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*Gianluca Ferini, Paolo Palmisciano, Gianluca Scalia, Ali S Haider, Othman Bin-Alamer, Navraj S Sagoo, Ismail Bozkurt, Harsh Deora, Stefano M Priola, Salah G Aoun, and Giuseppe E Umana

OBJECTIVE

Spine hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) metastases severely worsen quality of life and prognosis, with the role of radiotherapy being controversial. The authors systematically reviewed the literature on radiotherapy for spine metastatic HCCs.

METHODS

The PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, and Cochrane databases were searched according to the PRISMA guidelines to include studies of radiotherapy for spine metastatic HCCs. Outcomes, complications, and local control were analyzed with indirect random-effect meta-analyses.

RESULTS

The authors included 12 studies comprising 713 patients. The median time interval from diagnosis of HCC to spine metastases was 12 months (range 0–105 months). Most lesions were thoracic (35.9%) or lumbar (24.7%). Radiotherapy was delivered with conventional external-beam (67.3%) or stereotactic (31.7%) techniques. The median dose was 30.3 Gy (range 12.5–52 Gy) in a median of 5 fractions (range 1–20 fractions). The median biologically effective dose was 44.8 Gy10 (range 14.4–112.5 Gy10). Actuarial rates of postradiotherapy pain relief and radiological response were 87% (95% CI 84%–90%) and 70% (95% CI 65%–75%), respectively. Radiation-related adverse events and vertebral fractures had actuarial rates of 8% (95% CI 5%–11%) and 16% (95% CI 10%–23%), respectively, with fracture rates significantly higher after stereotactic radiotherapy (p = 0.033). Fifty-eight patients (27.6%) had local recurrences after a median of 6.8 months (range 0.1–59 months), with pooled local control rates of 61.6% at 6 months and 40.8% at 12 months, and there were no significant differences based on radiotherapy type (p = 0.068). The median survival was 6 months (range 0.1–62 months), with pooled rates of 52.5% at 6 months and 23.4% at 12 months.

CONCLUSIONS

Radiotherapy in spine metastatic HCCs shows favorable rates of pain relief, radiological responses, and local control. Rates of postradiotherapy vertebral fractures are higher after high-dose stereotactic radiotherapy.

Free access

Uma V. Mahajan, Ansh Desai, Michael D. Shost, Yang Cai, Austin Anthony, Collin M. Labak, Eric Z. Herring, Olindi Wijesekera, Debraj Mukherjee, Andrew E. Sloan, and Tiffany R. Hodges

OBJECTIVE

Stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) has recently emerged as a minimally invasive alternative to resection for treating multiple brain metastases. Given the lack of consensus regarding the application of SRS versus resection for multiple brain metastases, the authors aimed to conduct a systematic literature review of all published work on the topic.

METHODS

The PubMed, OVID, Cochrane, Web of Science, and Scopus databases were used to identify studies that examined clinical outcomes after resection or SRS was performed in patients with multiple brain metastases. Radiological studies, case series with fewer than 3 patients, pediatric studies, or national database studies were excluded. Data extracted included patient demographics and mean overall survival (OS). Weighted t-tests and ANOVA were performed.

RESULTS

A total of 1300 abstracts were screened, 450 articles underwent full-text review, and 129 studies met inclusion criteria, encompassing 20,177 patients (18,852 treated with SRS and 1325 who underwent resection). The OS for the SRS group was 10.2 ± 6 months, and for the resection group it was 6.5 ± 3.8 months. A weighted ANOVA test comparing OS with covariates of age, sex, and publication year revealed that the treatment group (p = 0.045), age (p = 0.034), and publication year (0.0078) were all independently associated with OS (with SRS, younger age, and later publication year being associated with longer survival), whereas sex (p = 0.95) was not.

CONCLUSIONS

For patients with multiple brain metastases, SRS and resection are effective treatments to prolong OS, with published data suggesting that SRS may have a trend toward lengthened survival outcomes. The authors encourage additional work examining outcomes of treatments for multiple brain metastases.

Free access

Elyn Wang, Paulina M. Gutkin, Justin Oh, Erqi Pollom, Scott G. Soltys, Gerald A. Grant, Laura M. Prolo, Steven Chang, Gordon Li, Paul G. Fisher, Sonia Partap, Cynthia J. Campen, Iris C. Gibbs, and Susan M. Hiniker

OBJECTIVE

Recurrence of brain tumors in children after the initial course of treatment remains a problem. This study evaluated the efficacy and safety of reirradiation using stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) in patients with recurrent pediatric primary brain tumors.

METHODS

This IRB-approved retrospective review included pediatric patients with recurrent primary brain tumors treated at Stanford University from 2000 to 2019 using frameless SRS. Time to local failure (LF) and distant intracranial failure (DIF) were measured from the date of SRS and analyzed using competing risk analysis. Overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) were analyzed with the Kaplan-Meier method.

RESULTS

In total, 37 patients aged 2–24 years (median age 11 years at recurrence) were treated for 48 intracranial tumors. Ependymoma (38%) and medulloblastoma (22%) were the most common tumor types. The median (range) single fraction equivalent dose of SRS was 16.4 (12–24) Gy. The median (range) follow-up time was 22.9 (1.5–190) months. The median OS of all patients was 36.8 months. Eight of 40 (20%) lesions with follow-up imaging locally recurred. The 2-year cumulative incidence of LF after reirradiation with SRS was 12.8% (95% CI 4.6%–25.4%). The 2-year cumulative incidence of DIF was 25.3% (95% CI 12.9%–39.8%). The median PFS was 18 months (95% CI 8.9–44). Five (10.4%) patients developed toxicities potentially attributed to SRS, including cognitive effects and necrosis.

CONCLUSIONS

Reirradiation using SRS for recurrent pediatric brain tumors appears safe with good local control. Innovations that improve overall disease control should continue because survival outcomes after relapse remain poor.

Free access

Jennifer C. Hall, Timothy H. Ung, Tamra-Lee McCleary, Cynthia Chuang, Iris C. Gibbs, Scott G. Soltys, Melanie Hayden Gephart, Gordon Li, Erqi L. Pollom, Steven D. Chang, and Antonio Meola

OBJECTIVE

Trigeminal neuralgia (TN) secondary to tumor represents a rare and diverse entity, and treatment for secondary TN remains controversial. This report reviews a single institution’s experience in treating secondary TN with stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) and focuses on the durability of pain relief with respect to various treatment targets, i.e., the trigeminal nerve, offending tumor, or both.

METHODS

Between the years 2009 and 2021, 21 patients with TN secondary to benign (n = 13) or malignant (n = 8) tumors underwent SRS. Barrow Neurological Institute (BNI) pain intensity scale scores were collected from patient electronic medical records at baseline, initial follow-up, and 1 and 3 years post-SRS. The interval change in BNI scale score (ΔBNI) at the various follow-up time points was also calculated to assess the durability of pain relief following SRS.

RESULTS

The median follow-up period was 24 (range 0.5–155) months. Five patients (24%) received treatment to the trigeminal nerve only, 10 (48%) received treatment to the tumor only, and 6 (29%) had treatment to both the nerve and tumor. The overall radiation dosage ranged from 14 to 60 Gy delivered in 1–5 fractions, with a median overall dose of 26 Gy. The median dose to the tumor was 22.5 (range 14–35) Gy, delivered in 1–5 fractions. Of the treatments targeting the tumor, 25% were delivered in a single fraction with doses ranging from 14 to 20 Gy, 60% were delivered in 3 fractions with doses ranging from 18 to 27 Gy, and 15% were delivered in 5 fractions with doses ranging from 25 to 35 Gy. The most common dose regimen for tumor treatment was 24 Gy in 3 fractions. The median biologically effective dose (with an assumed alpha/beta ratio of 10 [BED10]) for tumor treatments was 43.1 (range 13.3–60.0) Gy. There was a significant difference in the proportion of patients with recurrent pain (ΔBNI score ≥ 0) at the time of last follow-up across the differing SRS treatment targets: trigeminal nerve only, tumor only, or both (p = 0.04). At the time of last follow-up, the median ΔBNI score after SRS to the nerve only was −1, 0 after SRS to tumor only, and −2 after SRS to both targets.

CONCLUSIONS

SRS offers clinical symptomatic benefit to patients with TN secondary to tumor. For optimal pain relief and response durability, treatment targeting both the tumor and the trigeminal nerve appears to be most advantageous.

Open access

Ryunosuke Yoshihara, Koichiro Shindo, Tatsuya Ogino, and Hirohiko Nakamura

BACKGROUND

Spontaneous thrombosis of a saccular, unruptured, intracranial aneurysm is rare in nongiant aneurysms. Herein, the authors present a case of acute middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCO) caused by spontaneous thrombus of a small internal carotid artery (ICA) aneurysm.

OBSERVATIONS

A 68-year-old woman presented with increased somnolence, right-sided hemiplegia, hemispatial neglect, and total aphagia. Left MCO and a small left ICA aneurysm were suspected based on magnetic resonance angiography (MRA). The authors detected early ischemic lesions from diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI). The DWI–Alberta Stroke Program Early Computed Tomography Score was 6. T2*-weighted imaging (T2*WI) showed a thrombus, the so-called susceptibility vessel sign, at the left MCO site. Another suspected thrombus was also found in the ipsilateral ICA aneurysm. The authors treated acute phase MCO with mechanical thrombectomy (MT), after which secondary stroke prophylaxis consisting of warfarin potassium was started. Since follow-up T2*WI showed the thrombus had disappeared from the left ICA aneurysm and the whole aneurysm was clarified by MRA, coil embolization was performed. After coil embolization, there was no ischemic recurrence.

LESSONS

Aneurysms are infrequently found proximal to occlusion sites during MT. If the proximal aneurysm is a potential embolic source, treatment of the said aneurysm may prevent stroke.

Open access

Riley Young, Brandon Laing, Benjamin Best, Gillian L. Harrison, and Nathan Zwagerman

BACKGROUND

An intraosseous myxoma is a rare, benign mesenchymal tumor that penetrates the bone. The occurrence of an intraosseous myxoma in the clivus is a unique presentation of the disease.

OBSERVATIONS

The authors discuss the case of a 15-year-old male with a new diagnosis of a primary clival intraosseous myxoma presenting with cranial nerve VI palsy. This is the third documented case of this pathology occurring in the clivus. This patient was successfully treated with endoscopic endonasal resection of the tumor.

LESSONS

Primary clival intraosseous myxomas are extremely rare, but nonetheless it is important to add it to the differential diagnosis of clival masses. This mass has a high risk of recurrence, and prior literature suggests gross total resection may improve chances of progression-free survival. However, further larger studies are needed to provide guidelines regarding proper management of this pathology.

Open access

Yoshihisa Matsumoto, Yui Nagata, Setsuko Nakagawa, Takuro Hashikawa, Hideki Sakai, Shinji Takahashi, Yosuke Hashimoto, Shin Goto, Yasuo Sugita, and Kenji Takahashi

BACKGROUND

If complete obliteration of ruptured pediatric arteriovenous malformation (AVM) cannot be achieved, the appropriate follow-up duration and predictors of rebleeding remain unknown.

OBSERVATIONS

Pediatric patients with ruptured AVMs admitted to the authors’ hospital within the past 30 years were evaluated. Rebleeding was confirmed in two patients. The first patient was a 5-year-old boy who experienced right thalamic hemorrhage. AVM was found in the bilateral thalamus and treated with stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS). New aneurysm formation and residual AVM regrowth were confirmed 21 years after the SRS. Eight months later, rebleeding occurred. The second patient was a 5-year-old boy who underwent removal of a left cerebellar hemorrhage and AVM. The residual AVM was treated with SRS. Residual AVM regrowth was detected at 6 years 7 months after SRS. Five months later, new aneurysm formation was confirmed. Two additional days later, rebleeding occurred.

LESSONS

New aneurysm formation and residual AVM regrowth may predict rebleeding and can occur >20 years after the initial rupture and treatment. If AVM obliteration is not achieved, long-term follow-up is needed, even in adulthood, with attention to new aneurysm formation and residual AVM regrowth. Further treatment is recommended if these findings are confirmed.

Open access

Kristen M. Scheitler, Megan M. J. Bauman, Lucas P. Carlstrom, Christopher S. Graffeo, and Fredric B. Meyer

BACKGROUND

Pituitary abscess is a rare clinical entity, typically precipitated by Staphylococcus, Pseudomonas, or Aspergillus infection. Although Nocardia species–associated central nervous system abscesses have been documented in immunocompromised patients, no case of Nocardia pituitary abscesses has been previously reported.

OBSERVATIONS

A 44-year-old man presented with hemoptysis and was found to have a cavitary right lung nodule, which was presumed histoplasmosis, prompting antifungal treatment. Several months later, he developed panhypopituitarism. Magnetic resonance imaging identified a pituitary mass, which subsequently underwent transsphenoidal endoscopic biopsy. Infectious workup was negative, and the patient was discharged on intravenous ertapenem therapy. Over several months, he developed progressive headaches, and updated imaging confirmed interval enlargement of the mass with new cavernous sinus invasion. He underwent repeat endoscopic biopsy, which yielded positive cultures for Nocardia farcinica and prompted successful treatment with trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole and linezolid.

LESSONS

The current study highlights a previously unreported clinical entity, the first pituitary abscess attributable to Nocardia sp. or N. farcinica, which arose in a young, immunocompetent individual. Although rare, atypical infections represent an important component in the differential diagnosis for sellar mass lesions.

Open access

Nobuyuki Genkai, Kouichirou Okamoto, and Hitoshi Hasegawa

BACKGROUND

Wide-necked aneurysms can be treated by double stenting in an X- or Y-configuration or by a double waffle-cone technique. However, some aneurysms remain untreatable.

OBSERVATIONS

The rupture of a complex wide-necked anterior communicating artery (AcomA) aneurysm that caused acute subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) was treated successfully using double stents with an opposite L-configuration as an alternative to the X-stent technique. The aneurysm involved both A1-A2 junctions in the aneurysm neck with acutely oriented A2 segments of the anterior cerebral artery bilaterally. It was densely packed and completely obliterated angiographically with preserved blood flow by implanting each stent in the ipsilateral A1-A2 bilaterally. Blood flow from the left A1 to the right A2 was confirmed through the AcomA on injection of the left internal carotid artery immediately after the procedure without critical infarction in the subthalamic area. Although the AcomA was not demonstrated by injection of the left internal carotid artery on angiography at 3 months or 1 year later, no cerebral infarction was seen on magnetic resonance images at the final hospital visit.

LESSONS

Opposite L-configuration double stenting was used successfully as rescue stent-assisted coiling for a rupture of a complex wide-necked AcomA aneurysm in a patient with acute SAH.

Open access

Grant Koskay, Patrick Opperman, Frank M. Mezzacappa, Joseph Menousek, Megan K. Fuller, Linden Fornoff, and Daniel Surdell

BACKGROUND

Currarino syndrome is a rare disorder that classically presents with the triad of presacral mass, anorectal malformation, and spinal dysraphism. The presacral mass is typically benign, although malignant transformation is possible. Surgical treatment of the mass and exploration and repair of associated dysraphism are indicated for diagnosis and symptom relief. There are no previous reports of Currarino syndrome in an androgen-insensitive patient.

OBSERVATIONS

A 17-year-old female patient presented with lack of menarche. Physical examination and laboratory investigation identified complete androgen insensitivity. Imaging analysis revealed a presacral mass lesion, and the patient was taken to surgery for resection of the mass and spinal cord untethering. Intraoperative ultrasound revealed a fibrous stalk connecting the thecal sac to the presacral mass, which was disconnected without the need for intrathecal exploration. The presacral mass was then resected, and pathological analysis revealed a mature cystic teratoma. Postoperatively, the patient recovered without neurological or gastrointestinal sequelae.

LESSONS

Diagnosis of incomplete Currarino syndrome may be difficult but can be identified via work-up of other disorders, such as androgen insensitivity. Intraoperative ultrasound is useful for surgical decision making and may obviate the need for intrathecal exploration during repair of dysraphism in the setting of Currarino syndrome.