Browse

You are looking at 11 - 20 of 190 items for :

  • Vascular Disorders x
  • Refine by Access: all x
Clear All
Open access

Spontaneous development and involution of a de novo pseudoaneurysm at the superficial temporal artery–middle cerebral artery bypass anastomotic site in a patient with moyamoya disease: illustrative case

Kristine Ravina, Biraj Patel, and Benjamin Yim

BACKGROUND

De novo pseudoaneurysm formation is a rare complication of extracranial-intracranial bypass surgery.

OBSERVATIONS

The authors report the case of a 28-year-old male who presented with new-onset right temporal and occipital ischemia who was found to have bilateral proximal internal carotid artery occlusion with collateral vasculature formation consistent with moyamoya disease. The patient underwent bilateral superficial temporal artery–middle cerebral artery bypasses. A de novo pseudoaneurysm was found at the left-sided bypass distal anastomotic site recipient vessel 1 month after the surgery. The pseudoaneurysm demonstrated a progressive reduction in size and eventual complete involution at 6 months after surgery.

LESSONS

Limited literature reports extracranial-intracranial bypass-associated aneurysms treated primarily with either clipping or resection and reanastomosis. The authors demonstrate, for the first time, a progressively benign natural history course of an extracranial-intracranial bypass distal anastomotic site pseudoaneurysm.

Open access

Arteriovenous malformation with unique drainage through the emissary vein of the foramen ovale: illustrative case

Xiaochun Zhao, Alexander R Evans, Ali Tayebi Meybodi, Nicholas Hopkins, Ira Bowen, Shyian S Jen, Mark C Preul, and Karl Balsara

BACKGROUND

As part of the laterotrigeminal venous system (LTVS), the emissary vein of the foramen ovale (EVFO) is an underrecognized venous structure communicating between the cavernous sinus and pterygoid plexus. The sphenobasal sinus is an anatomical variation of the sphenoparietal sinus that drains directly into the EVFO. The authors present the case of a ruptured arteriovenous malformation (AVM) with a unique drainage pattern through the sphenobasal sinus and EVFO.

OBSERVATIONS

A 9-year-old female initially presented with loss of consciousness and was subsequently found to have a ruptured AVM in the left basal frontal area. She underwent an immediate decompressive hemicraniectomy, with a computed tomography angiogram demonstrating a unique anatomical variation in which the sphenobasal sinus communicated with the EVFO and LTVS. The final venous drainage returned to the pterygoid plexus and external jugular vein. Postoperatively, the patient made a substantial recovery, with generalized right-sided weakness remaining as the sole deficit.

LESSONS

The authors present the case of a ruptured AVM with unique venous drainage into the sphenobasal sinus and EVFO, for which the current literature remains limited. As exemplified by this illustrative case, technique modification may be warranted in the setting of this unique anatomical variation to avoid venous sinus injury.

Open access

Continuous direct intraarterial treatment of meningitis-induced vasospasm in a pediatric patient: illustrative case

Aubrey C Rogers, Aditya D Goyal, and Alexandra R Paul

BACKGROUND

Bacterial meningitis–induced ischemic stroke continues to cause significant long-term complications in pediatric patients. The authors present a case of severe right internal carotid artery terminus and M1 segment vasospasm in a 9-year-old with an infected cholesteatoma, which was refractory to multiple intraarterial treatments with verapamil and milrinone. This is the first report of continuous intraarterial antispasmodic treatment in a pediatric patient as well as the first report of continuous treatment in an awake and extubated patient.

OBSERVATIONS

Arterial narrowing was successfully treated by continuous direct intraarterial administration of both a calcium channel blocker (verapamil) and a phosphodiesterase-3 inhibitor (milrinone). The patient recovered remarkably well and was discharged home with no neurological deficit (National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score 0) and ambulatory without assistance after 22 days. The authors report a promising outcome of this technique performed in a pediatric patient.

LESSONS

This represents a novel treatment option for the prevention of stroke in pediatric bacterial meningitis. Continuous, direct intraarterial administration of antispasmodic medications can successfully prevent long-term neurological deficit in pediatric meningitis-associated vasospasm. The described method has the potential to significantly improve outcomes in severe pediatric meningitis-associated vasospasm.

Open access

Twig-like middle cerebral artery as a variety of isolated middle cerebral artery disease with new vessel formation: illustrative case

Hideki Nakajima, Ryota Miyake, Katsuma Iwaki, Taku Hongo, Morio Takasaki, and Yasuhiro Fujimoto

BACKGROUND

Twig-like middle cerebral artery (T-MCA) is reported as a rare vascular anomaly characterized by reconstitution of the M1 segment of the middle cerebral artery (MCA) by a plexiform network of small vessels. Although it is generally believed that the etiology of T-MCA is an embryological persistence, some investigators have suggested that T-MCA may be a secondary consequence. Here, the authors report a second case of de novo T-MCA formation and reconsider the concept of T-MCA in connection with isolated MCA disease.

OBSERVATIONS

A 40-year-old man’s brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) checkup showed moderate stenosis of the M1 segment of the left MCA. Annual MRI follow-up was planned, and when performed 1 year later, it showed occlusion of the M1 segment of the left MCA. Cerebral angiography revealed occlusion of that M1 segment with abnormal arterial networks. This case was diagnosed as de novo T-MCA. The patient has remained asymptomatic for 2 years.

LESSONS

The reports of de novo T-MCA indicate that acquired factors may be involved in the pathogenesis of T-MCA. We suggest that T-MCA should be defined as a variety of isolated MCA disease with new vessel formation.

Open access

Recurrence of an extracranial internal carotid artery aneurysm treated with STA-MCA bypass and trapping due to neovascularization from an ascending pharyngeal artery: illustrative case

Keijiro Shomura, Tomoya Kamide, Takehiro Uno, Kouichi Misaki, Satoko Nakada, Yukinobu Ito, Hemragul Sabit, Akifumi Yoshikawa, Masanao Mohri, Naoyuki Uchiyama, and Mitsutoshi Nakada

BACKGROUND

Extracranial internal carotid artery aneurysms (EICAs) are rare. Although a high mortality risk has been reported in nonoperated cases, the optimal treatment for EICAs remains unknown.

OBSERVATIONS

A 79-year-old female presented with painless swelling in the right neck. Imaging revealed a giant EICA with a maximum diameter of 3.2 cm. Superficial temporal artery–middle cerebral artery bypass and internal carotid artery (ICA) trapping were performed. Because the distal aneurysm edge was at the C1 level, the distal portion of the aneurysm was occluded by endovascular coiling, and the proximal portion was surgically ligated. Blood flow into the aneurysm disappeared after the operation. Three years postsurgery, enlargement of the aneurysm with blood flow from the ascending pharyngeal artery (APA) was detected. The EICA was resected after coiling the APA and ligating both ends of the aneurysm. Pathologically, neovascularization within the aneurysm wall was observed.

LESSONS

Even if blood flow into an EICA disappears after ICA trapping, the EICAs can enlarge due to neovascularization from the neighboring artery. From the outset, removal of the aneurysm should be considered as a radical treatment strategy for giant EICAs.

Open access

Sternocleidomastoid muscle-splitting method for high cervical carotid endarterectomy: illustrative cases

Atsushi Sato, Tetsuo Sasaki, Toshihiro Ogiwara, Kazuhiro Hongo, and Tetsuyoshi Horiuchi

BACKGROUND

The number of cervical carotid endarterectomies (CEAs) has decreased as carotid artery stenting (CAS) has increased. However, CEA and CAS both have advantages and disadvantages; therefore, appropriate procedures must be selected for individual patients. High-positioned carotid artery stenosis presents technical challenges for CEA and is occasionally managed by performing CAS. However, CAS is associated with a high risk of thrombosis in patients with soft plaques, suggesting a clinical need for a better procedure. Consequently, appropriate surgical treatment for patients requiring high-level CEAs is essential.

OBSERVATIONS

In this study, a novel and straightforward method was devised. The primary concept underlying this technique is separation of the sternocleidomastoid muscle (SCM) from other anatomical structures to ensure a wider surgical field. By anatomically separating the SCM into the sternal and clavicular head groups, the objective of the wider surgical field can be met. Herein, we report technical innovations in high-positioned carotid artery stenosis and evaluate their efficacy in two patients.

LESSONS

In conclusion, high CEA surgery using this new method is valuable and may eliminate barriers to more advanced approaches.

Open access

Coexistence of anterior choroidal artery and posterior cerebral artery retia mirabilia presenting with subarachnoid hemorrhage: illustrative case

Izumi Yamaguchi, Yasuhisa Kanematsu, Kenji Shimada, Masaaki Korai, Kazuhisa Miyake, Shu Sogabe, Manabu Ishihara, Tatsuya Haboshi, Natsumi Teshima, Kaito Suzuki, and Yasushi Takagi

BACKGROUND

A rete mirabile is a rare vascular anomaly, with posterior cerebral artery (PCA) involvement being especially rare. Its pathogenesis has been speculated as a remnant of “distal annexation” between the primitive anterior choroidal artery (AchA) and the PCA at this site, but the exact mechanisms remain unclear.

OBSERVATIONS

A 29-year-old man presented with subarachnoid hemorrhage. Arteriovenous malformation in the medial temporal lobe was initially suspected, but an arteriovenous shunt was not detected. First, conservative treatment was administered; however, rebleeding occurred 1 month later. Carotid angiography revealed a network-like cluster of blood vessels at the choroidal point of the AchA, suggesting a rete mirabile; these vessel clusters led to the persistent temporo-occipital branch of the AchA. Furthermore, an aneurysm was detected at the junction between the rete mirabile and the persistent temporo-occipital branch of the AchA. Additionally, vertebral angiography demonstrated a rete mirabile at the P2 segment. These findings suggested the coexistence of AchA and PCA retia mirabilia. Consequently, the aneurysm was clipped using a subtemporal approach to prevent re-rupture, and the postoperative course was uneventful.

LESSONS

This first report of coexisting AchA and PCA retia mirabilia supports the remnant of distal annexation between the primitive AchA and the PCA as the reason for rete formation at this site.

Open access

Microvascular decompression for developmental venous anomaly causing hemifacial spasm: illustrative case

Margaret Tugend and Raymond F Sekula Jr.

BACKGROUND

Developmental venous anomaly (DVA) is a rare cause of hemifacial spasm (HFS). The treatment of HFS caused by a DVA varies in the literature and includes medication management, botulinum toxin injections, and microvascular decompression (MVD).

OBSERVATIONS

A 64-year-old woman presented with right-sided HFS. Preoperative magnetic resonance imaging showed a DVA in the right inferior pons, with an enlarged segment compressing the facial nerve at its root detachment point prior to drainage into the superior petrosal sinus. MVD was performed, and the facial nerve was decompressed without sacrifice of the vein. Immediately following the procedure, the patient had significantly reduced spasms. The patient became spasm-free 3 months after MVD and maintained spasm freedom for 3 months. Six months after MVD, the patient had a partial return of spasms. At 8 months, the patient continued to have reduced and intermittent spasms in the right orbicularis oculi muscle.

LESSONS

MVD for HFS caused by a DVA is a safe procedure and can be effective at reducing spasm frequency and severity.

Open access

Supracerebellar infratentorial resection of a torcular lesion causing fulminant intracranial hypertension: illustrative case

Jonathan Dallas, Jessica R Lane, Benjamin S Hopkins, Melinda Chang, Mark Borchert, Nestor R Gonzalez, Peter A Chiarelli, and Jason K Chu

BACKGROUND

Venous sinus stenosis has been implicated in intracranial hypertension and can lead to papilledema and blindness. The authors report the unique case of a cerebellar transtentorial lesion resulting in venous sinus stenosis in the torcula and bilateral transverse sinuses that underwent resection.

OBSERVATIONS

A 5-year-old male presented with subacute vision loss and bilateral papilledema. Imaging demonstrated a lesion causing mass effect on the torcula/transverse sinuses and findings of increased intracranial pressure (ICP). A lumbar puncture confirmed elevated pressure, and the patient underwent bilateral optic nerve sheath fenestration. Cerebral angiography and venous manometry showed elevated venous sinus pressures suggestive of venous hypertension. The patient underwent a craniotomy and supracerebellar/infratentorial approach. A stalk emanating from the cerebellum through the tentorium was identified and divided. Postoperative magnetic resonance imaging showed decreased lesion size and improved sinus patency. Papilledema resolved and other findings of elevated ICP improved. Pathology was consistent with atrophic cerebellar cortex. Serial imaging over 6 months demonstrated progressive decrease in the lesion with concurrent improvements in sinus patency.

LESSONS

Although uncommon, symptoms of intracranial hypertension in patients with venous sinus lesions should prompt additional workup ranging from dedicated venous imaging to assessments of ICP and venous manometry.

Open access

Disconnection of a jugular foramen dural arteriovenous fistula with cortical venous reflux via an intradural retrosigmoid approach: illustrative case

Richard Shaw, Johnny Wong, Hugo Andrade, and Ivan Radovanovic

BACKGROUND

Jugular foramen dural arteriovenous fistulas (DAVFs) are rare and challenging lesions. Described methods of treatment include embolization and microsurgical disconnection through a far lateral transcondylar approach. The authors present the case of a Borden type III jugular foramen DAVF, which was treated with a novel, less invasive retrosigmoid approach with intradural skeletonization and packing of the sigmoid sinus.

OBSERVATIONS

The patient presented with headache and visual field deficit. Neuroimaging demonstrated a right temporal intracerebral hematoma with mass effect. This was due to a Borden type III jugular foramen DAVF with cortical venous reflux into the vein of Labbe secondary to recanalization of a previously thrombosed sigmoid sinus. Microsurgical disconnection was performed via a retrosigmoid approach, in which the sigmoid sinus was identified intradurally at the jugular foramen. The sigmoid sinus was isolated by drilling at the pre- and retrosigmoid spaces to permit packing and clip ligation. Postoperative angiography revealed complete occlusion of the DAVF.

LESSONS

Jugular foramen DAVFs are rare entities, which have been traditionally treated through a far lateral transcondylar approach. An intradural retrosigmoid approach is a safe, less invasive alternative, which involves less soft tissue and bony dissection and does not have the associated morbidity of craniocervical instability and hypoglossal neuropathy.