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Open access

Recurrence of arteriovenous malformation in an adult patient after complete resection: illustrative case

Delfina C Mazza Elizalde, Ricardo H Menendez, Maximiliano Di Fabio, Douglas Ruiz, Juan Manuel Eiroa, Catalina Vittar, German Arias, and Horacio A Sole

BACKGROUND

Complete resection of an arteriovenous malformation (AVM) is considered a curative treatment. In this paper the authors discuss two possibilities in the event of hemorrhage after satisfactory resection of an AVM: recurrence or remnant.

OBSERVATIONS

A 33-year-old female patient was diagnosed with an incidental right frontal AVM that was microsurgically resected and whose postoperative angiography showed no remnant. Eight years later, she presented with an episode of headache and speech arrest. Magnetic resonance imaging showed bleeding in the previous surgical site, and a new angiography revealed the presence of a vascular blush not seen previously. The patient did not show the most frequently associated factors for recurrence described in the literature, which are hemorrhage on presentation and deep venous drainage. In addition, factors related to undetected vascular remnants, such as preoperative hemorrhage and early postoperative angiography, were absent.

LESSONS

Considering the characteristics of the case, we believe that the most likely explanation is the development of a de novo vascular formation secondary to factors not yet elucidated. Preexisting views on AVM formation, the curative value of resection, and long-term follow-up in certain patients should be reevaluated.

Open access

Spontaneous pseudoaneurysm of the superficial temporal artery in neurofibromatosis type 1: illustrative case

Fang Shen, Shi-ze Li, Yuan-yuan Shan, Xiao Ji, and Han-song Sheng

BACKGROUND

A pseudoaneurysm of the superficial temporal artery is an uncommon clinical entity that has largely been linked with direct traumatic causes. Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1)-related vasculopathy is a rare cause of idiopathic arterial bleeding in the craniofacial region.

OBSERVATIONS

A 46-year-old male with clinical features of NF1 presented to the hospital with an enlarging and tender right temporal mass without a history of trauma. Computed tomography angiography suggested the development of a pseudoaneurysm, and surgery was performed to resect the mass. Histopathological examinations showed focal interruption of the epithelium layer and elastic lamina, well-demarcated thickening of the smooth muscle layers of the arterial wall, supporting the diagnosis of pseudoaneurysm.

LESSONS

NF1-associated vasculopathy is likely the predisposing factor for the development of a superficial temporal artery pseudoaneurysm.

Open access

Traumatic middle meningeal arteriovenous fistula presenting with long delayed-onset facial nerve palsy without temporal bone fracture: illustrative case

Shigeki Takada, Koki Mitani, Tomonori Ichikawa, Nobutake Sadamasa, and Waro Taki

BACKGROUND

Traumatic facial nerve palsy (FNP) without temporal bone fracture (TBF) has a delayed onset in some cases; however, long delayed-onset FNP in this setting has not been reported. The middle meningeal vein (MMV) is one of the venous drainage routes from the facial nerve. Herein, the authors describe a rare case of traumatic middle meningeal arteriovenous fistula (MMAVF) presenting with the long delayed-onset FNP without TBF.

OBSERVATIONS

A 42-year-old man with pulsatile tinnitus and left FNP was admitted to our hospital 4 weeks after head trauma without TBF. Cerebral angiography revealed an MMAVF between the middle meningeal artery and the MMV on the left side. Seven days after admission, the FNP showed slight improvement, and preoperative angiography revealed decreased shunt flow of the MMAVF. Transarterial coil embolization was successfully performed. Postoperative angiography showed no residual fistula. Two weeks after the procedure, there was complete resolution of the FNP. This clinical course was correlated with the angiographic findings, suggesting that the long delayed-onset FNP was caused by the traumatic MMAVF without TBF.

LESSONS

In patients presenting with long delayed-onset FNP after head trauma without TBF, the vascular lesion must be evaluated to exclude MMAVF.

Open access

Ischemic stroke in a young adult with a known epileptogenic arteriovenous malformation: illustrative case

Seiji Kuribara, Takuma Maeda, Taro Yanagawa, Eisuke Tsukagoshi, Shinya Kohyama, and Hiroki Kurita

BACKGROUND

Brain arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) usually manifest as hemorrhages or seizures. They rarely present with ischemic symptoms, especially in young patients. We present a case of an epileptogenic AVM that led to cerebral infarction due to paradoxical embolic occlusion of the middle cerebral artery (MCA) involving the main feeder of the lesion.

OBSERVATIONS

A 35-year-old male had been suffering from AVM-associated epilepsy for 10 years and was scheduled for surgery. He suddenly developed right-sided hemiconvulsions followed by hemiparalysis and impaired consciousness. Computed tomography revealed no intracerebral hemorrhage, and symptoms were initially thought to indicate epilepsy and Todd’s palsy. Because of his prolonged symptoms, he underwent magnetic resonance imaging, which revealed a large cerebral infarction due to occlusion of the MCA involving the main feeder of the AVM. The patient underwent AVM resection, and the partially thrombosed nidus was completely removed. Histopathological investigation revealed a fresh thrombus in totally occluded nonarteriosclerotic feeders. He had no atrial fibrillation; however, subsequent transesophageal echocardiography revealed a patent foramen ovale, suggesting a paradoxical embolism.

LESSONS

This case serves as a reminder that AVMs can present with considerable variability. Acute cerebral infarction should be considered a possible mechanism of seizures, even in patients with epileptogenic AVM.

Open access

Spinal arteriovenous malformation with a calcified nodule: illustrative case

Ping-Chuan Liu, Chung-Chia Huang, and Ching-Lin Chen

BACKGROUND

This article describes a rare case of cervical spinal arteriovenous malformation (AVM) mimicking a neurogenic spinal tumor.

OBSERVATIONS

A 22-year-old female presenting with a C6–7 AVM with a calcification nodule experienced new-onset acute right upper radiculopathy associated with extradural compression of the spinal cord. Note that spinal AVMs with a calcified nodule are rare. Endovascular embolization is generally used to relieve the symptoms of AVM; however, this procedure cannot relieve cord compression, particularly in cases complicated by calcified nodules. This article discusses treatment options.

LESSONS

Decompression surgery is preferable to endovascular embolization because it alleviates symptoms while preventing cord compression and minimizing the risk of recurrence.

Open access

Transvenous embolization via the facial vein for intraorbital dural arteriovenous fistula: illustrative case

Jumpei Ienaga, Tetsuya Tsukada, Toru Watanabe, Yosuke Sakai, Kenji Uda, Kazunori Shintai, Yoshio Araki, Tetsuya Nagatani, and Yukio Seki

BACKGROUND

Intraorbital arteriovenous fistula (IOAVF) is a rare type of intracranial fistula that presents with ocular signs similar to those of cavernous sinus dural arteriovenous fistula. The treatment of IOAVF is based on the vascular architecture of each case due to its infrequent occurrence. The authors report the case of an IOAVF that was successfully treated with embolization via the facial vein, with good outcomes.

OBSERVATIONS

A 78-year-old woman presented with left eyelid swelling, pulsatile ocular protrusion, and left ocular conjunctival hyperemia. Ophthalmological evaluation revealed elevated intraocular pressure; time-of-flight magnetic resonance angiography revealed a dilated left superior ophthalmic vein. Digital subtraction angiography showed an arteriovenous shunt in the left superior orbital fissure, which was treated using transvenous coil embolization. The patient experienced immediate improvement in left ocular protrusion and conjunctival hyperemia. Ophthalmological evaluation 1 month after treatment showed normal intraocular pressure in the left eye. No neurological symptoms were observed, and there was no recurrence of the arteriovenous shunt 3 months postoperatively.

LESSONS

The authors report a rare case of IOAVF treated with embolization via the facial vein with a good outcome. A thorough understanding of the vascular architecture using three-dimensional images is useful for determining endovascular access and procedures.

Open access

Large saccular intracranial aneurysm in a child with RASA1-associated capillary malformation–arteriovenous malformation syndrome: illustrative case

Marina Weinberger, Daniel S Ikeda, Shawn Belverud, Aaron Cho, Guerard Grice, Mary Willis, and Vijay M Ravindra

BACKGROUND

Large cerebral aneurysms are much less common in children than in adults. Thus, when present, these lesions require careful surgical evaluation and comprehensive genetic testing. RASA1-associated capillary malformation–arteriovenous malformation (RASA1-CM-AVM) syndrome is a rare disorder of angiogenic remodeling known to cause port-wine stains and arteriovenous fistulas but not previously associated with pediatric aneurysms.

OBSERVATIONS

The authors report the case of a previously healthy 6-year-old boy who presented with seizure-like activity. Imaging demonstrated a lesion in the right ambient cistern with compression of the temporal lobe. Imaging characteristics were suggestive of a thrombosed aneurysm versus an epidermoid cyst. The patient underwent craniotomy, revealing a large saccular aneurysm, and clip ligation and excision were performed. Postoperative genetic analysis revealed a RASA1-CM-AVM syndrome.

LESSONS

This is a rare case of a RASA1-associated pediatric cerebral aneurysm in the neurosurgical literature. This unique case highlights the need for maintaining a broad differential diagnosis as well as the utility of genetic testing for detecting underlying genetic syndromes in young children presenting with cerebral aneurysms.

Open access

Management of a challenging dura-embedded anterior inferior cerebellar artery loop during a retrosigmoid hearing-preserving vestibular schwannoma resection: microsurgical technique and operative video. Illustrative case

Jaime L. Martínez Santos, Robert C. Sterner, and Mustafa K. Başkaya

BACKGROUND

Anatomical variants of the anterior inferior cerebellar artery (AICA), such as an anomalous “AICA loop” embedded in the dura and bone of the subarcuate fossa, increase the complexity and risk of vestibular schwannoma resections. Classically, osseous penetrating AICA loops are the most challenging to mobilize, as the dura must be dissected and the surrounding petrous bone must be drilled to mobilize the AICA away from the surgical corridor and out of harm.

OBSERVATIONS

The authors present a rare case of a dura-embedded, osseous-penetrating AICA loop encountered during a hearing-preserving retrosigmoid approach in which they demonstrate safe and efficient microdissection and mobilization of the AICA loop without having to drill the surrounding bone.

LESSONS

Although preoperative recognition of potentially dangerous AICA loops has been challenging, thin-sliced petrous bone computed tomography scanning and high-quality magnetic resonance imaging can be useful in preoperative diagnosis. Furthermore, this report suggests that a retrosigmoid approach is superior, as it allows early intradural recognition and proximal vascular control and facilitates more versatile mobilization of AICA loops.

Open access

Use of a flow diverter in a small-caliber end artery anterior choroidal dissecting pseudoaneurysm: illustrative case

Griffin Ernst, Noor A. Mahmoud, Audrey Grossen, and Andrew Bauer

BACKGROUND

Anterior choroidal artery (AChA) fusiform aneurysms are exceedingly rare and associated with high rebleeding and mortality rates. Their difficult anatomy comes with a broad range of treatment options, including bypass, stent-assisted coiling, and flow diversion. Currently, flow diverters are approved for large-caliber internal carotid artery segment aneurysms. However, many institutions have expanded their use to distal small-caliber vessels, which raises questions regarding device sizing and long-term patency. The authors present a dissecting distal AChA fusiform pseudoaneurysm treated successfully with flow diversion.

OBSERVATIONS

A 40-year-old woman with monoclonal gammopathy of unknown significance, lichen sclerosis, and an unspecified connective tissue disease presented with diffuse subarachnoid hemorrhage. She had a dissecting, 5 × 3–mm, left AChA pseudoaneurysm 4 mm distal to the origin of the vessel. A 2.5-mm flow redirection endoluminal device was deployed. There were no procedural complications. A 6-month cerebral angiogram showed device patency and no pseudoaneurysm remnant. These results were maintained at 1 year as seen on head magnetic resonance angiography.

LESSONS

Flow diversion is a successful and safe therapeutic intervention for challenging intracranial aneurysms originating from small-caliber vessels supplying eloquent vascular territories.

Open access

Bilateral visual disturbances caused by a glomus vagale: illustrative case

Enrique Jimenez Hakim, Luis Garcia Rairan, Julian Guzman, and Yessid Araque

BACKGROUND

A glomus vagale tumor is an infrequent paraganglioma primarily characterized by auditory symptoms, cranial nerve involvement, or autonomic symptoms. However, visual involvement is not commonly observed, and to date, no cases have been reported in the literature.

OBSERVATIONS

The case involves a 62-year-old female patient with a history of right carotid body tumor resection. She presented to the emergency department with a sudden decrease in visual acuity and bitemporal hemianopsia, accompanied by a left parietal headache. Initial brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed a pituitary macroadenoma, which was completely resected. However, postoperatively, the patient developed left amaurosis. Subsequent brain MRI showed the presence of hemostatic material mixed with blood in the sellar region, causing displacement of the optic chiasm. A repeat intervention was performed, identifying bleeding from both cavernous sinuses. Head and neck angiography demonstrated a right glomus vagale tumor with abundant blood drainage into the right cavernous sinus. Embolization of the glomus vagale tumor was performed, resulting in no further bleeding and improvement of symptoms.

LESSONS

The aim of this case report is to describe a rare occurrence of bilateral visual disturbances caused by bleeding in both cavernous sinuses due to venous hypertension caused by a right glomus vagale tumor.