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## Focal lesionectomy as surgical treatment of epilepsy in patients with Sturge-Weber syndrome: a case-based systematic review and meta-analysis

### OBJECTIVE

Sturge-Weber syndrome (SWS) is a rare neurocutaneous disorder presenting mostly with a facial port-wine stain and leptomeningeal angiomatosis. More than 85% of the patients are affected by epilepsy by the age of 2 years. Seizure and symptom control is the focus of SWS treatment, since no causal therapy exists yet. For pharmacologically intractable epilepsy, surgery is a treatment option. The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to provide an overview of the literature regarding lesionectomy in SWS with a focus on seizure outcome, complications, and motor and cognitive development.

### METHODS

The PubMed and Embase databases were searched using a systematic search strategy to identify studies on SWS from their inception until 2021. Two independent researchers assessed the studies for inclusion and quality. Outcome measures were seizure outcome, postoperative complications, and motor and cognitive development. Thereafter, a systematic review was conducted, and a meta-analysis was performed for all included cohort studies. Risk of bias was assessed using the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale. Forest plots have been generated for all outcomes; risk ratio was used for pooled outcomes. A p value < 0.05 was considered as statistically significant.

### RESULTS

After removal of duplicates, the authors screened 439 articles, of which 9 articles with 150 patients were included. Our case and 5 case reports and 4 retrospective cohort studies were included for systematic review. The latter 4 studies qualified for the meta-analysis. In these 4 articles, 144 patients received surgical treatment: 81 (56%) underwent focal lesionectomy and 63 (44%) hemispherectomy. Pooled outcome analysis for postoperative favorable seizure outcome showed a nonsignificant difference between lesionectomy and hemispherectomy (69.2% vs 87.3%; RR 0.73, 95% CI 0.50–1.08; t = −2.56, p = 0.08). Lesionectomy showed a significantly lower rate for developmental delay and postoperative hemiparesis in comparison with hemispherectomy (29.8% vs 76.3%; RR 0.41, 95% CI 0.28–0.59; z = −4.77, p < 0.0001 and 18.1% vs 100%; RR 0.11, 95% CI 0.06–0.21; z = −6.58, p < 0.0001, respectively).

### CONCLUSIONS

Based on the limited literature available, lesionectomy leads to a nonsignificant lower seizure control rate, while postoperative developmental or motor deficits are significantly lower compared with hemispherectomy. Therefore, focal lesionectomy remains a valid alternative to hemispherectomy in SWS with a clearly localized epileptogenic area; however, individual case-based decisions in a specialized multidisciplinary team are of paramount importance.

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## Management and surgical outcomes of dystrophic scoliosis in neurofibromatosis type 1: a systematic review

### OBJECTIVE

Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) dystrophic scoliosis is an early-onset, rapidly progressive multiplanar deformity. There are few studies on the surgical management of this patient population. Specifically, perioperative morbidity, instrument-related complications, and quality-of-life outcomes associated with surgical management have not been systematically evaluated. In this study, the authors aimed to perform a systematic review on the natural history, management options, and surgical outcomes in patients who underwent NF1 dystrophic scoliosis surgery.

### METHODS

A PubMed search for articles with “neurofibromatosis” and either “dystrophic” or “scoliosis” in the title or abstract was performed. Articles with 10 or more patients undergoing surgery for NF1 dystrophic scoliosis were included. Data regarding indications, treatment details, morbidity, and outcomes were summarized and analyzed with descriptive statistics.

### RESULTS

A total of 310 articles were identified, 48 of which were selected for full-text review; 30 studies describing 761 patients met the inclusion criteria. The mean age ranged from 7 to 22 years, and 99.7% of patients were younger than 18 years. The mean preoperative coronal Cobb angle was 75.2°, and the average correction achieved was 40.3°. The mean clinical follow-up in each study was at least 2 years (range 2.2–19 years). All patients underwent surgery with the intent of deformity correction. The scoliosis regions addressed were thoracic curves (69.6%) and thoracolumbar (11.1%) and lumbar (14.3%) regions. The authors reported on a variety of approaches: posterior-only, combined anterior-posterior, and growth-friendly surgery. For fixation techniques, 42.5% of patients were treated with hybrid constructs, 51.5% with pedicle screw–only constructs, and 6.0% with hook-based constructs. Only 0.9% of patients underwent a vertebral column resection. The nonneurological complication rate was 14.0%, primarily dural tears and wound infections. The immediate postoperative neurological deficit rate was 2.1%, and the permanent neurological deficit rate was 1.2%. Ultimately, 21.5% required revision surgery, most commonly for implant-related complications. Loss of correction in both the sagittal and coronal planes commonly occurred at follow-up. Five papers supplied validated patient-reported outcome measures, showing improvement in the mental health, self-image, and activity domains.

### CONCLUSIONS

Data on the surgical outcomes of dystrophic scoliosis correction are heterogeneous and sparse. The perioperative complication rate appears to be high, although reported rates of neurological deficits appear to be lower than clinically observed and may be underreported. The incidence of implant-related failures requiring revision surgery is high. There is a great need for multicenter prospective studies of this complex type of deformity.

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## Multidisciplinary neurocutaneous syndrome clinics: a systematic review and institutional experience

### OBJECTIVE

Neurocutaneous syndromes have variable multisystem involvement. The multiorgan involvement, potential pathologies, and various treatment options necessitate collaboration and open discussion to ensure optimal treatment in any given patient. These disorders provide quintessential examples of chronic medical conditions that require a lifelong, multidisciplinary approach. The objectives of this study were to 1) perform a systematic review, thoroughly assessing different multidisciplinary clinic layouts utilized in centers worldwide; and 2) characterize an institutional experience with the management of these conditions, focusing on the patient demographics, clinical presentation, complications, and therapeutic strategies seen in a patient population.

### METHODS

A systematic review of studies involving multidisciplinary clinics and their reported structure was performed according to PRISMA guidelines using the PubMed database. Then a retrospective chart review of patients enrolled in the Oklahoma Children’s Hospital Neurocutaneous Syndromes Clinic was conducted.

### RESULTS

A search of the PubMed database yielded 251 unique results. Of these, 15 papers were included in the analysis, which identified 16 clinics that treated more than 2000 patients worldwide. The majority of these clinics treated patients with neurofibromatosis (13/16). The remaining clinics treated patients with von Hippel–Lindau syndrome (n = 1), tuberous sclerosis complex (n = 1), and multiple neurocutaneous syndromes (n = 1). The most commonly represented subspecialties in these clinics were genetics (15/16) and neurology (13/16). Five clinics (31%) solely saw pediatric patients, 10 clinics saw a combination of children and adults, and the final clinic had separate pediatric and adult clinics. The retrospective chart review of the Neurocutaneous Syndromes Clinic demonstrated that 164 patients were enrolled and seen in the clinic from April 2013 to December 2021. Diagnoses were made based on clinical findings or results of genetic testing; 115 (70%) had neurofibromatosis type 1, 9 (5.5%) had neurofibromatosis type 2, 35 (21%) had tuberous sclerosis complex, 2 (1%) had von Hippel–Lindau syndrome, 2 (1%) had Gorlin syndrome, and the remaining patient (0.6%) had Aarskog-Scott syndrome. Patient demographics, clinical presentation, complications, and therapeutic strategies are also discussed.

### CONCLUSIONS

To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this is the first detailed description of a comprehensive pediatric neurocutaneous clinic in the US that serves patients with multiple syndromes. There is currently heterogeneity between described multidisciplinary clinic structures and practices. More detailed accounts of clinic compositions and practices along with patient data and outcomes are needed in order to establish the most comprehensive and efficient multidisciplinary approach for neurocutaneous syndromes.

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## Natural history and volumetric analysis of meningiomas in neurofibromatosis type 2

### OBJECTIVE

The objective of this paper was to describe the volumetric natural history of meningiomas in patients with neurofibromatosis type 2 (NF2).

### METHODS

The authors performed a retrospective descriptive study by reviewing NF2 patients with meningiomas at their institution between 2000 and 2019. Demographic data were collected from the electronic medical records. Tumor volume was collected using volumetric segmentation software. Imaging characteristics including peritumoral brain edema (PTBE) and tumor calcification were collected for each patient from their first to most recent MRI at the authors’ institution. An increase of 15% or more per year from original tumor size was used as the cutoff to define growth.

### RESULTS

A total of 137 meningiomas from 48 patients were included in the analysis. The average number of tumors per person was 2.9. Ninety-nine (72.3%) tumors were in female patients. The median length of follow-up from first imaging to last imaging was 32 months (IQR 10.9, 68.3 months). Most tumors were located in the cerebral convexity (24.8%), followed by the falcine region (18.2%) and spine (10.2%). The median tumor growth was 0.12 cm3/yr (IQR 0.03, 0.52 cm3/yr). At the time of first imaging, 21.9% of tumors had calcifications, while 13.9% of meningiomas had PTBE. Of 137 tumors, 52 showed growth. Characteristics associated with tumor growth included PTBE (OR 9.12, 95% CI 1.48–56.4), tumor volume (per cm3) at first imaging (OR 0.91, 95% CI 0.83–0.99), and 10-year increased age at first imaging (OR 0.57, 95% CI 0.43–0.74). PTBE had the shortest median time to growth at 9.2 months.

### CONCLUSIONS

Although the majority of NF2-associated meningiomas do not grow in the short term, a wide range of growth patterns can be seen. Younger age at first imaging and presence of PTBE are associated with growth. Patients with these characteristics likely benefit from closer follow-up.

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## Neurosurgical management of patients with neurocutaneous melanosis: a systematic review

### OBJECTIVE

Neurocutaneous melanocytosis (NCM), also referred to as neurocutaneous melanosis, is a rare neurocutaneous disorder characterized by excess melanocytic proliferation in the skin, leptomeninges, and cranial parenchyma. NCM most often presents in pediatric patients within the first 2 years of life and is associated with high mortality due to proliferation of melanocytes in the brain. Prognosis is poor, as patients typically die within 3 years of symptom onset. Due to the rarity of NCM, there are no specific guidelines for management. The aims of this systematic review were to investigate approaches toward diagnosis and examine modern neurosurgical management of NCM.

### METHODS

A systematic review was performed using the PubMed database between April and December 2021 to identify relevant articles using PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses) guidelines. Search criteria were created and checked independently among the authors. Inclusion criteria specified unique studies and case reports of NCM patients in which relevant neurosurgical management was considered and/or applied. Exclusion criteria included studies that did not report associated neurological diagnoses and neuroimaging findings, clinical reports without novel observations, and those unavailable in the English language. All articles that met the study inclusion criteria were included and analyzed.

### RESULTS

A total of 26 extracted articles met inclusion criteria and were used for quantitative analysis, yielding a cumulative of 74 patients with NCM. These included 21 case reports, 1 case series, 2 retrospective cohort studies, 1 prospective cohort study, and 1 review. The mean patient age was 16.66 years (range 0.25–67 years), and most were male (76%). Seizures were the most frequently reported symptom (55%, 41/74 cases). Neurological diagnoses associated with NCM included epilepsy (45%, 33/74 cases), hydrocephalus (24%, 18/74 cases), Dandy-Walker malformation (24%, 18/74 cases), and primary CNS melanocytic tumors (23%, 17/74 cases). The most common surgical technique was CSF shunting (43%, 24/56 operations), with tethered cord release (4%, 2/56 operations) being the least frequently performed.

### CONCLUSIONS

Current management of NCM includes CSF shunting to reduce intracranial pressure, surgery, chemotherapy, radiotherapy, immunotherapy, and palliative care. Neurosurgical intervention can aid in the diagnosis of NCM through tissue biopsy and resection of lesions with surgical decompression. Further evidence is required to establish the clinical outcomes of this rare entity and to describe the diverse spectrum of intracranial and intraspinal abnormalities present.

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## The role of frailty in the clinical management of neurofibromatosis type 1: a mixed-effects modeling study using the Nationwide Readmissions Database

### OBJECTIVE

Frailty embodies a state of increased medical vulnerability that is most often secondary to age-associated decline. Recent literature has highlighted the role of frailty and its association with significantly higher rates of morbidity and mortality in patients with CNS neoplasms. There is a paucity of research regarding the effects of frailty as it relates to neurocutaneous disorders, namely, neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1). In this study, the authors evaluated the role of frailty in patients with NF1 and compared its predictive usefulness against the Elixhauser Comorbidity Index (ECI).

### METHODS

Publicly available 2016–2017 data from the Nationwide Readmissions Database was used to identify patients with a diagnosis of NF1 who underwent neurosurgical resection of an intracranial tumor. Patient frailty was queried using the Johns Hopkins Adjusted Clinical Groups frailty-defining indicator. ECI scores were collected in patients for quantitative measurement of comorbidities. Propensity score matching was performed for age, sex, ECI, insurance type, and median income by zip code, which yielded 60 frail and 60 nonfrail patients. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were created for complications, including mortality, nonroutine discharge, financial costs, length of stay (LOS), and readmissions while using comorbidity indices as predictor values. The area under the curve (AUC) of each ROC served as a proxy for model performance.

### RESULTS

After propensity matching of the groups, frail patients had an increased mean ± SD hospital cost ($85,441.67 ±$59,201.09) compared with nonfrail patients ($49,321.77 ±$50,705.80) (p = 0.010). Similar trends were also found in LOS between frail (23.1 ± 14.2 days) and nonfrail (10.7 ± 10.5 days) patients (p = 0.0020). For each complication of interest, ROC curves revealed that frailty scores, ECI scores, and a combination of frailty+ECI were similarly accurate predictors of variables (p > 0.05). Frailty+ECI (AUC 0.929) outperformed using only ECI for the variable of increased LOS (AUC 0.833) (p = 0.013). When considering 1-year readmission, frailty (AUC 0.642) was outperformed by both models using ECI (AUC 0.725, p = 0.039) and frailty+ECI (AUC 0.734, p = 0.038).

### CONCLUSIONS

These findings suggest that frailty and ECI are useful in predicting key complications, including mortality, nonroutine discharge, readmission, LOS, and higher costs in NF1 patients undergoing intracranial tumor resection. Consideration of a patient’s frailty status is pertinent to guide appropriate inpatient management as well as resource allocation and discharge planning.

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## The role of neurosurgery in the management of tuberous sclerosis complex–associated epilepsy: a systematic review

### OBJECTIVE

Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is an autosomal dominant, multisystem neurocutaneous disorder associated with cortical tubers, brain lesions seen in nearly all patients with TSC, which are frequently epileptogenic. Seizures are often the earliest clinical manifestation of TSC, leading to epilepsy in over 70% of patients. Medical management with antiepileptic drugs constitutes early therapy, but over 50% develop medically refractory epilepsy, necessitating surgical evaluation and treatment. The objective of this study was to summarize the literature and report seizure outcomes following surgical treatment for TSC-associated epilepsy.

### METHODS

A systematic literature review was performed in accordance with the PRISMA guidelines. The PubMed and Embase databases were searched for journal articles reporting seizure outcomes following epilepsy surgery in TSC patients. Included studies were placed into one of two groups based on the surgical technique used. Excellent and worthwhile seizure reductions were defined for each group as outcomes and extracted from each study.

### RESULTS

A total of 46 studies were included. Forty of these studies reported seizure outcomes following any combination of resection, disconnection, and ablation on a collective 1157 patients. Excellent and worthwhile seizure reductions were achieved in 59% (683/1157) and 85% (450/528) of patients, respectively. Six of these studies reported seizure outcomes following treatment with neuromodulation. Excellent and worthwhile seizure reductions were achieved in 34% (24/70) and 76% (53/70) of patients, respectively.

### CONCLUSIONS

Surgery effectively controls seizures in select patients with TSC-associated epilepsy, but outcomes vary. Further understanding of TSC-associated epilepsy, improving localization strategies, and emerging surgical techniques represent promising avenues for improving surgical outcomes.

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## Apparent diffusion coefficient of piriform cortex and seizure outcome in mesial temporal lobe epilepsy after MR-guided laser interstitial thermal therapy: a single-institution experience

### OBJECTIVE

Piriform cortex (PC) is one of the critical structures in the epileptogenesis of mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (mTLE), but its role is poorly understood. The authors examined the utility of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC; an MR-based marker of tissue pathology) of the PC as a predictor of seizure outcome in patients with mTLE undergoing MR-guided laser interstitial thermal therapy (MRgLITT).

### METHODS

A total of 33 patients diagnosed with mTLE who underwent MRgLITT at the authors’ institution were included in the study. The 6-month postoperative seizure outcomes were classified using the International League Against Epilepsy (ILAE) system as good (complete seizure freedom, ILAE class I) and poor (seizure present, ILAE classes II–VI). The PC and ablation volumes were manually segmented from both the preoperative and intraoperative MRI sequences, respectively. The mean ADC intensities of 1) preablation PC; 2) total ablation volume; 3) ablated portion of PC; and 4) postablation residual PC were calculated and compared between good and poor outcome groups. Additionally, the preoperative PC volumes and proportion of PC volume ablated were examined and compared between the subjects in the two outcome groups.

### RESULTS

The mean age at surgery was 36.5 ± 3.0 years, and the mean follow-up duration was 1.9 ± 0.2 years. Thirteen patients (39.4%) had a good outcome. The proportion of PC ablated was significantly associated with seizure outcome (10.16 vs 3.30, p < 0.05). After accounting for the variability in diffusion tensor imaging acquisition parameters, patients with good outcome had a significantly higher mean ADC of the preablation PC (0.3770 vs −0.0108, p < 0.05) and the postoperative residual PC (0.4197 vs 0.0309, p < 0.05) regions compared to those with poor outcomes. No significant differences in ADC of the ablated portion of PC were observed (0.2758 vs −0.4628, p = 0.12) after performing multivariate analysis.

### CONCLUSIONS

A higher proportion of PC ablated was associated with complete seizure freedom. Preoperative and postoperative residual ADC measures of PC were significantly higher in the good seizure outcome group in patients with mTLE who underwent MRgLITT, suggesting that ADC analysis can assist with postablation outcome prediction and patient stratification.