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Open access

Open surgical ligation of a thoracic spinal epidural arteriovenous fistula causing thoracic myelopathy: illustrative case

Brandon R. W. Laing, Benjamin Best, John D. Nerva, and Aditya Vedantam

BACKGROUND

Spinal epidural arteriovenous fistulas (eAVFs) are rare spinal vascular malformations characterized by an abnormal connection from the paraspinal and paravertebral system to the epidural venous plexus. This contrasts with the more frequently seen spinal dural AVF, where the fistula is entirely intradural. Although endovascular repair is commonly performed for spinal eAVF, few cases require open surgical ligation.

OBSERVATIONS

The authors present a case of a 74-year-old male with progressive thoracic myelopathy secondary to a spinal eAVF. Thoracic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed intramedullary T2 signal hyperintensity from T8 to T12. Spinal angiography revealed a primary arterial supply from the right T11 segmental artery and minor supply from the left T11 branches with drainage into the ventral epidural space. The patient underwent T11–12 laminectomy and complete right T11–12 facetectomy for ligation of the fistula with T11–L1 fusion. A postoperative spinal angiogram showed resolution of the fistula. Postoperatively, the patient’s myelopathy improved, and MRI showed a decrease in T2 cord intensity.

LESSONS

Spinal eAVFs are rare lesions that differ from the more commonly seen intradural dural AVF in that the abnormal connection is in the epidural space, and they are often associated with a dilated epidural venous pouch. Treatment involves endovascular, open surgical, or combined approaches.

Open access

Spontaneous middle meningeal arteriovenous fistula without cortical venous reflux presenting with acute subdural hematoma: illustrative case

Masahiro Yabuki, Yosuke Akamatsu, Hiroshi Kashimura, Yoshitaka Kubo, and Kuniaki Ogasawara

BACKGROUND

Dural arteriovenous fistula (AVF) without cortical venous reflux (CVR) has a relatively benign course. Here, the authors describe a patient presenting with subdural hematoma due to a middle meningeal AVF without CVR.

OBSERVATIONS

A 17-year-old male was admitted to the emergency department with acute headache without an episode of head trauma. Computed tomography demonstrated a left acute subdural hematoma (SDH). Because the nontraumatic SDH raised the suspicion of vascular pathology, emergent angiography was performed, which demonstrated an AVF fed by the middle meningeal artery and draining to the diploic vein via the serpentine meningeal vein without CVR. T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed no signs of venous congestion. Given the proximity of the AVF to the SDH and the MRI findings, we suspected that the serpentine meningeal vein was responsible for the SDH. The patient was successfully treated with transarterial Onyx embolization. During the injection, Onyx migrated to the extravascular space following its penetration into the serpentine meningeal vein, suggesting the meningeal vein was a bleeding source of the subdural hematoma.

LESSONS

Despite the absence of cortical venous reflux, serpentine meningeal venous drainage of middle meningeal AVF can be a source of subdural hemorrhage.

Open access

Microneurosurgical treatment of a small perimesencephalic pure pial arterial malformation: an under-recognized etiology of angiographically occult subarachnoid hemorrhage. Illustrative case

Robert C. Sterner, Garret P. Greeneway, Ufuk Erginoglu, Jaime L. Martínez Santos, and Mustafa K. Baskaya

BACKGROUND

Pial arterial malformations (PAMs) are rare vascular lesions consisting of dilated tortuous arteries without venous drainage. Current PAM understanding is limited by the lesion’s rarity, limited anatomopathological studies, and frequent misclassifications.

OBSERVATIONS

A 23-year-old male experienced two spontaneous subarachnoid hemorrhages (SAHs) over 6 months with initially unremarkable diagnostic cerebral angiograms. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and angiography after the second SAH revealed a small perimesencephalic ovoid lesion within the left crural cistern, between the left superior and posterior cerebral arteries, appearing to be an exophytic cavernoma, a thrombosed aneurysm, or a hemorrhagic tumor. Microsurgical resection was achieved with a pterional craniotomy and anterior clinoidectomy. The resected lesion was characteristic of a pure PAM arising from superior cerebellar arterial branches.

LESSONS

Small pure PAMs can be deceitfully dynamic lesions causing episodes of hemorrhage, complete thrombosis (angiographically occult), recanalization, and rehemorrhage. Small thrombosed vascular malformations or aneurysms should be included in differential diagnoses of angiographically occult SAH. MRI can be diagnostic, but the true angioarchitecture can only be elucidated with microneurosurgery. The only definitive cure is removal. The microneurosurgical strategy should account for worst-case scenarios, provide adequate skull base exposures, and include bypass revascularization options when thrombosed aneurysms are encountered.

Open access

Percutaneous transjugular approach without arterial monitoring for the treatment of a direct carotid-cavernous fistula with vascular Ehlers–Danlos syndrome: illustrative case

Naoyuki Uchiyama, Yosuke Kawahara, Wataru Uchida, Ayumu Nitta, Atsushi Nohara, and Yutaka Hayashi

BACKGROUND

Vascular Ehlers–Danlos syndrome (vEDS) because of COL3A1 mutations is a rare inherited collagen vascular disease associated with spontaneous arterial dissections, aneurysms, vessel rupture, and organ rupture. A direct carotid-cavernous fistula (CCF) is the most common central nervous system vascular anomaly in vEDS; however, its treatment is challenging due to extremely fragile arteries and veins.

OBSERVATIONS

A 22-year-old woman presented with pulsatile tinnitus and mild diplopia. CCF formation without trauma, cervical dissecting aneurysms, thin skin, and multiple ligament tears, as well as a genetic analysis, led to a diagnosis of vEDS. To minimize the risk of vascular injury in the thoracoperitoneal cavity, the internal jugular vein was directly punctured and the CCF was embolized transvenously using the triple-overlay road-mapping technique without arterial monitoring. The CCF was completely occluded, and the patient showed an excellent clinical course without neurological or vascular complications.

LESSONS

Physicians and neurosurgeons should consider vEDS when treating younger patients with spontaneous CCF without trauma and investigate the possibility of genetic abnormalities and systemic vascular pathology. Transvenous embolization of a CCF through the transjugular route using the triple-overlay road-mapping technique can minimize the risk of vascular injury in a patient with vEDS.

Open access

Disappearance of a moyamoya-related distal anterior cerebral artery aneurysm after target bypass revascularization: illustrative case

Taro Kusakabe, Kazunori Oda, Hiromasa Kobayashi, Dai Kawano, Shintaro Yoshinaga, Hironori Fukumoto, Koichiro Takemoto, Takashi Morishita, and Hiroshi Abe

BACKGROUND

Aneurysm formation is a complication of moyamoya disease (MMD). Distal anterior cerebral artery (ACA) aneurysms account for approximately 1% of MMD-related aneurysms. We report a case of target bypass for adult patients with MMD who presented with intracranial hemorrhage due to rupture of a distal ACA aneurysm, whose disappearance was confirmed postoperatively.

OBSERVATIONS

A 45-year-old woman presented with sudden-onset headache and loss of consciousness. Head computed tomography showed hemorrhage in the genu of the corpus callosum with intraventricular extension. Digital subtraction angiography (DSA) revealed Suzuki stage III MMD and a left A3 segment aneurysm. Superficial temporal artery (STA)–middle cerebral artery (MCA) bypass and STA-ACA target bypass were performed to reduce hemodynamic stress on the left ACA. DSA 6 months after surgery showed patency of both bypasses and disappearance of the aneurysm. At the 20-month follow-up, the patient was asymptomatic and neurologically intact.

LESSONS

Bypass revascularization may be an effective treatment to reduce hemodynamic stress and eliminate MMD-related aneurysms.

Open access

Three-dimensional fusion images from digital subtraction angiography for the treatment of direct carotid-cavernous fistulas: illustrative case

Fumiaki Maruyama, Toshihiro Ishibashi, Yukiko Abe, and Yuichi Murayama

BACKGROUND

Direct carotid-cavernous fistulas (dCCFs) are often treated endovascularly. However, because the dCCF is usually a high-flow shunt, it is often difficult to obtain an accurate vascular structure using conventional digital subtraction angiography (DSA). Here, the authors report a case of successfully treated dCCF using three-dimensional (3D) fused DSA images.

OBSERVATIONS

The patient presented with tinnitus, followed by oculomotor palsy, prompting magnetic resonance imaging that indicated a dural arteriovenous fistula of the cavernous sinus. DSA was performed before treatment, and a diagnosis of dCCF due to a ruptured aneurysm was made. In this case, the 3D fused simulation images enabled the authors to obtain an accurate vascular structure, resulting in successful coil embolization.

LESSONS

Three-dimensional fusion images from DSA provide detailed anatomical information and are useful for treating high-flow dCCFs.

Open access

Disconnection of a stent retriever’s pushwire caught by an accordion-like deformed aspiration catheter during mechanical thrombectomy: illustrative case

Natsuki Akaike, Hiroyuki Ikeda, Minami Uezato, Haruki Yamashita, Masanori Kinosada, Yoshitaka Kurosaki, and Masaki Chin

BACKGROUND

In mechanical thrombectomy for acute large vessel occlusion, a combined technique of using both a stent retriever and an aspiration catheter has been widely used. The authors report a case in which a stent retriever’s pushwire and a microcatheter were caught and disconnected by an accordion-like deformed aspiration catheter.

OBSERVATIONS

A 74-year-old man underwent mechanical thrombectomy for a left M1 occlusion. A stent retriever was deployed from the left M2 to the left distal M1, and an aspiration catheter was advanced to the left distal M1. When the stent retriever and microcatheter were pulled into the aspiration catheter at the distal M1 without releasing the deflection, traction resistance of the stent retriever occurred, and the aspiration catheter contracted and deformed like an accordion distal to the tip of the guiding catheter. The stent retriever’s pushwire and the microcatheter were caught and disconnected.

LESSONS

When a stent retriever is pulled into a flexible aspiration catheter in a case with vascular tortuosity, it may be caught by an accordion-like deformed aspiration catheter and disconnected. It is necessary to release the deflection of the aspiration catheter once traction resistance of the stent retriever and deflection of the aspiration catheter occur.

Open access

Focal drug-resistant temporal lobe epilepsy associated with an ipsilateral anterior choroidal artery aneurysm: illustrative case

H. Westley Phillips, Shivani D. Rangwala, Joanna Papadakis, David J. Segar, Melissa Tsuboyama, Anna L. R. Pinto, Joseph P. Harmon, Sulpicio G. Soriano, Carlos J. Munoz, Joseph R. Madsen, Alfred P. See, and Scellig S. Stone

BACKGROUND

The occurrence of both an intracranial aneurysm and epilepsy, especially drug-resistant epilepsy (DRE), is rare. Although the overall incidence of aneurysms associated with DRE is unclear, it is thought to be particularly infrequent in the pediatric population. Surgical ligation of the offending aneurysm has been reported in conjunction with resolving seizure activity, although few cases have cited a combined approach of aneurysm ligation and resection of an epileptogenic focus.

OBSERVATIONS

We present the case of a 14-year-old female patient with drug-resistant temporal lobe epilepsy and an ipsilateral supraclinoid internal carotid artery aneurysm. Seizure semiology, electroencephalography monitoring, and magnetic resonance imaging all indicated a left temporal epileptogenic focus, in addition to an incidental aneurysm. The authors recommended a combined surgery involving resection of the temporal lesion and surgical clip ligation of the aneurysm. Near-total resection and successful ligation were achieved, and the patient has remained seizure free since surgery at 1 year postoperatively.

LESSONS

In patients with focal DRE and an adjacent intracranial aneurysm, a combined surgical approach involving both resection and surgical ligation can be used. Several surgical timing and neuroanesthetic considerations should be made to ensure the overall safety and efficacy of this procedure.

Open access

Internal iliac artery aneurysm masquerading as a sciatic nerve schwannoma: illustrative case

Lokeshwar S. Bhenderu, Khaled M. Taghlabi, Taimur Hassan, Jaime R. Guerrero, Jesus G. Cruz-Garza, Rachel L. Goldstein, Shashank Sharma, Linda V. Le, Tue A. Dinh, and Amir H. Faraji

BACKGROUND

Schwannomas are common peripheral nerve sheath tumors. Imaging techniques such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computed tomography (CT) can help to distinguish schwannomas from other types of lesions. However, there have been several reported cases describing the misdiagnosis of aneurysms as schwannomas.

OBSERVATIONS

A 70-year-old male with ongoing pain despite spinal fusion surgery underwent MRI. A lesion was noted along the left sciatic nerve, which was believed to be a sciatic nerve schwannoma. During the surgery for planned neurolysis and tumor resection, the lesion was noted to be pulsatile. Electromyography mapping and intraoperative ultrasound confirmed vascular pulsations and turbulent flow within the aneurysm, so the surgery was aborted. A formal CT angiogram revealed the lesion to be an internal iliac artery (IIA) branch aneurysm. The patient underwent coil embolization with complete obliteration of the aneurysm.

LESSONS

The authors report the first case of an IIA aneurysm misdiagnosed as a sciatic nerve schwannoma. Surgeons should be aware of this potential misdiagnosis and potentially use other imaging modalities to confirm the lesion before proceeding with surgery.

Open access

Metabolism changes during direct revascularization in moyamoya disease: illustrative case

Fuat Arikan, Ivette Chocron, Helena Calvo-Rubio, Carlos Santos, and Dario Gándara

BACKGROUND

Cerebral revascularization is recommended for patients with moyamoya disease (MMD) with reduced cerebral perfusion reserve and recurrent or progressive ischemic events. The standard surgical treatment for these patients is a low-flow bypass with or without indirect revascularization. The use of intraoperative monitoring of the metabolic profile using analytes such as glucose, lactate, pyruvate, and glycerol has not yet been described during cerebral artery bypass surgery for MMD-induced chronic cerebral ischemia. The authors aimed to describe an illustrative case using intraoperative microdialysis and brain tissue oxygen partial pressure (PbtO2) probes in a patient with MMD during direct revascularization.

OBSERVATIONS

The patient’s severe tissue hypoxia situation was confirmed by a PbtO2:partial pressure of oxygen (PaO2) ratio below 0.1 and anaerobic metabolism by a lactate:pyruvate ratio greater than 40. Following bypass, a rapid and sustained increase in PbtO2 up to normal values (PbtO2:PaO2 ratio between 0.1 and 0.35) and the normalization of cerebral energetic metabolism with a lactate/pyruvate ratio less than 20 was observed.

LESSONS

The results show a quick improvement of regional cerebral hemodynamics due to the direct anastomosis procedure, reducing the incidence of subsequent ischemic stroke in pediatric and adult patients immediately.