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Muhammad Ali, Xiangnan Zhang, Luis C. Ascanio, Zachary Troiani, Colton Smith, Neha S. Dangayach, John W. Liang, Magdy Selim, J Mocco, and Christopher P. Kellner

OBJECTIVE

Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is a devastating form of stroke with no proven treatment. However, minimally invasive endoscopic evacuation is a promising potential therapeutic option for ICH. Herein, the authors examine factors associated with long-term functional independence (modified Rankin Scale [mRS] score ≤ 2) in patients with spontaneous ICH who underwent minimally invasive endoscopic evacuation.

METHODS

Patients with spontaneous supratentorial ICH who had presented to a large urban healthcare system from December 2015 to October 2018 were triaged to a central hospital for minimally invasive endoscopic evacuation. Inclusion criteria for this study included age ≥ 18 years, hematoma volume ≥ 15 ml, National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) score ≥ 6, premorbid mRS score ≤ 3, and time from ictus ≤ 72 hours. Demographic, clinical, and radiographic factors previously shown to impact functional outcome in ICH were included in a retrospective univariate analysis with patients dichotomized into independent (mRS score ≤ 2) and dependent (mRS score ≥ 3) outcome groups, according to 6-month mRS scores. Factors that reached a threshold of p < 0.05 in a univariate analysis were included in a multivariate logistic regression.

RESULTS

A total of 90 patients met the study inclusion criteria. The median preoperative hematoma volume was 41 (IQR 27–65) ml and the median postoperative volume was 1.2 (0.3–7.5) ml, resulting in a median evacuation percentage of 97% (85%–99%). The median hospital length of stay was 17 (IQR 9–25) days, and 8 (9%) patients died within 30 days of surgery. Twenty-four (27%) patients had attained functional independence by 6 months. Factors independently associated with long-term functional independence included lower NIHSS score at presentation (OR per point 0.78, 95% CI 0.67–0.91, p = 0.002), lack of intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH; OR 0.20, 95% CI 0.05–0.77, p = 0.02), and shorter time to evacuation (OR per hour 0.95, 95% CI 0.91–0.99, p = 0.007). Specifically, patients who had undergone evacuation within 24 hours of ictus demonstrated an mRS score ≤ 2 rate of 36% and were associated with an increased likelihood of long-term independence (OR 17.7, 95% CI 1.90–164, p = 0.01) as compared to those who had undergone evacuation after 48 hours.

CONCLUSIONS

In a single-center minimally invasive endoscopic ICH evacuation cohort, NIHSS score on presentation, lack of IVH, and shorter time to evacuation were independently associated with functional independence at 6 months. Factors associated with functional independence may help to better predict populations suitable for minimally invasive endoscopic evacuation and guide protocols for future clinical trials.

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Bennett R. Levy, Muhammad Waqas, Andre Monteiro, Justin M. Cappuzzo, Ammad A. Baig, Wasiq I. Khawar, Jason M. Davies, Kenneth V. Snyder, Adnan H. Siddiqui, Howard A. Riina, and Elad I. Levy

OBJECTIVE

Carotid stenosis is currently treated by carotid endarterectomy (CEA), carotid artery stenting (CAS), or transcarotid artery revascularization (TCAR). This study sought to add to the literature by providing real-world data comparing the safety and effectiveness associated with the performance of these carotid revascularization techniques by dual-trained neurosurgeons.

METHODS

The authors performed a retrospective review of carotid stenosis databases at two US centers. Patients treated by CEA, transfemoral CAS, or TCAR for atherosclerotic carotid artery disease were included. Clinical outcomes were compared at 30 days after the procedure.

RESULTS

Seven hundred eighty patients were included (583 with CAS, 165 with CEA, and 32 with TCAR). Overall, 486 patients (62.3%) were men, and 393 (50.4%) had left-sided carotid stenosis. Most patients (n = 617, 79.1%) had symptomatic disease. Among the three treatment groups, there were no statistically significant differences with respect to 30-day ischemic events (CAS 3.8%, CEA 1.8%, TCAR 6.3%; p = 0.267) or 30-day mortality rates (CAS 3.6%, CEA 2.4%, TCAR 3.1%; p = 0.857). Male sex had significantly lower odds of 30-day transient ischemic attack (TIA) or stroke in both univariable (p = 0.024) and multivariable (p = 0.023) regression models. Increasing age had significantly higher odds of 30-day mortality on univariable (p = 0.006) and multivariable (p = 0.003) regression. Patients with the occurrence of 30-day TIA or stroke also had significantly higher odds of 30-day mortality on univariable (p < 0.001) and multivariable (p < 0.001) regression.

CONCLUSIONS

This real-world experience reflects the current practice of hybrid neurosurgery at two high-volume tertiary care centers and suggests that all three treatment modalities have comparable safety and effectiveness if patients are properly selected.

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Yung-Hsueh Hu, Yu-Cheng Yeh, Chi-Chien Niu, Ming-Kai Hsieh, Tsung-Ting Tsai, Wen-Jer Chen, and Po-Liang Lai

OBJECTIVE

Decreased bone mineral density as measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) has been reported to be associated with cage subsidence following transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (TLIF). However, DEXA is not often available or routinely performed before surgery. A novel MRI-based vertebral bone quality (VBQ) score has been developed and reported to be correlated with DEXA T-scores. The authors investigated the ability of the VBQ score to predict cage subsidence and other risk factors associated with this complication.

METHODS

In this retrospective study, the authors reviewed the records of patients who had undergone single-level TLIF from March 2014 to October 2015 and had a follow-up of more than 2 years. Cage subsidence was measured as postoperative disc height loss and was graded according to the system proposed by Marchi et al. The MRI-based VBQ score was measured on T1-weighted images. Univariable analysis and multivariable binary logistic regression analysis were performed. Ad hoc analysis with receiver operating characteristic curve analysis was performed to assess the predictive ability of the significant continuous variables. Additional analyses were used to determine the correlations between the VBQ score and T-scores and between the significant continuous variables and the amount of cage subsidence.

RESULTS

Among 242 patients eligible for study inclusion, 111 (45.87%) had cage subsidence after the index operation. Multivariable logistic regression analyses demonstrated that an increased VBQ score (OR 14.615 ± 0.377, p < 0.001), decreased depth ratio (OR 0.011 ± 1.796, p = 0.013), and the use of kidney-shaped cages instead of bullet-shaped cages (OR 2.766 ± 0.358, p = 0.008) were associated with increased cage subsidence. The VBQ score was shown to significantly predict cage subsidence with an accuracy of 85.6%. The VBQ score was found to be moderately correlated with DEXA T-scores of the total hip (r = −0.540, p < 0.001) and the lumbar spine (r = −0.546, p < 0.001). The amount of cage subsidence was moderately correlated with the VBQ score (r = 0.512, p < 0.001).

CONCLUSIONS

Increased VBQ scores, posteriorly placed cages, and kidney-shaped cages were risk factors for cage subsidence. The VBQ score was shown to be a good predictor of cage subsidence, was moderately correlated with DEXA T-scores for the total hip and lumbar spine, and also had a moderate correlation with the amount of cage subsidence.

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Lorenzo Giammattei, Thibault Passeri, Rosaria Abbritti, Stefan Lieber, Fumihiro Matano, Tuan Le Van, Atsushi Okano, Arianna Fava, Paolo di Russo, and Sébastien Froelich

OBJECTIVE

Concerns about the approach-related morbidity of the extradural anterior petrosal approach (EAPA) have been raised, especially regarding temporal lobe and venous injuries, hearing impairment, facial nerve palsy, cerebrospinal fluid fistula, and seizures. There is lack in the literature of studies with detailed analysis of surgical complications. The authors have presented a large series of patients who were treated with EAPA, focusing on complications and their avoidance.

METHODS

The authors carried out a retrospective review of patients who underwent EAPA at their institution between 2012 and 2021. They collected preoperative clinical characteristics, operative reports, operative videos, findings on neuroimaging, histological diagnosis, postoperative course, and clinical status at last follow-up. For pathologies without petrous bone invasion, the amount of petrous apex drilling was calculated and classified as low (< 70% of the volume) or high (≥ 70%). Complications were dichotomized as approach related and resection related.

RESULTS

This study included 49 patients: 26 with meningiomas, 10 brainstem cavernomas, 4 chondrosarcomas, 4 chordomas, 2 schwannomas, 1 epidermoid cyst, 1 cholesterol granuloma, and 1 osteoblastoma. The most common approach-related complications were temporal lobe injury (6.1% of patients), seizures (6.1%), pseudomeningocele (6.1%), hearing impairment (4.1%), and dry eye (4.1%). Approach-related complications occurred most commonly in patients with a meningioma (p = 0.02) and Meckel’s cave invasion (p = 0.02). Gross-total or near-total resection was correlated with a higher rate of tumor resection–related complications (p = 0.02) but not approach-related complications (p = 0.76). Inferior, lateral, and superior tumoral extension were not correlated with a higher rate of tumor resection–related complications. No correlation was found between high amount of petrous bone drilling and approach- or resection-related complications.

CONCLUSIONS

EAPA is a challenging approach that deals with critical neurovascular structures and demands specific skills to be safely performed. Contrary to general belief, its approach-related morbidity seems to be acceptable at dedicated skull base centers. Morbidity can be lowered with careful examination of the preoperative neuroradiological workup, appropriate patient selection, and attention to technical details.

Open access

Shunji Matsubara, Hiroki Takai, Noriya Enomoto, Keijiro Hara, Satoshi Hirai, Yoshihiro Sunada, Shodai Yamada, Yoshifumi Tao, Yukari Ogawa, Kenji Yagi, and Masaaki Uno

BACKGROUND

Although an anterior cranial fossa dural arteriovenous fistula (ACFdAVF) is thought to have a fistula on the dura near the olfactory groove, the detailed angioarchitecture remains unreported.

OBSERVATIONS

In case 1, a 65-year-old man was found to have an asymptomatic ACFAVF. His computed tomography angiography (CTA)-maximum intensity projection (MIP) showed the shunt point in the crista galli (CG), with the intradural drainer penetrating the destroyed bone of the CG. In case 2, a 78-year-old man had a past history of intracerebral hemorrhage and was found to have an ACFAVF. The rotational angiography (RA)-MIP showed the intraosseous fistula in the CG with the drainer passing through a tiny bone defect of the CG. In case 3, a 35-year-old man was investigated for epilepsy. The RA-MIP showed an osseous arteriovenous fistula (AVF) in the anterior cranial base, with the drainer penetrating the skull osteolytic site. In case 4, a 73-year-old woman was found to have an asymptomatic ACFAVF. Her RA-MIP showed the osseous AVF with the drainer penetrating the CG with bone erosion.

LESSSONS

All patients were diagnosed with anterior cranial fossa osseous AVF rather than dAVF, with bone erosion in the CG. These findings should be noted at the time of diagnosis and treatment.

Open access

Kenji Fukutome, Shuta Aketa, Junji Fukumori, Takaaki Mitsui, Tsukasa Nakajima, Hiromichi Hayami, Ryuta Matsuoka, Rinsei Tei, Yasushi Shin, and Yasushi Motoyama

BACKGROUND

Compared with several reports of cerebral vasospasm after clipping for unruptured cerebral aneurysm, only one study to date has reported cerebral vasospasm after coil embolization. Herein, the authors report a rare case of cerebral vasospasm after coil embolization for unruptured cerebral aneurysm.

OBSERVATIONS

A 58-year-old woman with an unruptured anterior communicating artery aneurysm was referred to our department. Stent-assisted coil embolization was performed for the aneurysm, and no obvious adverse events were observed on cerebral angiography obtained immediately after the operation. However, the patient developed mild headache and slight restlessness soon after the operation and new-onset disorientation, left hemispatial neglect, and left hemiplegia the day after the operation. Emergency brain magnetic resonance imaging and cerebral angiography indicated vasospasm in the right middle cerebral artery, and intra-arterial injection of fasudil hydrochloride hydrate was performed to dilate the middle cerebral artery. Blood flow in the middle cerebral artery immediately improved, and she was discharged without neurological deficits 8 days after the operation.

LESSONS

Immediate intervention is necessary to prevent cerebral infarction in patients with cerebral vasospasm, which may occur even after coil embolization for unruptured cerebral aneurysm.

Open access

Michael Y. Zhao, Phillip H. Keys, Shahin Owji, Mohammad Pakravan, Chaow Charoenkijkajorn, Peter W. Mortensen, and Andrew G. Lee

BACKGROUND

Microvascular decompression is an effective treatment strategy for trigeminal neuralgia. However, there may be inadvertent complications involving adjacent cranial nerves during or months after the operation. This case lesson highlights the potential manifestations, both optical and nonneurologic (monocular) and binocular diplopia, after microvascular decompression in two patients. Neurosurgeons should recognize monocular versus binocular causes of diplopia after neurosurgical microvascular decompression.

OBSERVATIONS

The authors reported on two patients who presented with diplopia after microvascular decompression for trigeminal neuralgia. The first patient had binocular diplopia with a paradoxical head tilt potentially due to a contiguous trochlear nerve palsy. The second patient had monocular diplopia due to dry eye syndrome from trigeminal nerve dysfunction. However, within 2 years after their operations, both patients had resolution of their diplopia without additional surgical intervention.

LESSONS

Both monocular and binocular diplopia can be presenting symptoms of cranial neuropathies after microvascular decompression for trigeminal neuralgia. Most cases of postoperative diplopia (both monocular and binocular) resolve spontaneously over time without additional neurosurgical treatment.

Open access

Durga Neupane, Alok Dahal, Nimesh Lageju, Lokesh Shekher Jaiswal, Nimesh Bista, and Aakriti Sapkota

BACKGROUND

Sacrococcygeal teratomas (SCTs) are tumors that emerge in the sacrococcygeal area and contain tissue from all three germ layers. SCT affects about 1 in every 35,000–40,000 live births, with malignant transformation becoming more common as the patient gets older. Ultrasound helps in prenatal diagnosis. Surgical resection is the mainstay of treatment.

OBSERVATIONS

A couple gave birth to a neonate with a small mass over his sacral region that progressively increased in size. Diagnostic magnetic resonance imaging was performed, and a diagnosis of giant SCT was established. Complete resection with flap reconstruction was performed. In regular follow-up, he is in a good state of health.

LESSONS

One of the most common tumors in infancy, SCT should be carefully diagnosed. SCT is often confused with neural tube defects such as myelocystocele or myelomeningocele. Complete resection with appropriate reconstruction can ensure better treatment, and close follow-up until adulthood is recommended to keep a close view on its possible recurrence and to improve prognosis. Postoperative complications such as infection, bleeding, and urethral complications should be carefully watched.

Open access

Nozomi Sasaki, Yoshinori Kotani, Yohei Ito, and Shinji Noda

BACKGROUND

Hypoperfusion due to intracranial cerebral vasospasm after carotid artery stenting (CAS) is rare. The authors presented a case of selective intraarterial infusion of fasudil hydrochloride for cerebral vasospasm after CAS.

OBSERVATIONS

A 73-year-old man received CAS for asymptomatic right cervical internal carotid artery stenosis. Twelve hours after CAS, disturbance of consciousness, left hemiplegia, and right conjugate deviation appeared in the patient. Head computed tomography angiography showed diffuse vasospasm of the right middle cerebral artery (MCA). The authors hypothesized that the cause of the symptoms was hypoperfusion due to intracranial cerebral vasospasm. Medical treatment was started; however, the focal symptoms worsened rapidly. Therefore, the authors decided to infuse fasudil intraarterially. This treatment resulted in a remarkable improvement in blood flow and gradual recovery from neurological symptoms. Head magnetic resonance angiography on the day after fasudil infusion showed improved visualization of the right MCA. The neurological symptoms almost completely disappeared 22 hours after fasudil infusion (40 hours after CAS).

LESSONS

As a complication after CAS, the possibility of hypoperfusion due to cerebral vasospasm should be considered. If symptoms due to hypoperfusion worsen even after medical treatment, intraarterial infusion of fasudil may be an effective option.

Open access

Kokoro Kamisaka, Shusuke Yamamoto, Taisuke Shiro, Emiko Hori, Daina Kashiwazaki, Naoki Akioka, and Satoshi Kuroda

BACKGROUND

Although most cases of internal carotid artery (ICA) agenesis are clinically silent due to a well-developed collateral pathway, some cases may develop ischemic symptoms when they are associated with other occlusive cerebrovascular disorders. The authors describe herein the first case with ICA agenesis that developed ischemic attack because of coincidence with moyamoya disease.

OBSERVATIONS

A 3-year-old girl was admitted to the authors’ hospital due to sudden onset of right arm weakness followed by clonic convulsion. Skull computed tomography could not identify the carotid canal on the left side. Simultaneously, magnetic resonance (MR) imaging and MR angiography demonstrated the luminal stenosis and outer diameter reduction of the carotid fork and posterior cerebral artery on the left side. She was diagnosed with unilateral moyamoya disease associated with ipsilateral ICA agenesis. She successfully underwent combined bypass surgery on the left side and has been free from any cerebrovascular events during a follow-up period of 6 months.

LESSONS

When patients with ICA agenesis develop ischemic symptoms, careful investigation of the cause and appropriate care, including surgical treatment, are required.