Browse

You are looking at 101 - 110 of 38,411 items for

  • Refine by Access: all x
Clear All
Restricted access

Ryan S. Beyer, Andrew Nguyen, Nolan J. Brown, Julian L. Gendreau, Matthew J. Hatter, Omead Pooladzandi, and Martin H. Pham

OBJECTIVE

Spinal robotics for thoracolumbar procedures, predominantly employed for the insertion of pedicle screws, is currently an emerging topic in the literature. The use of robotics in instrumentation of the cervical spine has not been broadly explored. In this review, the authors aimed to coherently synthesize the existing literature of intraoperative robotic use in the cervical spine and explore considerations for future directions and developments in cervical spinal robotics.

METHODS

A literature search in the Web of Science, Scopus, and PubMed databases was performed for the purpose of retrieving all articles reporting on cervical spine surgery with the use of robotics. For the purposes of this study, randomized controlled trials, nonrandomized controlled trials, retrospective case series, and individual case reports were included. The Newcastle-Ottawa Scale was utilized to assess risk of bias of the studies included in the review. To present and synthesize results, data were extracted from the included articles and analyzed using the PyMARE library for effect-size meta-analysis.

RESULTS

On careful review, 6 articles published between 2016 and 2022 met the inclusion/exclusion criteria, including 1 randomized controlled trial, 1 nonrandomized controlled trial, 2 case series, and 2 case reports. These studies featured a total of 110 patients meeting the inclusion criteria (mean age 53.9 years, range 29–77 years; 64.5% males). A total of 482 cervical screws were placed with the use of a surgical robot, which yielded an average screw deviation of 0.95 mm. Cervical pedicle screws were the primary screw type used, at a rate of 78.6%. According to the Gertzbein-Robbins classification, 97.7% of screws in this review achieved a clinically acceptable grade. The average duration of surgery, blood loss, and postoperative length of stay were all decreased in minimally invasive robotic surgery relative to open procedures. Only 1 (0.9%) postoperative complication was reported, which was a surgical site infection, and the mean length of follow-up was 2.7 months. No mortality was reported.

CONCLUSIONS

Robot-assisted cervical screw placement is associated with acceptable rates of clinical grading, operative time, blood loss, and postoperative complications—all of which are equal to or improved relative to the metrics seen in the conventional use of fluoroscopy or computer-assisted navigation for cervical screw placement.

Restricted access

Tim E. Darsaut, Elsa Magro, Michel W. Bojanowski, Chiraz Chaalala, Lorena Nico, Emma Bacchus, Ruby Klink, Daniela Iancu, Alain Weill, Daniel Roy, Jean-Francois Sabatier, Christophe Cognard, Anne-Christine Januel, Isabelle Pelissou-Guyotat, Omer Eker, Pierre-Hugues Roche, Thomas Graillon, Hervé Brunel, Francois Proust, Rémy Beaujeux, Sorin Aldea, Michel Piotin, Philippe Cornu, Eimad Shotar, Thomas Gaberel, Charlotte Barbier, Marine Le Corre, Vincent Costalat, Vincent Jecko, Xavier Barreau, Xavier Morandi, Jean-Yves Gauvrit, Stéphane Derrey, Chrysanthi Papagiannaki, Thanh N. Nguyen, Mohamad Abdalkader, Rabih G. Tawk, Thien Huynh, Geraldine Viard, Guylaine Gevry, Jean-Christophe Gentric, Jean Raymond, and

OBJECTIVE

The Treatment of Brain Arteriovenous Malformations Study (TOBAS) is a pragmatic study that includes 2 randomized trials and registries of treated or conservatively managed patients. The authors report the results of the surgical registry.

METHODS

TOBAS patients are managed according to an algorithm that combines clinical judgment and randomized allocation. For patients considered for curative treatment, clinicians selected from surgery, endovascular therapy, or radiation therapy as the primary curative method, and whether observation was a reasonable alternative. When surgery was selected and observation was deemed unreasonable, the patient was not included in the randomized controlled trial but placed in the surgical registry. The primary outcome of the trial was mRS score > 2 at 10 years (at last follow-up for the current report). Secondary outcomes include angiographic results, perioperative serious adverse events, and permanent treatment-related complications leading to mRS score > 2.

RESULTS

From June 2014 to May 2021, 1010 patients were recruited at 30 TOBAS centers. Surgery was selected for 229/512 patients (44%) considered for curative treatment; 77 (34%) were included in the surgery versus observation randomized trial and 152 (66%) were placed in the surgical registry. Surgical registry patients had 124/152 (82%) ruptured and 28/152 (18%) unruptured arteriovenous malformations (AVMs), with the majority categorized as low-grade Spetzler-Martin grade I–II AVM (118/152 [78%]). Thirteen patients were excluded, leaving 139 patients for analysis. Embolization was performed prior to surgery in 78/139 (56%) patients. Surgical angiographic cure was obtained in 123/139 all-grade (89%, 95% CI 82%–93%) and 105/110 low-grade (95%, 95% CI 90%–98%) AVM patients. At the mean follow-up of 18.1 months, 16 patients (12%, 95% CI 7%–18%) had reached the primary safety outcome of mRS score > 2, including 11/16 who had a baseline mRS score ≥ 3 due to previous AVM rupture. Serious adverse events occurred in 29 patients (21%, 95% CI 15%–28%). Permanent treatment-related complications leading to mRS score > 2 occurred in 6/139 patients (4%, 95% CI 2%–9%), 5 (83%) of whom had complications due to preoperative embolization.

CONCLUSIONS

The surgical treatment of brain AVMs in the TOBAS registry was curative in 88% of patients. The participation of more patients, surgeons, and centers in randomized trials is needed to definitively establish the role of surgery in the treatment of unruptured brain AVMs.

Clinical trial registration no.: NCT02098252 (ClinicalTrials.gov)

Restricted access

Michael J. Feldman, Alexander V. Ortiz, Steven G. Roth, Robert J. Dambrino IV, Aaron M. Yengo-Kahn, Rohan V. Chitale, and Lola B. Chambless

OBJECTIVE

Standardized letters of recommendation (SLORs) were introduced during the 2020–2021 neurosurgery residency application cycle, but suffered from poor interrater reliability and grade inflation. Changes were made to the SLOR template and utilization patterns in response to these shortcomings. The authors examined the second year of SLOR utilization. They hypothesized that grade inflation and interrater reliability would be improved from the first iteration. They also hypothesized that increased numbers of letters by single writers would correlate with broader rating distributions.

METHODS

This cross-sectional study analyzed all SLORs submitted to a single neurosurgery residency program over the 2021–2022 cycle. Data from 7 competency domains and the overall rating were recorded and stratified by academic category of the letter writer. Interrater reliability was evaluated using Krippendorff’s alpha. The frequency of letters written was evaluated using the Kruskal-Wallis H test.

RESULTS

Ninety percent of SLORs rated applicants among the top 25%, but there was a significant decrease in the usage of the top 1% and top 2%–5% ratings. Interrater reliability was poor across all competencies. Writers who completed 1 SLOR rated applicants higher and had a narrower range than those who completed multiple SLORs.

CONCLUSIONS

Changes in the format and subsequent utilization patterns of SLORs have slightly decreased grade inflation; however, interrater reliability remains poor. The most wide-ranging evaluators submitted the highest number of SLORs, suggesting that future evaluation and usage of SLORs should emphasize letter-writer characteristics and numbers of SLORs written. Overall, SLORs have been well and broadly accepted with subtle improvements in the second year of utilization.

Open access

Aditya M. Mittal, Kamil W. Nowicki, Ricardo J. Fernández-de Thomas, Jessica Mayor, Ryan M. McEnaney, and Peter C. Gerszten

BACKGROUND

Establishing central venous access is important to provide fluid resuscitation or medications intravenously to patients.

OBSERVATIONS

Although accidental cannulation of the internal carotid artery has been reported in the literature, to our knowledge this report is the first documented intraoperative ultrasound video demonstrating accidental and simultaneous common carotid artery and internal jugular cannulation during central line placement in the internal jugular vein.

LESSONS

Ultrasound use minimizes accidental carotid cannulation during central line placement in the internal jugular vein. Carotid artery puncture can be managed by external application of pressure or surgical reexploration.

Open access

Eric K. H. Chow, Barry M. Rabin, and John Ruge

BACKGROUND

Conditions that can mimic posterior fossa tumors are rare. Their identification is crucial to avoid unnecessary surgical intervention, especially when prompt initiation of medical therapy is critical.

OBSERVATIONS

The authors presented a case of pseudotumoral hemorrhagic cerebellitis in a 3-year-old boy who presented initially with headache, persistent vomiting, and decreased level of consciousness 9 weeks after severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection. Magnetic resonance imaging showed a left cerebellar hemorrhagic mass–like lesion with edema and mild hydrocephalus. The patient responded to high-dose steroids and was discharged 2 weeks later with complete recovery.

LESSONS

When evaluating patients with possible tumor syndromes, it is important to also consider rarer inflammatory syndromes that can masquerade as neoplasms. Postinfectious hemorrhagic cerebellitis is one such syndrome.

Open access

Breno W. M. Guedes, Joilson F. de Souza Júnior, Nelson A. D’Avila Melo, João M. B. de Menezes Neto, André Beer-Furlan, and Arthur M. P. Oliveira

BACKGROUND

Meningiomas are the most frequent primary tumors in the central nervous system (CNS), but intraorbital location is uncommon and accounts for only 0.2% to 4% of all CNS meningiomas. Lesions in this compartment could be classified as primary, secondary, or ectopic. The close relationship with the optic nerve sheath is a landmark to identify the tumor as primary, whereas secondary tumors commonly come from an extension of an intracranial meningioma, and ectopic meningioma is a concept not yet completely established.

OBSERVATIONS

The authors present a rare case of a secondary intraorbital meningioma operated through an endoscopic endonasal approach. Secondary meningiomas at the medial orbit are very uncommon, given their more common superior and lateral location as an extension of sphenoid meningiomas. The endoscopic endonasal route provides direct access to the medial orbit. The authors present an illustrative case of a meningioma located at the medial orbit and resected through an endoscopic endonasal approach that provided excellent visualization and anatomical exposure. Additionally, the authors review the concept and possible similarities between secondary and ectopic intraorbital meningiomas.

LESSONS

An endoscopic endonasal approach should be considered as a feasible treatment option for intraorbital meningiomas, especially if they are in the medial orbital wall.

Open access

Nolan Winslow, Jonathan Garst, James J. Klemens, and Andrew J. Tsung

BACKGROUND

Pituitary adenoma is a neurosurgical pathology commonly resected via endoscopic endonasal approach. Septal and nasal passage anatomy can affect the surgical corridor and may require septoplasty or other techniques for expansion.

OBSERVATIONS

The authors presented a case of pituitary macroadenoma with septal deviation with use of balloon-assisted nasal access for surgery.

LESSONS

This technique enhanced surgical width of field and instrument maneuverability via septal medialization for successful tumor resection.

Restricted access

Christopher T. Martin, Kenneth J. Holton, Benjamin D. Elder, Jeremy L. Fogelson, Anthony L. Mikula, Christopher J. Kleck, David Calabrese, Evalina L. Burger, David Ou-Yang, Vikas V. Patel, Han Jo Kim, Francis Lovecchio, Serena S. Hu, Kirkham B. Wood, Robert Harper, S. Tim Yoon, Dheera Ananthakrishnan, Keith W. Michael, Adam J. Schell, Isador H. Lieberman, Stanley Kisinde, Christopher J. DeWald, Michael T. Nolte, Matthew W. Colman, Frank M. Phillips, Daniel E. Gelb, Jacob Bruckner, Lindsey B. Ross, J. Patrick Johnson, Terrence T. Kim, Neel Anand, Joseph S. Cheng, Zach Plummer, Paul Park, Mark E. Oppenlander, Jonathan N. Sembrano, Kristen E. Jones, and David W. Polly Jr.

OBJECTIVE

There are few prior reports of acute pelvic instrumentation failure in spinal deformity surgery. The objective of this study was to determine if a previously identified mechanism and rate of pelvic fixation failure were present across multiple institutions, and to determine risk factors for these types of failures.

METHODS

Thirteen academic medical centers performed a retrospective review of 18 months of consecutive adult spinal fusions extending 3 or more levels, which included new pelvic screws at the time of surgery. Acute pelvic fixation failure was defined as occurring within 6 months of the index surgery and requiring surgical revision.

RESULTS

Failure occurred in 37 (5%) of 779 cases and consisted of either slippage of the rods or displacement of the set screws from the screw tulip head (17 cases), screw shaft fracture (9 cases), screw loosening (9 cases), and/or resultant kyphotic fracture of the sacrum (6 cases). Revision strategies involved new pelvic fixation and/or multiple rod constructs. Six patients (16%) who underwent revision with fewer than 4 rods to the pelvis sustained a second acute failure, but no secondary failures occurred when at least 4 rods were used. In the univariate analysis, the magnitude of surgical correction was higher in the failure cohort (higher preoperative T1-pelvic angle [T1PA], presence of a 3-column osteotomy; p < 0.05). Uncorrected postoperative deformity increased failure risk (pelvic incidence–lumbar lordosis mismatch > 10°, higher postoperative T1PA; p < 0.05). Use of pelvic screws less than 8.5 mm in diameter also increased the likelihood of failure (p < 0.05). In the multivariate analysis, a larger preoperative global deformity as measured by T1PA was associated with failure, male patients were more likely to experience failure than female patients, and there was a strong association with implant manufacturer (p < 0.05). Anterior column support with an L5–S1 interbody fusion was protective against failure (p < 0.05).

CONCLUSIONS

Acute catastrophic failures involved large-magnitude surgical corrections and likely resulted from high mechanical strain on the pelvic instrumentation. Patients with large corrections may benefit from anterior structural support placed at the most caudal motion segment and multiple rods connecting to more than 2 pelvic fixation points. If failure occurs, salvage with a minimum of 4 rods and 4 pelvic fixation points can be successful.

Restricted access

Youngbo Shim, Ji Hoon Phi, Kyu-Chang Wang, Byung-Kyu Cho, Ji Yeoun Lee, Eun Jung Koh, Kyung Hyun Kim, Eun Jung Lee, Ki Joong Kim, and Seung-Ki Kim

OBJECTIVE

One-fourth of cerebral cavernous malformation (CCM) patients are children, but studies on these patients are scarce. This study aimed to identify the clinical presentation of pediatric CCM patients and to investigate clinical outcomes according to the treatment modalities applied on the basis of our institution’s treatment strategy.

METHODS

The authors performed a retrospective analysis of 124 pediatric CCM patients with a follow-up of more than 1 year from 2000 to 2019. They performed resection (n = 62) on lesions causing intractable seizure, rebleeding, or mass effect and observed the clinical courses of patients with lesions in deep or eloquent areas without persistent symptoms (n = 52). Radiosurgery (n = 10) was performed when the patient refused resection or strongly desired radiosurgery. The authors investigated the clinical characteristics, performance status (modified Rankin Scale [mRS] score), and rebleeding rate at the 1-year and last follow-up examinations and compared these among 3 groups classified on the basis of treatment applied. The authors evaluated seizure outcomes at the 1-year and last follow-up examinations for the surgery (n = 32) and observation (n = 17) groups. Finally, the authors drew cumulative incidence curves for the discontinuation of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) for patients in the surgery (n = 30) and observation (n = 9) groups.

RESULTS

The 3 groups showed slight differences in initial symptoms, lesion locations, and rates of recent hemorrhage. The proportion of patients with improved mRS score at the 1-year follow-up was significantly greater in the surgery group than in the other groups (67% of the surgery group, 52% observation group, and 40% radiosurgery group; p = 0.078), as well as at the last follow-up (73% surgery group, 54% observation group, and 60% radiosurgery group; p = 0.097). The surgery group also had the lowest rebleeding rate during the follow-up period (2% surgery group, 11% observation group, and 20% radiosurgery group; p = 0.021). At the 1-year follow-up, the proportion of seizure-free patients without AEDs was significantly higher in the surgery group than the observation group (88% surgery group vs 53% observation group, p < 0.001), and similar results were obtained at the last follow-up (91% surgery group vs 56% observation group, p = 0.05). The 5-year AED-free rates for the surgery and observation groups were 94% and 50%, respectively, on the cumulative incidence curve (p = 0.049).

CONCLUSIONS

The clinical presentation of pediatric CCM patients was not significantly different from that of adult patients. Lesionectomy may be acceptable for pediatric CCM patients with indications of persistent seizures despite AED medications, rebleeding, and mass effects.

Restricted access

Paul N. Porensky, Patrick R. Maloney, Jeeho D. Kim, Justin A. Dye, and Peter C. Liacouras

OBJECTIVE

Decompressive craniectomy (DC) is the definitive neurosurgical treatment for managing refractory malignant cerebral edema and intracranial hypertension due to combat-related severe traumatic brain injury (TBI). To date, the long-term outcomes and sequelae of this procedure on host-country national (HCN) populations during Operation Iraqi Freedom (Iraq, 2003–2011), Operation Enduring Freedom (Afghanistan, 2001–2014), and Operation Freedom’s Sentinel (Afghanistan, 2015–2021) have not been described, specifically the process and results of delayed custom synthetic cranioplasty. The Joint Trauma System’s Clinical Practice Guidelines (JTS-CPG) for severe head injury counsels surgeons to discard the cranial osseous explant when treating coalition service members. Ongoing political and healthcare system instabilities often preclude opportunities for delayed cranioplasty by host-country assets. Various surgical options (such as hinge craniectomy) are inadequate in the setting of complicated cranial comminution from blast or missile injuries, severe cerebral edema, grossly contaminated wounds, complex polytrauma, and tissue devitalization. Delayed cranioplasty with a custom synthetic implant is a viable but logistically challenging alternative. In this retrospective review, the authors present the first patient series describing delayed custom synthetic cranioplasty in an HCN population performed during active military conflict.

METHODS

Patients were identified through the Joint Trauma System/Theater Medical Data Store, and subgroup analyses were performed to include mechanisms of injury, surgical complications, and clinical outcomes.

RESULTS

Twenty-five patients underwent DC between 2012 and 2020 to treat penetrating, blast, and high-energy closed head injuries per JTS-CPG criteria. The average time from injury to surgery was 1.4 days, although 6 patients received delayed care (3–6 days) due to protracted evacuation from local hospitals. Delayed care correlated with an increased rate of intracranial abscess and empyema. The average time to cranioplasty was 134 days due to a lack of robust mechanisms for patient follow-up, tracking, and access to NATO hospitals. HCN patients who recovered from DC demonstrated overall benefit from custom synthetic cranioplasty, although formal statistical analysis was impeded by a lack of long-term follow-up.

CONCLUSIONS

This review demonstrates that cranioplasty with a custom synthetic implant is a safe and feasible treatment for vulnerable HCN patients who survive their index DC surgery. This unique paradigm of care highlights the capabilities of deployed neurosurgical healthcare teams working in partnership with the prosthetics laboratory at Walter Reed National Military Medical Center.