whereas the costs for a typical WEB device case were estimated at $18,630.

CONCLUSIONS

Midterm complete and adequate occlusion rates were similar between patients treated with WEB and those treated with SAC. Given these comparable outcomes, there may be equipoise in treatment options for WNBAs.

Restricted access

Jeffrey P. Blount