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Martina Sebök, Giuseppe Esposito, Christiaan Hendrik Bas van Niftrik, Jorn Fierstra, Tilman Schubert, Susanne Wegener, Jeremia Held, Zsolt Kulcsár, Andreas R. Luft, and Luca Regli

OBJECTIVE

Endovascular recanalization trials have shown a positive impact on the preservation of ischemic penumbra in patients with acute large vessel occlusion (LVO). The concept of penumbra salvation can be extended to surgical revascularization with bypass in highly selected patients. For selecting these patients, the authors propose a flowchart based on multimodal MRI.

METHODS

All patients with acute stroke and persisting internal carotid artery (ICA) or M1 occlusion after intravenous lysis or mechanical thrombectomy undergo advanced neuroimaging in a time window of 72 hours after stroke onset including perfusion MRI, blood oxygenation level–dependent functional MRI to evaluate cerebrovascular reactivity (BOLD-CVR), and noninvasive optimal vessel analysis (NOVA) quantitative MRA to assess collateral circulation.

RESULTS

Symptomatic patients exhibiting persistent hemodynamic impairment and insufficient collateral circulation could benefit from bypass surgery. According to the flowchart, a bypass is considered for patients 1) with low or moderate neurological impairment (National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score 1–15, modified Rankin Scale score ≤ 3), 2) without large or malignant stroke, 3) without intracranial hemorrhage, 4) with MR perfusion/diffusion mismatch > 120%, 5) with paradoxical BOLD-CVR in the occluded vascular territory, and 6) with insufficient collateral circulation.

CONCLUSIONS

The proposed flowchart is based on the patient’s clinical condition and multimodal MR neuroimaging and aims to select patients with acute stroke due to LVO and persistent inadequate collateral flow, who could benefit from urgent bypass.

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Pavitra Ravishankar, Edward Barksdale III, Robert D. Winkelman, Michael D. Kavanaugh, Dominic W. Pelle, Edward C. Benzel, Thomas E. Mroz, and Michael P. Steinmetz

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Yohanan Véleine, Esteban Brenet, Marc Labrousse, André Chays, Arnaud Bazin, Jean-Charles Kleiber, and Xavier Dubernard

OBJECTIVE

When Ménière’s disease (MD) becomes disabling due to the frequency of attacks or the appearance of drop attacks (i.e., Tumarkin otolithic crisis) despite "conservative" medical and surgical treatments, a radical treatment like vestibular neurotomy (VN) is possible. An ideal MD treatment would relieve symptoms immediately and persist after the therapy. The aim of this study was to identify if VN was effective after 10 years of follow-up regarding vertigo and drop attacks, and to collect the immediate complications.

METHODS

The authors report a retrospective, single-center (i.e., in a single tertiary referral center with otoneurological surgery activity) cohort study conducted from January 2003 to April 2020. All patients with unilateral disabling MD who had received a VN with at least 10 years of follow-up were included. The therapeutic efficacy was defined by complete disappearance of vertigo and drop attacks. The postoperative complications (CSF leak, total deafness, meningitis, death) were determined immediately after the surgery, and the hearing thresholds were determined during the patient follow-up with the pure tone average (PTA).

RESULTS

A total of 74 patients (of 85 who were eligible), average age 51.9 ± 11.1 years, including 38 men (51.4%), with disabling MD and/or Tumarkin drop attacks (24.3%) received VN, with at least 10 years of follow-up after surgery. After an average follow-up of 12.4 ± 1.7 years (range 10.0–16.3 years), 67 patients (90.5%) no longer presented any vertiginous attacks, and no patient experienced drop attack. The mean variation in early pre- and postoperative PTA was not statistically significant (n = 64, 2.2 ± 10.3 decibels hearing level [range −18 to 29], 95% CI [−0.4 to 4.37]; p = 0.096), and 84.4% of the patients evaluated had unchanged or improved postoperative PTA. Three significant complications were noted, including two surgical revisions for CSF leak. There was no permanent facial paralysis, meningitis, or death.

CONCLUSIONS

In case of disabling MD (disabling vertigo refractory to conservative vestibular treatments—Tumarkin drop attacks), VN via the retrosigmoid approach must be the prioritized proposal in comparison to intratympanic gentamicin injections, because of the extremely low complication rate and the immediate and long-lasting effect of this treatment on vertigo and falls.

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Qing-Jie Kong, Xiao-Fei Sun, Yuan Wang, Pei-Dong Sun, Jing-Chuan Sun, Jun Ouyang, Shi-Zhen Zhong, and Jian-Gang Shi

OBJECTIVE

The traditional anterior approach for multilevel severe cervical ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament (OPLL) is demanding and risky. Recently, a novel surgical procedure—anterior controllable antedisplacement and fusion (ACAF)—was introduced by the authors to deal with these problems and achieve better clinical outcomes. However, to the authors’ knowledge, the immediate and long-term biomechanical stability obtained after this procedure has never been evaluated. Therefore, the authors compared the postoperative biomechanical stability of ACAF with those of more traditional approaches: anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF) and anterior cervical corpectomy and fusion (ACCF).

METHODS

To determine and assess pre- and postsurgical range of motion (ROM) (2 Nm torque) in flexion-extension, lateral bending, and axial rotation in the cervical spine, the authors collected cervical areas (C1–T1) from 18 cadaveric spines. The cyclic fatigue loading test was set up with a 3-Nm cycled load (2 Hz, 3000 cycles). All samples used in this study were randomly divided into three groups according to surgical procedures: ACDF, ACAF, and ACCF. The spines were tested under the following conditions: 1) intact state flexibility test; 2) postoperative model (ACDF, ACAF, ACCF) flexibility test; 3) cyclic loading (n = 3000); and 4) fatigue model flexibility test.

RESULTS

After operations were performed on the cadaveric spines, the segmental and total postoperative ROM values in all directions showed significant reductions for all groups. Then, the ROMs tended to increase during the fatigue test. No significant crossover effect was detected between evaluation time and operation method. Therefore, segmental and total ROM change trends were parallel among the three groups. However, the postoperative and fatigue ROMs in the ACCF group tended to be larger in all directions. No significant differences between these ROMs were detected in the ACDF and ACAF groups.

CONCLUSIONS

This in vitro biomechanical study demonstrated that the biomechanical stability levels for ACAF and ACDF were similar and were both significantly greater than that of ACCF. The clinical superiority of ACAF combined with our current results showed that this procedure is likely to be an acceptable alternative method for multilevel cervical OPLL treatment.

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Michael A. Silva, Henry Chang, John Weng, Nicole E. Hernandez, Ashish H. Shah, Shelly Wang, Toba Niazi, and John Ragheb

OBJECTIVE

Quadrigeminal cistern arachnoid cysts (QACs) are congenital lesions that can cause pineal region compression and obstructive hydrocephalus when sufficiently large. Management of these cysts is controversial and rates of reintervention are high. Given the limited data on the management of QACs, the authors retrospectively reviewed 20 years of cases managed at their institution and performed a literature review on this topic.

METHODS

The authors performed a retrospective analysis of patients treated for QAC at their institution between 2001 and 2021. They also performed a literature review of studies published between 1980 and 2021 that reported at least 5 patients treated for QACs. Patient characteristics, radiographic findings, management course, and postoperative follow-up data were collected and analyzed.

RESULTS

A total of 12 patients treated for a QAC at the authors’ institution met the inclusion criteria for analysis. Median age was 9 months, mean cyst size was 5.1 cm, and 83% of patients had hydrocephalus. Initial treatment was endoscopic fenestration in 92% of these patients, 27% of whom had an endoscopic third ventriculostomy (ETV) performed concurrently. Reintervention was required in 42% of patients. Cases that required reintervention had a statistically significant lower median age at the initial intervention (5 months) than the cases that did not require reintervention (24.33 months; p = 0.018). There were no major complications. At a mean follow-up of 5.42 years, 83% of patients had improvement or resolution of their symptoms. A literature review revealed 7 studies that met the inclusion criteria, totaling 108 patients with a mean age of 8.8 years. Eighty-seven percent of patients had hydrocephalus at presentation. Ninety-two percent of patients were initially treated with endoscopic fenestration, 44% of whom underwent concurrent ETV. Complications occurred in 17.6% of cases, and reintervention was required in 30.6% of cases. The most frequent reason for reintervention was untreated or unresolved hydrocephalus after the initial procedure.

CONCLUSIONS

Endoscopic fenestration is the most common treatment for QACs. While generally safe and effective, there is a high rate of reintervention after initial treatment of QACs, which may be associated with a younger age at the first intervention. Additionally, identifying patients who require initial treatment of hydrocephalus is critically important, as the literature suggests that untreated hydrocephalus is a common cause of reintervention.

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Junya Miyahara, Yuichi Yoshida, Mitsuhiro Nishizawa, Hiroyuki Nakarai, Yudai Kumanomido, Keiichiro Tozawa, Yukimasa Yamato, Masaaki Iizuka, Jim Yu, Katsuyuki Sasaki, Masahito Oshina, So Kato, Toru Doi, Yuki Taniguchi, Yoshitaka Matsubayashi, Akiro Higashikawa, Yujiro Takeshita, Takashi Ono, Nobuhiro Hara, Seiichi Azuma, Naohiro Kawamura, Sakae Tanaka, and Yasushi Oshima

OBJECTIVE

The aim of this study was to compare perioperative complications and postoperative outcomes between patients with lumbar recurrent stenosis without lumbar instability and radiculopathy who underwent decompression surgery and those who underwent decompression with fusion surgery.

METHODS

For this retrospective study, the authors identified 2606 consecutive patients who underwent posterior surgery for lumbar spinal canal stenosis at eight affiliated hospitals between April 2017 and June 2019. Among these patients, those with a history of prior decompression surgery and central canal restenosis with cauda equina syndrome were included in the study. Those patients with instability or radiculopathy were excluded. The patients were divided between the decompression group and decompression with fusion group. The demographic characteristics, numerical rating scale score for low-back pain, incidence rates of lower-extremity pain and lower-extremity numbness, Oswestry Disability Index score, 3-level EQ-5D score, and patient satisfaction rate were compared between the two groups using the Fisher’s exact probability test for nominal variables and the Student t-test for continuous variables, with p < 0.05 as the level of statistical significance.

RESULTS

Forty-six patients met the inclusion criteria (35 males and 11 females; 19 patients underwent decompression and 27 decompression and fusion; mean ± SD age 72.5 ± 8.8 years; mean ± SD follow-up 18.8 ± 6.0 months). Demographic data and perioperative complication rates were similar. The percentages of patients who achieved the minimal clinically important differences for patient-reported outcomes or satisfaction rate at 1 year were similar.

CONCLUSIONS

Among patients with central canal stenosis who underwent revision, the short-term outcomes of the patients who underwent decompression were comparable to those of the patients who underwent decompression and fusion. Decompression surgery may be effective for patients without instability or radiculopathy.

Open access

Hiroya Uemura, Masahiro Tanji, Hiroki Natsuhara, Yasuhide Takeuchi, Masahito Hoki, Akihiko Sugimoto, Sachiko Minamiguchi, Hidenori Kawasaki, Masako Torishima, Shinji Kosugi, Yohei Mineharu, Yoshiki Arakawa, Kazumichi Yoshida, and Susumu Miyamoto

BACKGROUND

Craniopharyngioma (CP) often arises in the sellar and suprasellar areas; ectopic CP in the posterior fossa is rare. Familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) is a genetic disorder involving the formation of numerous adenomatous polyps in the gastrointestinal tract, and it is associated with other extraintestinal manifestations.

OBSERVATIONS

The authors reported the case of a 63-year-old woman with FAP who presented with headache and harbored a growing mass in the fourth ventricle. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings revealed a well-circumscribed mass with high intensity on T1-weighted images and low intensity on T2-weighted images and exhibited no contrast enhancement. Gross total resection was performed and histopathology revealed an adamantinomatous CP (aCP). The authors also reviewed the previous reports of ectopic CP in the posterior fossa and found a high percentage of FAP cases among the ectopic CP group, thus suggesting a possible association between the two diseases.

LESSONS

An ectopic CP may be reasonably included in the differential diagnosis in patients with FAP who present with well-circumscribed tumors in the posterior fossa.

Open access

Ryuzaburo Kochi, Hidenori Endo, Hiroki Uchida, Tomohiro Kawaguchi, Shunsuke Omodaka, Yasushi Matsumoto, and Teiji Tominaga

BACKGROUND

Diagnosis of a microarteriovenous malformation (micro-AVM) is difficult, especially in the acute stage of rupture because of the small size of the nidus and the existence of hematoma. We report two cases of ruptured micro-AVMs detected by arterial spin labeling (ASL).

OBSERVATIONS

In one case, a 45-year-old male was transported with a complaint of right hemiparesis. Computed tomography (CT) revealed a right parietal lobar hemorrhage. Standard magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed no abnormal findings as the cause of the hemorrhage. ASL 23 days after the onset demonstrated high signals on the medial wall of the hematoma. Digital subtraction angiography (DSA) showed a micro-AVM in accordance with the site of high signals on ASL. In another case, a 38-year-old female was transported with a complaint of left hemianopsia. CT on admission revealed a right parietal lobar hemorrhage. Standard MRI showed no abnormal findings as the cause of the hemorrhage. ASL 15 days after the onset demonstrated high signals on the internal wall of the hematoma. DSA showed micro-AVM in accordance with the site of high signaling on ASL. Both cases were successfully treated with open surgery.

LESSONS

ASL can manifest micro-AVMs as high signals within the hematoma. ASL is a useful less-invasive screening tool for the detection of ruptured micro-AVMs.