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Feng Chen, Xiankun Meng, Tong Li, Zhiming Xu, Shengli Li, Yong Zhou, Xiaoqun Hou, Shougang Tan, Lin Mei, Luo Li, Bowen Chang, Weimin Wang, and Mingxing Liu

OBJECTIVE

Infection is one of the important and frequent complications following implantable pulse generator and deep brain stimulation (DBS) electrode insertion. The goal of this study was to retrospectively evaluate and identify potential risk factors for DBS infections.

METHODS

From January 2015 to January 2021 in Qingdao municipal hospital (training cohort) and The First Affiliated Hospital of the University of Science and Technology of China (validation cohort), the authors enrolled patients with Parkinson disease who had undergone primary DBS placement or implantable pulse generator replacement. The cases were divided into infection or no-infection groups according to the 6-month follow-up. The authors used the logistic regression models to determine the association between the variables and DBS infection. Depending on the results of logistic regression, the authors established a nomogram. The calibration curves, receiver operating characteristic curve analysis, and decision curves were used to evaluate the reliability of the nomogram.

RESULTS

There were 191 cases enrolled in the no-infection group and 20 cases in the infection group in the training cohort. The univariate logistic regression showed that BMI, blood glucose, and albumin were all significant predictors of infection after DBS surgery (OR 0.832 [p = 0.009], OR 1.735 [p < 0.001], and OR 0.823 [p = 0.001], respectively). In the crude, adjust I, and adjust II models, the three variables stated above were all considered to be significant predictors of infection after DBS surgery. The calibration curves in both training and validation cohorts showed that the predicted outcome fitted well to the observed outcome (p > 0.05). The decision curves showed that the nomogram had more benefits than the "All or None" scheme. The areas under the curve were 0.93 and 0.83 in the training and validation cohorts, respectively.

CONCLUSIONS

The nomogram included BMI, blood glucose, and albumin, which were significant predictors of infection in patients with DBS surgery. The nomogram was reliable for clinical application.

Free access

Alexander J. Kassicieh, Kavelin Rumalla, Syed Faraz Kazim, Derek B. Asserson, Meic H. Schmidt, and Christian A. Bowers

OBJECTIVE

Perioperative and/or postoperative cerebrovascular accidents (PCVAs) after intracranial tumor resection (ITR) are serious complications with devastating effects on quality of life and survival. Here, the authors retrospectively analyzed a prospectively maintained, multicenter surgical registry to design a risk model for PCVA after ITR to support efforts in neurosurgical personalized medicine to risk stratify patients and potentially mitigate poor outcomes.

METHODS

The National Surgical Quality Improvement Program database was queried for ITR cases (2015–2019, n = 30,951). Patients with and without PCVAs were compared on baseline demographics, preoperative clinical characteristics, and outcomes. Frailty (physiological reserve for surgery) was measured by the Revised Risk Analysis Index (RAI-rev). Logistic regression analysis was performed to identify independent associations between preoperative covariates and PCVA occurrence. The ITR-PCVA risk model was generated based on logit effect sizes and assessed in area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC) analysis.

RESULTS

The rate of PCVA was 1.7% (n = 532). Patients with PCVAs, on average, were older and frailer, and had increased rates of nonelective surgery, interhospital transfer status, diabetes, hypertension, unintentional weight loss, and elevated BUN. PCVA was associated with higher rates of postoperative reintubation, infection, thromboembolic events, prolonged length of stay, readmission, reoperation, nonhome discharge destination, and 30-day mortality (all p < 0.001). In multivariable analysis, predictors of PCVAs included RAI “frail” category (OR 1.7, 95% CI 1.2–2.4; p = 0.006), Black (vs White) race (OR 1.5, 95% CI 1.1–2.1; p = 0.009), nonelective surgery (OR 1.4, 95% CI 1.1–1.7; p = 0.003), diabetes mellitus (OR 1.5, 95% CI 1.1–1.9; p = 0.002), hypertension (OR 1.4, 95% CI 1.1–1.7; p = 0.006), and preoperative elevated blood urea nitrogen (OR 1.4, 95% CI 1.1–1.8; p = 0.014). The ITR-PCVA predictive model was proposed from the resultant multivariable analysis and performed with a modest C-statistic in AUROC analysis of 0.64 (95% CI 0.61–0.66). Multicollinearity diagnostics did not detect any correlation between RAI-rev parameters and other covariates (variance inflation factor = 1).

CONCLUSIONS

The current study proposes a novel preoperative risk model for PCVA in patients undergoing ITR. Patients with poor physiological reserve (measured by frailty), multiple comorbidities, abnormal preoperative laboratory values, and those admitted under high acuity were at highest risk. The ITR-PCVA risk model may support patient-centered counseling striving to respect goals of care and maximize quality of life. Future prospective studies are warranted to validate the ITR-PCVA risk model and evaluate its utility as a bedside clinical tool.

Free access

Shalini Suman, Ravi Sharma, Varidh Katiyar, Swati Mahajan, Ashish Suri, Mehar C. Sharma, Chitra Sarkar, and Vaishali Suri

OBJECTIVE

The authors aimed to assess the frequency of homozygous CDKN2A deletion in isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH)–mutant diffuse astrocytomas (grade 2/3) and to narrow down the clinicopathological indications in which the CDKN2A fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) assay is cost-effective in resource-constrained settings.

METHODS

IDH-mutant astrocytomas were analyzed for ATRX, p53, MIB1-LI, and p16 expression using immunohistochemistry. The FISH assay was used to evaluate CDKN2A deletion and 1p/19q codeletion. Survival outcomes were assessed according to the different molecular markers.

RESULTS

A total of 150 adult patients with IDH-mutant grade 2 (n = 95) and grade 3 (n = 55) astrocytomas (145 primary and 5 recurrent) were analyzed. Using a cutoff value of 30% for defining significant homozygous CDKN2A deletion, none of the grade 2 and 10.9% (6/55) of grade 3 astrocytomas showed this deletion (4 primary and 2 recurrent grade 3 tumors) and were reclassified as grade 4. This mutation was more frequent in recurrent (40%, 2/5) than primary (2.76%, 4/145) gliomas. Half (3/6, 50%) of the CDKN2A-deleted cases demonstrated poor outcomes; 2 of these cases experienced recurrence at 12 and 36 months after surgery, and 1 died at 5 months. The majority of CDKN2A-deleted cases showed marked cellularity (100%), pleomorphism (100%), brisk mitosis (83.3%), and tumor giant cell formation (83.4%). None of the cases with retained p16 expression harbored this deletion. Both overall survival (p = 0.039) and progression-free survival (p = 0.0045) were found to be worse in cases with p16 loss. Selectively performing CDKN2A FISH only in high-risk cases with histomorphological features of anaplasia, p16 loss, or recurrent tumors achieved a sensitivity and negative predictive value of 100%. This approach would have resulted in saving 41.1% of the original expenditure ($6900 US per 150 samples) and 27.6 person-minutes per sample without compromising the identification of deleted cases.

CONCLUSIONS

Homozygous CDKN2A deletion is conspicuously absent in grade 2 and rare in primary grade 3 IDH-mutant astrocytomas. The authors propose that restricting use of the FISH assay to cases showing histomorphological features of anaplasia, p16 loss, or recurrent tumors will help this platform to be utilized in the most cost-effective manner in resource-constrained settings.

Free access

Moritz Ueberschaer, Sophie Katzendobler, Annamaria Biczok, Michael Schmutzer, Tobias Greve, Joerg-Christian Tonn, Jun Thorsteinsdottir, and Walter Rachinger

OBJECTIVE

The transsphenoidal approach is the standard for most pituitary tumors. Despite low morbidity, postoperative CSF fistulas and meningitis are specific complications. Various surgical closure techniques for intraoperative CSF (iCSF) leak and sellar reconstruction have been described. For many years the authors have applied synthetic materials for iCSF leak repair and sellar closure in a standardized fashion in their department. Here they analyze the surgical outcome as well as risk factors for iCSF leak and meningitis.

METHODS

All patients with transsphenoidal resection of a pituitary adenoma performed by the same surgeon between January 2013 and December 2019 were screened retrospectively. A small amount of iCSF flow without a diaphragmatic defect was classified as a minor leak, and obvious CSF flow with or without a diaphragmatic defect was classified as a major leak. In case of iCSF leak, a fibrin- and thrombin-coated sponge was used to cover the diaphragmatic defect and another one was used for the sellar opening. A gelatin sponge was placed in the sphenoid sinus as an abutment. The primary and secondary outcomes were the number of postoperative CSF (pCSF) leaks and meningitis, respectively. Clinical, histological, and perioperative data from medical records were collected to identify risk factors for CSF leak and meningitis.

RESULTS

Of 417 transsphenoidal surgeries, 359 procedures in 348 patients with a median age of 54 years were included. There were 96 iCSF leaks (26.7%; 37.5% major, 62.5% minor). In 3 of 359 cases (0.8%) a pCSF fistula occurred, requiring revision surgery in 2 patients and a lumbar drain in 1 patient. Meningitis occurred in 3 of 359 cases (0.8%). All 3 patients recovered without sequelae after antibiotic therapy. According to univariate analysis, risk factors for iCSF leak were macroadenoma (p = 0.006) and recurrent adenoma (p = 0.032). An iCSF leak was found less often in functioning adenomas (p = 0.025). In multivariate analysis recurrent tumors remained as a risk factor (p = 0.021) for iCSF leak. Patients with iCSF leak were at increased risk for a pCSF leak (p = 0.005). A pCSF leak in turn represented the key risk factor for meningitis (p = 0.033).

CONCLUSIONS

Patients with macroadenomas and recurrent adenomas are especially at risk for iCSF leak. An iCSF leak in turn increases the risk for a pCSF leak, which carries the risk for meningitis. The authors’ surgical technique leads to a very low rate of pCSF leaks and meningitis without using autologous graft materials. Hence, this technique is safe and improves patient comfort by avoiding the disadvantages of autologous graft harvesting.

Free access

Megan M. J. Bauman, Samantha M. Bouchal, Dileep D. Monie, Abudumijiti Aibaidula, Rohin Singh, and Ian F. Parney

OBJECTIVE

Glioblastoma (GBM) is a devasting primary brain tumor with less than a 5% 5-year survival. Treatment response assessment can be challenging because of inflammatory pseudoprogression that mimics true tumor progression clinically and on imaging. Developing additional noninvasive assays is critical. In this article, the authors review various biomarkers that could be used in developing liquid biopsies for GBM, along with strengths, limitations, and future applications. In addition, they present a potential liquid biopsy design based on the use of an extracellular vesicle–based liquid biopsy targeting nonneoplastic extracellular vesicles.

METHODS

The authors conducted a current literature review of liquid biopsy in GBM by searching the PubMed, Scopus, and Google Scholar databases. Articles were assessed for type of biomarker, isolation methodology, analytical techniques, and clinical relevance.

RESULTS

Recent work has shown that liquid biopsies of plasma, blood, and/or CSF hold promise as noninvasive clinical tools that can be used to diagnose recurrence, assess treatment response, and predict patient outcomes in GBM. Liquid biopsy in GBM has focused primarily on extracellular vesicles, cell-free tumor nucleic acids, and whole-cell isolates as focal biomarkers. GBM tumor signatures have been generated via analysis of tumor gene mutations, unique RNA expression, and metabolic and proteomic alterations. Liquid biopsies capture tumor heterogeneity, identifying alterations in GBM tumors that may be undetectable via surgical biopsy specimens. Finally, biomarker burden can be used to assess treatment response and recurrence in GBM.

CONCLUSIONS

Liquid biopsy offers a promising avenue for monitoring treatment response and recurrence in GBM without invasive procedures. Although additional steps must be taken to bring liquid biopsy into the clinic, proof-of-principle studies and isolation methodologies are promising. Ultimately, CSF and/or plasma-based liquid biopsy is likely to be a powerful tool in the neurosurgeon’s arsenal in the near future for the treatment and management of GBM patients.

Free access

Lisa I. Wadiura, Barbara Kiesel, Thomas Roetzer-Pejrimovsky, Mario Mischkulnig, Clemens C. Vogel, Johannes A. Hainfellner, Christian Matula, Christian W. Freudiger, Daniel A. Orringer, Adelheid Wöhrer, Karl Roessler, and Georg Widhalm

OBJECTIVE

Intraoperative neuropathological assessment with conventional frozen sections supports the neurosurgeon in optimizing the surgical strategy. However, preparation and review of frozen sections can take as long as 45 minutes. Stimulated Raman histology (SRH) was introduced as a novel technique to provide rapid high-resolution digital images of unprocessed tissue samples directly in the operating room that are comparable to conventional histopathological images. Additionally, SRH images are simultaneously and easily accessible for neuropathological judgment. Recently, the first study showed promising results regarding the accuracy and feasibility of SRH compared with conventional histopathology. Thus, the aim of this study was to compare SRH with conventional H&E images and frozen sections in a large cohort of patients with different suspected central nervous system (CNS) tumors.

METHODS

The authors included patients who underwent resection or stereotactic biopsy of suspected CNS neoplasm, including brain and spinal tumors. Intraoperatively, tissue samples were safely collected and SRH analysis was performed directly in the operating room. To enable optimal comparison of SRH with H&E images and frozen sections, the authors created a digital databank that included images obtained with all 3 imaging modalities. Subsequently, 2 neuropathologists investigated the diagnostic accuracy, tumor cellularity, and presence of diagnostic histopathological characteristics (score 0 [not present] through 3 [excellent]) determined with SRH images and compared these data to those of H&E images and frozen sections, if available.

RESULTS

In total, 94 patients with various suspected CNS tumors were included, and the application of SRH directly in the operating room was feasible in all cases. The diagnostic accuracy based on SRH images was 99% when compared with the final histopathological diagnosis based on H&E images. Additionally, the same histopathological diagnosis was established in all SRH images (100%) when compared with that of the corresponding frozen sections. Moreover, the authors found a statistically significant correlation in tumor cellularity between SRH images and corresponding H&E images (p < 0.0005 and R = 0.867, Pearson correlation coefficient). Finally, excellent (score 3) or good (2) accordance between diagnostic histopathological characteristics and H&E images was present in 95% of cases.

CONCLUSIONS

The results of this retrospective analysis demonstrate the near-perfect diagnostic accuracy and capability of visualizing relevant histopathological characteristics with SRH compared with conventional H&E staining and frozen sections. Therefore, digital SRH histopathology seems especially useful for rapid intraoperative investigation to confirm the presence of diagnostic tumor tissue and the precise tumor entity, as well as to rapidly analyze multiple tissue biopsies from the suspected tumor margin. A real-time analysis comparing SRH images and conventional histological images at the time of surgery should be performed as the next step in future studies.

Free access

Malcolm F. McDonald, Prazwal Athukuri, Adrish Anand, Sricharan Gopakumar, Ali Jalali, Akash J. Patel, Ganesh Rao, J. Clay Goodman, Hsiang-Chih Lu, and Jacob J. Mandel

Targeted therapies for driver gene fusions in cancers have yielded substantial improvements in care. Here, the authors outline a case series of 6 patients with FGFR3-TACC3 fusion in primary brain tumors ranging from polymorphous low-grade neuroepithelial tumor of the young to papillary glioneuronal tumors and glioblastoma (GBM). Previous studies indicated the FGFR3-TACC3 fusion provides survival benefit to GBM patients. Consistent with this, 2 patients with GBM had unexpectedly good outcomes and survived for 5 and 7 years, respectively. In contrast, 2 patients with initially lower graded tumors survived only 3 years and 1 year, respectively. One patient received erdafitinib, a targeted FGFR inhibitor, for 3 months at late disease recurrence and no response was seen. There were varied histomorphological features, including many cases that lacked the characteristic FGFR3-TACC3 pathology. The findings of this cohort suggest that molecular testing is justified, even for glioma cases lacking classic histopathological signatures. Currently, FGFR3-TACC3 fusion gliomas are often classified on the basis of histopathological features. However, further research is needed to examine whether IDH1/2–wild-type tumors with FGFR3-TACC3 fusion should be classified as a subtype on the basis of this molecular fusion. Because patients with IDH1/2–wild-type GBM with FGFR3-TACC3 fusion have improved survival, routine molecular testing for this mutation in patients enrolled in clinical trials and subsequent stratification may be warranted.

Open access

Anna Borne, Marcela Perrone-Bertolotti, Isabelle Jambaqué, Clémence Castaignède, Georg Dorfmüller, Sarah Ferrand-Sorbets, Monica Baciu, and Christine Bulteau

BACKGROUND

Rasmussen encephalitis is a rare chronic neurological pathology frequently treated with functional hemispherectomy (or hemispherotomy). This surgical procedure frees patients of their severe epilepsy associated with the disease but may induce cognitive disorders and notably language alterations after disconnection of the left hemisphere.

OBSERVATIONS

The authors describe longitudinally 3 cases of female patients with Rasmussen encephalitis who underwent left hemispherotomy in childhood and benefited from a favorable cognitive outcome. In the first patient, the hemispherotomy occurred at a young age, and the recovery of language and cognitive abilities was rapid and efficient. The second patient benefited from the surgery later in childhood. In addition, she presented a reorganization of language and memory functions that seem to have been at the expense of nonverbal ones. The third patient was a teenager during surgery. She benefited from a more partial cognitive recovery with persistent disorders several years after the surgery.

LESSONS

Recovery of cognitive functions, including language, occurs after left hemispherotomy, even when performed late in childhood. Therefore, the surgery should be considered as early as possible to promote intercognitive reorganization.

Open access

Anouk E. Magara, Marc N. Gallay, David Moser, and Daniel Jeanmonod

BACKGROUND

The authors reported the case of a 66-year-old male patient with a 14-year history of right-sided severe episodic and therapy-resistant cluster headache (CH) who underwent bilateral central lateral thalamotomy (CLT) using incisionless transcranial magnetic resonance imaging–guided focused ultrasound (MRgFUS).

OBSERVATIONS

The patient experienced a single cluster headache attack 5 weeks after the procedure. There were no more pain attacks over the next 6 years of follow-up.

LESSONS

This treatment success may indicate a common pathophysiology for CH and neurogenic (neuropathic) pain, which has been treated with CLT for more than 30 years. Further experience is needed to assess the reproducibility of this case.

Open access

John P. Andrews, Thomas A. Wozny, John K. Yue, and Doris D. Wang

BACKGROUND

Epilepsy-associated psychoses are poorly understood, and management is focused on treating epilepsy. Chronic, interictal psychosis that persists despite seizure control is typically treated with antipsychotics. Whether resection of a mesial temporal lobe lesion may improve interictal psychotic symptoms that persist despite seizure control remains unknown.

OBSERVATIONS

In a 52-year-old man with well-controlled epilepsy and persistent comorbid psychosis, brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed an infiltrative, intraaxial, T2 fluid-attenuated inversion recovery intense mass of the left amygdala. The patient received an amygdalectomy for oncological diagnosis and surgical treatment of a presumed low-grade glioma. Pathology was ganglioglioma, World Health Organization grade I. Postoperatively, the patient reported immediate resolution of auditory hallucinations. Patient has remained seizure-free on 2 antiepileptic drugs and no antipsychotic pharmacotherapy and reported lasting improvement in his psychotic symptoms.

LESSONS

This report discusses improvement of psychosis symptoms after resection of an amygdalar glioma, independent of seizure outcome. This case supports a role of the amygdala in psychopathology and suggests that low-grade gliomas of the limbic system may represent, at minimum, partially reversible etiology of psychotic symptoms.