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Junya Miyahara, Yuichi Yoshida, Mitsuhiro Nishizawa, Hiroyuki Nakarai, Yudai Kumanomido, Keiichiro Tozawa, Yukimasa Yamato, Masaaki Iizuka, Jim Yu, Katsuyuki Sasaki, Masahito Oshina, So Kato, Toru Doi, Yuki Taniguchi, Yoshitaka Matsubayashi, Akiro Higashikawa, Yujiro Takeshita, Takashi Ono, Nobuhiro Hara, Seiichi Azuma, Naohiro Kawamura, Sakae Tanaka, and Yasushi Oshima

OBJECTIVE

The aim of this study was to compare perioperative complications and postoperative outcomes between patients with lumbar recurrent stenosis without lumbar instability and radiculopathy who underwent decompression surgery and those who underwent decompression with fusion surgery.

METHODS

For this retrospective study, the authors identified 2606 consecutive patients who underwent posterior surgery for lumbar spinal canal stenosis at eight affiliated hospitals between April 2017 and June 2019. Among these patients, those with a history of prior decompression surgery and central canal restenosis with cauda equina syndrome were included in the study. Those patients with instability or radiculopathy were excluded. The patients were divided between the decompression group and decompression with fusion group. The demographic characteristics, numerical rating scale score for low-back pain, incidence rates of lower-extremity pain and lower-extremity numbness, Oswestry Disability Index score, 3-level EQ-5D score, and patient satisfaction rate were compared between the two groups using the Fisher’s exact probability test for nominal variables and the Student t-test for continuous variables, with p < 0.05 as the level of statistical significance.

RESULTS

Forty-six patients met the inclusion criteria (35 males and 11 females; 19 patients underwent decompression and 27 decompression and fusion; mean ± SD age 72.5 ± 8.8 years; mean ± SD follow-up 18.8 ± 6.0 months). Demographic data and perioperative complication rates were similar. The percentages of patients who achieved the minimal clinically important differences for patient-reported outcomes or satisfaction rate at 1 year were similar.

CONCLUSIONS

Among patients with central canal stenosis who underwent revision, the short-term outcomes of the patients who underwent decompression were comparable to those of the patients who underwent decompression and fusion. Decompression surgery may be effective for patients without instability or radiculopathy.

Open access

Hiroya Uemura, Masahiro Tanji, Hiroki Natsuhara, Yasuhide Takeuchi, Masahito Hoki, Akihiko Sugimoto, Sachiko Minamiguchi, Hidenori Kawasaki, Masako Torishima, Shinji Kosugi, Yohei Mineharu, Yoshiki Arakawa, Kazumichi Yoshida, and Susumu Miyamoto

BACKGROUND

Craniopharyngioma (CP) often arises in the sellar and suprasellar areas; ectopic CP in the posterior fossa is rare. Familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) is a genetic disorder involving the formation of numerous adenomatous polyps in the gastrointestinal tract, and it is associated with other extraintestinal manifestations.

OBSERVATIONS

The authors reported the case of a 63-year-old woman with FAP who presented with headache and harbored a growing mass in the fourth ventricle. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings revealed a well-circumscribed mass with high intensity on T1-weighted images and low intensity on T2-weighted images and exhibited no contrast enhancement. Gross total resection was performed and histopathology revealed an adamantinomatous CP (aCP). The authors also reviewed the previous reports of ectopic CP in the posterior fossa and found a high percentage of FAP cases among the ectopic CP group, thus suggesting a possible association between the two diseases.

LESSONS

An ectopic CP may be reasonably included in the differential diagnosis in patients with FAP who present with well-circumscribed tumors in the posterior fossa.

Open access

Ryuzaburo Kochi, Hidenori Endo, Hiroki Uchida, Tomohiro Kawaguchi, Shunsuke Omodaka, Yasushi Matsumoto, and Teiji Tominaga

BACKGROUND

Diagnosis of a microarteriovenous malformation (micro-AVM) is difficult, especially in the acute stage of rupture because of the small size of the nidus and the existence of hematoma. We report two cases of ruptured micro-AVMs detected by arterial spin labeling (ASL).

OBSERVATIONS

In one case, a 45-year-old male was transported with a complaint of right hemiparesis. Computed tomography (CT) revealed a right parietal lobar hemorrhage. Standard magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed no abnormal findings as the cause of the hemorrhage. ASL 23 days after the onset demonstrated high signals on the medial wall of the hematoma. Digital subtraction angiography (DSA) showed a micro-AVM in accordance with the site of high signals on ASL. In another case, a 38-year-old female was transported with a complaint of left hemianopsia. CT on admission revealed a right parietal lobar hemorrhage. Standard MRI showed no abnormal findings as the cause of the hemorrhage. ASL 15 days after the onset demonstrated high signals on the internal wall of the hematoma. DSA showed micro-AVM in accordance with the site of high signaling on ASL. Both cases were successfully treated with open surgery.

LESSONS

ASL can manifest micro-AVMs as high signals within the hematoma. ASL is a useful less-invasive screening tool for the detection of ruptured micro-AVMs.

Open access

John C. Muse, Luke Antonio Silveira, Brandon Liebelt, and Bruce Ian Tranmer

BACKGROUND

Klippel-Trénaunay syndrome (KTS) is a combined capillary-lymphatic-venous malformation disorder traditionally associated with high surgical morbidity. Although rare, pathologic involvement of the spinal cord has been reported in the literature. However, the safety of surgical intervention remains unclear. We report a case of successful decompression of a thoracic epidural lesion in an individual with KTS who presented with spastic paraparesis.

OBSERVATIONS

The patient is a 38-year-old male, diagnosed with KTS as an infant, who presented with spastic paraparesis secondary to a thoracic epidural lesion. He underwent laminectomies and resection of the lesion with subsequent improvement of his symptoms and without significant postoperative morbidity. Histopathology confirmed the lesion to be a benign vascular malformation.

LESSONS

Currently, the literature regarding management of symptomatic vascular lesions in individuals with KTS supports nonoperative management, due to the increased risk of operative morbidity associated with this syndrome. This case presents evidence for safe and appropriate surgical management of a thoracic epidural vascular malformation in a patient with KTS in the setting of progressive neurological decline, establishing a role for neurosurgical intervention in this high-risk population when no conservative management portends further neurological deterioration.

Open access

Robert Y. North, Timothy J. Yee, Michael J. Strong, Yamaan S. Saadeh, Hugh J. L. Garton, and Paul Park

BACKGROUND

Syringomyelia has a long-established association with pediatric scoliosis, but few data exist on the relationship of syringomyelia to pediatric kyphotic deformities.

OBSERVATIONS

This report reviewed a unique case of rapid and sustained regression of syringomyelia in a 13-year-old girl after surgical correction of iatrogenic kyphotic deformity.

LESSONS

In cases of syringomyelia associated with acquired spinal deformity, treatment of deformity to resolve an associated subarachnoid block should be considered because it may obviate the need for direct treatment of syrinx.

Open access

Michael Müther and Walter Stummer

5-Aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA) is a useful and well-established adjunct for glioblastoma surgery. A growing body of evidence has revealed the potential utility of 5-ALA in grade II and grade III glioma patients as well. However, reliable means of identifying in whom fluorescence will occur have not been established. The authors report the case of such an indeterminate-grade glioma highlighting two pearls of 5-ALA fluorescence in this subgroup of patients. Firstly, 5-ALA–guided tissue sampling helps to ensure that the true grade of the lesion is not underestimated. Secondly, intraoperative fluorescence can serve as a prognostic marker.

The video can be found here: https://stream.cadmore.media/r10.3171/2021.10.FOCVID21196

Open access

Benjamin Yim, Andrew J. Gauden, and Gary K. Steinberg

The surgical treatment of moyamoya disease is heavily reliant upon a real-time understanding of cerebral hemodynamics. The application of FLOW 800 allows the surgeon to semiquantify the degree of perfusion to the cerebral cortex following extracranial-to-intracranial (EC-IC) bypass surgery. The authors present three illustrative cases demonstrating common intraoperative findings prior to and following anastomosis using FLOW 800. All patients were diagnosed by catheter angiogram with moyamoya disease and noninvasive imaging demonstrating hemispheric hypoperfusion. Superficial temporal artery (STA)–to–middle cerebral artery (MCA or M4) bypasses were performed to augment intracranial perfusion. The patients tolerated the procedures well and were discharged without event in stable neurological condition.

The video can be found here: https://stream.cadmore.media/r10.3171/2021.10.FOCVID21191

Open access

Walter C. Jean, Kenneth D. Sack, and Andrew R. Tsen

For “minimally invasive” approaches to a deep-lying skull base lesion, the bone opening must be precisely placed and adequately wide to accomplish the surgical goal. Surgical rehearsal in virtual reality (VR) can generate navigation-integrated augmented reality (AR) templates to ensure precise surgical openings.

In this video, the authors used AR templates for the transpalpebral, transorbital approach for intradural tumors. VR renderings of patient-specific anatomy were used in surgical rehearsal. The optimal openings were saved and, at surgery, projected into the eyepiece of the navigation-tracked microscope. The template enhanced the planning of the incision and soft-tissue exposure and guided the drill toward the target.

The video can be found here: https://stream.cadmore.media/r10.3171/2021.10.FOCVID21172

Free access

Jennyfer Paulla Galdino Chaves, Joseph Maalouly, and John Yun Seo Choi

OBJECTIVE

In this study, the authors aimed to describe a new technique of sacroiliac joint (SIJ) fusion using a robotic navigation guidance system and to document clinical results with patient-reported visual analog scale (VAS) scores.

METHODS

Patients diagnosed with SIJ dysfunction were surgically treated using 2 hydroxyapatite (HA)–coated, threaded screws with the aid of the robotic navigation system. In a total of 36 patients, 51 SIJs were fused during the study period. Patients’ VAS scores were used to determine clinical improvement in pain. Postoperative imaging at routine intervals during the follow-up period was also performed for assessment of radiological fusion. In addition, complication events were recorded, including reoperations.

RESULTS

All 36 patients had successful fusion evidenced by both CT and clinical assessment at the final follow-up. Two patients underwent reoperation because of screw loosening. The mean preoperative VAS score was 7.2 ± 1.1, and the mean 12-month postoperative VAS score was 1.6 ± 1.46. This difference was statistically significant (p < 0.05) and demonstrated a substantial clinical improvement in pain.

CONCLUSIONS

Robotic navigation–assisted SIJ fusion using 2 HA-coated, threaded screws placed across the joint was an acceptable technique that demonstrated reliable clinical results with a significant improvement in patient-reported VAS pain scores.

Free access

Zhuofu Li, Shuai Jiang, Xiongkang Song, Shanshan Liu, Chengxia Wang, Lei Hu, and Weishi Li

OBJECTIVE

The application of robots in the field of pedicle screw placement has achieved great success. However, decompressive laminectomy, a step that is just as critical as pedicle screw placement, does not have a mature robot-assisted system. To address this lack, the authors designed a collaborative spine robot system to assist with laminectomy. In this study, they aimed to investigate the reliability of this novel collaborative spinal robot system and compare it with manual laminectomy (ML).

METHODS

Thirty in vitro porcine lumbar vertebral specimens were obtained as experimental bone specimens. Robot-assisted laminectomy (RAL) was performed on the left side of the lamina (n = 30) and ML was performed on the right side (n = 30). The time required for laminectomy on one side, whether the lamina was penetrated, and the remaining thickness of the lamina were compared between the two groups.

RESULTS

The time required for laminectomy on one side was longer in the RAL group than in the ML group (median 326 seconds [IQR 133 seconds] vs 108.5 seconds [IQR 43 seconds], p < 0.001). In the RAL group, complete lamina penetration occurred twice (6.7%), while in the ML group, it occurred 9 times (30%); the difference was statistically significant (p = 0.045). There was no statistically significant difference in the remaining lamina thickness between the two groups (median 1.035 mm [IQR 0.419 mm] vs 1.084 mm [IQR 0.383 mm], p = 0.842).

CONCLUSIONS

The results of this study confirm the safety of this novel spinal robot system for laminectomy. However, its efficiency requires further improvement.