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Open access

Asymptomatic subarachnoid hemorrhage following carotid endarterectomy: illustrative case

Shin Nemoto, Takuma Maeda, Keiichi Yamashita, Taro Yanagawa, Masataka Torii, Masaru Kiyomoto, Masaki Tanaka, Eishi Sato, Yoichi Harada, Toru Hatayama, Takuji Kono, and Hiroki Kurita

BACKGROUND

Carotid endarterectomy (CEA) and carotid artery stenting are common surgical interventions for internal carotid artery stenosis. Cerebral hyperperfusion syndrome (CHS) is a well-known complication of both procedures that can lead to intracranial hemorrhage and worsen clinical outcomes. Here, the authors report a rare case of non-aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) following CEA and review the relevant literature.

OBSERVATIONS

A 70-year-old woman with hypertension and diabetes presented with progressive visual loss in the right eye and was diagnosed with ocular ischemic syndrome. Imaging revealed severe right cervical carotid artery stenosis. CEA was performed with no complications. Postoperatively, the patient’s blood pressure was tightly controlled, with no evidence of CHS. However, an asymptomatic SAH was detected on postoperative day 7. Careful observation and blood pressure control were maintained. Since follow-up magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed no enlarging of the SAH and the patient was asymptomatic, she was discharged on postoperative day 15 with a modified Rankin scale score of 0.

LESSONS

This case highlights the potential occurrence of non-aneurysmal SAH as a rare complication of CEA, even in asymptomatic patients. Repeated postoperative MRI is necessary to detect such complications. It is crucial to carefully control blood pressure after CEA regardless of symptoms.

Open access

Extra-axial cavernous malformations of the foramen magnum: illustrative cases

Bo-Han Yao, Da Li, Liang Wang, and Zhen Wu

BACKGROUND

Extra-axial cavernous malformations involving the foramen magnum are rare, and preoperative diagnosis becomes difficult when they mimic meningiomas.

OBSERVATIONS

The authors present 2 cases of extra-axial cavernous malformations involving the foramen magnum. Surgical removal of the lesions was performed via far lateral craniotomy. The authors investigate the disease and elaborate the differential diagnosis.

LESSONS

The authors recommend that extra-axial cavernous malformations should be considered in the differential diagnosis of lesions in the foramen magnum region. Intraoperative frozen sections are helpful to the diagnosis, and resection warranted a favorable long-term outcome.

Open access

Percutaneous transluminal angioplasty for persistent primitive hypoglossal artery stenosis: illustrative case

Katsuma Iwaki, Koichi Arimura, Shunichi Fukuda, Soh Takagishi, Ryota Kurogi, Kuniyuki Nakamura, Akira Nakamizo, and Koji Yoshimoto

BACKGROUND

We report a case of symptomatic, progressive stenosis of a persistent primitive hypoglossal artery (PPHA), which was successfully treated with percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA) of the origin of the PPHA. The PPHA is a type of carotid-basilar anastomosis with an incidence of 0.02% to 0.10%. It originates from the internal carotid artery (ICA), passes through the hypoglossal canal, and merges with the basilar artery. In many cases, the ipsilateral vertebral artery is hypoplastic; therefore, PPHA stenosis causes cerebral infarction in the posterior circulation territory, as in this case.

OBSERVATIONS

The patient’s right PPHA had severe and progressive stenosis; therefore, he experienced cerebral infarction despite medical treatment. Therefore, PTA for the stenosis was performed, which ceased the recurrence of cerebral infarction and dizziness by improving blood flow in the posterior circulation.

LESSONS

Several reports have described ICA stenosis accompanied by PPHA or PPHA stenosis in patients receiving endovascular treatments. Almost all cases were nonprogressive, and the treatment procedure was stenting. However, in our case, the PPHA stenosis was progressive, and we performed PTA because the patient experienced resistance to antiplatelet drugs and had poor collateral flow.

Open access

Anterior condylar arteriovenous fistula mainly fed by peripheral branches of the bilateral internal maxillary arteries: illustrative case

Genki Kimura, Hiroyuki Ikeda, Ryosuke Nishi, Hidenobu Hata, Minami Uezato, Masanori Kinosada, Yoshitaka Kurosaki, and Masaki Chin

BACKGROUND

The main feeding artery of an anterior condylar arteriovenous fistula (AC-AVF) is the ascending pharyngeal artery and rarely the internal maxillary artery.

OBSERVATIONS

A 58-year-old male with a history of sinusitis since adolescence presented with a 5-year history of bilateral pulsatile tinnitus and a 2-month history of right ocular symptoms. Angiography showed that the peripheral branches of the bilateral internal maxillary arteries were the main feeding arteries of the AC-AVF and that they gathered in the clivus with a relatively large shunted pouch in the left jugular tubercle. Shunt flow drained to the right external jugular vein via the right superior ophthalmic vein. A sheath was placed in the right external jugular vein, and a small distal access catheter was guided to the right superior ophthalmic vein to allow the microcatheter to reach the shunted pouch. Selective angiography of the contralateral sphenopalatine artery allowed us to confirm the gathering site of the feeding arteries and the shunted pouch and archive the complete occlusion.

LESSONS

Selective angiography of the contralateral sphenopalatine artery may be useful to confirm the gathering site of the peripheral branches of the bilateral internal maxillary arteries in an AC-AVF.

Open access

Microsurgical intraluminal obliteration of type IV perimedullary arteriovenous fistula with an in situ hemostatic agent: illustrative case

Jacques Lara-Reyna, Jonathan R Garst, Nolan Winslow, and Jeffrey D Klopfenstein

BACKGROUND

Spinal arteriovenous fistulas (SAVFs) are underdiagnosed entities that can lead to severe morbidity from spinal cord dysfunction or hemorrhage. Treatment options include endovascular embolization or direct surgical obliteration at the level of the arteriovenous shunt. The authors present a case of intraluminal microsurgical access for occlusion with a hemostatic agent of a type IV SAVF near the conus medullaris as an alternative to clip occlusion to avoid nerve root compromise.

OBSERVATIONS

Temporary microsurgical clipping of the SAVF led to nerve root compromise detected via intraoperative monitoring. Instead, the authors advanced elongated pieces of a hemostatic agent directly into the arterial lumen via arteriotomy to create direct obliteration of the fistula without intraoperative monitoring changes.

LESSONS

In patients unable to tolerate clipping of the SAVF because of nerve root involvement and neurophysiological signal decline, open access of the vessels and direct intraluminal obliteration using a hemostatic agent should be considered as an alternative method of fistula occlusion.

Open access

Microsurgical resection of a ruptured intraventricular arteriovenous malformation in a neonate: considerations in management. Illustrative case

Lauren Stone, Reid Colliander, Melissa A LoPresti, Ali Shaibani, and Sandi Lam

BACKGROUND

Arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) are the most common cause of intracranial hemorrhage in children, although they are rarer in neonates. Age, location, lesion architecture, and rupture status define treatment options. Sparse literature exists to guide the management of clinically symptomatic intraventricular AVM rupture in neonates. We highlight the case of a neonate with a ruptured intraventricular AVM to showcase considerations in treatment, discuss surgical technique, and help guide management.

OBSERVATIONS

An 18-day-old female presented with lethargy in extremis and was found to have new intraventricular hemorrhage. Angiogram revealed a Spetzler-Martin grade 2 AVM with a right posterior choroidal feeder and deep venous drainage within the ventricle. Her age limited radiosurgical and endovascular interventions. She underwent an interhemispheric, transcollosal, intraventricular approach for complete AVM resection. Perioperative care was managed by a multidisciplinary team, successfully mitigating the patient’s high risk of hemovascular collapse.

LESSONS

Stereotactic radiosurgery, endovascular embolization, and microsurgery are options for AVM obliteration, and multimodal therapy must be tailored to the lesion and patient. Conservative management can also be considered. Each intervention carries risks and varying likelihoods of success. Balancing these outcomes is challenging without definitive, high-quality, evidence-based guidance. The best treatment maximizes the chance of AVM obliteration while minimizing morbidity.

Open access

Ruptured brainstem arteriovenous malformation associated with a thalamoperforating artery aneurysm arising from the P1 segment of the right posterior cerebral artery: illustrative case

Yoshihito Hirata, Masakazu Okawa, Akira Ishii, Yu Abekura, Hisae Mori, Takayuki Kikuchi, Yukihiro Yamao, Susumu Miyamoto, and Yoshiki Arakawa

BACKGROUND

Cerebral aneurysms of perforating arteries are rare and can be difficult to detect on computed tomography angiography (CTA) and digital subtraction angiography. Treatment is challenging and associated with a significant risk of morbidity. Endovascular treatment of a thalamoperforating artery (TPA) aneurysm within the midbrain has not previously been reported.

OBSERVATIONS

A 13-year-old girl with no previous medical history presented with unconsciousness and anisocoria. Head computed tomography showed a right midbrain hemorrhage. CTA showed a midbrain arteriovenous malformation fed by a TPA aneurysm arising from the P1 segment of the right posterior cerebral artery. The feeder had a small distal aneurysm, which increased in size over time. Endovascular embolization was then performed.

LESSONS

Cerebral aneurysms of perforating arteries are rare and can be difficult to treat. This is the first report of the endovascular treatment of a TPA aneurysm within the midbrain. Understanding the individual patient’s brainstem perforator anatomy and the associated blood flow is essential before occluding a TPA aneurysm to avoid causing ischemia or infarction. Arteriovenous malformation embolization within the brainstem should be avoided because of interperforator anastomoses.

Open access

Combined stent retriever angioplasty and continuous intra-arterial nimodipine infusion as salvage therapy for cerebral vasospasm and delayed cerebral ischemia after subarachnoid hemorrhage: illustrative case

Andreas Knoll, Gregor Durner, Michael Braun, Bernd Schmitz, Christian Rainer Wirtz, Ralph König, and Andrej Pala

BACKGROUND

Delayed cerebral ischemia (DCI) and cerebral vasospasm (CV) are severe complications of spontaneous subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) contributing to an inferior outcome. Rescue therapies include intra-arterial balloon angioplasty and repetitive and finally continuous intra-arterial nimodipine infusion.

OBSERVATIONS

In the presented case, a young female patient with fulminant refractory DCI and CV, despite induced hypertension and nimodipine application, was treated with three-vessel continuous intra-arterial infusion and additional repetitive angioplasty of the basilar and middle cerebral arteries using a stent retriever, leading to a good clinical outcome. Additional stent retriever dilatation to continuous intra-arterial nimodipine application in three vessel territories may represent a further escalation step in the rescue therapy for severe CV and DCI after SAH. Montreal Cognitive Assessment and SF-36 testing showed satisfactory results 3 months after initial treatment with intra-arterial nimodipine catheters in three vessel territory circulations and additional stent retriever vasodilation of severe CV.

LESSONS

We report a unique rescue strategy involving implantation of an additional intra-arterial catheter into the vertebral artery and repetitive stent retriever dilatations of the middle cerebral and basilar arteries as an extra therapy for continuous intra-arterial nimodipine vaspospasmolytic therapy in three vessel territories, resulting in a very good clinical outcome.

Open access

Paraclinoid internal carotid artery aneurysm with delayed stent occlusion after deployment of a flow diverter stent involving the orifice of the anterior cerebral artery: illustrative case

Takayuki Imai, Tatsuya Shimizu, Yumeki Yamamoto, Hiroya Shimauchi-Ohtaki, Ryosuke Shintoku, Kaoru Aishima, Masanori Aihara, Fumiaki Honda, and Yuhei Yoshimoto

BACKGROUND

In-stent thrombotic occlusion is a serious ischemic complication that can also result in ischemia in the distal perfusion territory and the territory of side branches for the artery in which the flow diverter (FD) stent is deployed.

OBSERVATIONS

A 49-year-old female with a large paraclinoid internal carotid artery (ICA) aneurysm was treated with an FD involving the orifice of the anterior cerebral artery (ACA). The antiplatelet dose was reduced because of an increased clopidogrel response postintervention. The patient developed aphasia 2 months later. Emergency magnetic resonance imaging and digital subtraction angiography of the brain indicated FD stent occlusion and a small infarct in the distal vascular territory of the ipsilateral ICA, but the anterior choroidal artery (AChoA) territory was preserved by collateral flow. Emergency superficial temporal artery to middle cerebral artery anastomosis was performed, and she was discharged without neurological deficit 2 weeks after the second operation.

LESSONS

In-stent occlusion after FD deployment involving the orifice of the ACA can cause severe cerebral ischemia that requires an adequate antiplatelet effect and careful follow-up. The AChoA territory can be preserved by collateral blood flow even in cases of in-stent occlusion.

Open access

Partially thrombosed giant basilar artery aneurysm with attenuated contrast enhancement of the intraluminal thrombus on vessel wall MRI after flow diversion treatment: illustrative case

So Matsukawa, Akira Ishii, Yasutaka Fushimi, Yu Abekura, Takashi Nagahori, Takayuki Kikuchi, Masakazu Okawa, Yukihiro Yamao, Natsuhi Sasaki, Hirofumi Tsuji, Ryo Akiyama, and Susumu Miyamoto

BACKGROUND

The effect of vessel wall magnetic resonance imaging (VW-MRI) enhancement in partially thrombosed aneurysms has previously indicated aneurysmal instability and a rupture risk. However, whether the contrast effect of the wall changes before or after flow diversion treatment is still under investigation.

OBSERVATIONS

The authors report a case of a partially thrombosed basilar artery aneurysm that increased in size over a short period, worsened brainstem compression symptoms, and was treated with a flow diverter stent with good results. In this case, VW-MRI after surgery showed a reduced contrast effect on the intraluminal thrombus within the aneurysm. The aneurysm thrombosed and markedly regressed over the next 5 months, with remarkable improvement in the brainstem compression symptoms.

LESSONS

This finding on VW-MRI may indicate an attenuation of neovascularization in the thrombus wall and be a sign of aneurysm stabilization.