Browse

You are looking at 101 - 110 of 38,168 items for

  • Refine by Access: all x
Clear All
Open access

Robert B. Walker, Audrey A. Grossen, Christen M. O’Neal, and Andrew K. Conner

BACKGROUND

Treatment options for Parkinson’s disease (PD) include both medical and surgical approaches. Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is a surgical procedure that aims to improve motor symptomatology.

OBSERVATIONS

A 66-year-old White male with a 9-year history of PD presented to the neurosurgery clinic for DBS consideration. On the morning of scheduled surgery, preoperative laboratory test results revealed a prolonged prothrombin time of 50 seconds. Surgery was postponed, and further work-up revealed that the patient had a positive test result for lupus anticoagulant (LA). DBS implantation was performed 2 months later. The first stage of surgery was uneventful. The patient returned 1 week later for the second stage. Postoperatively, the patient exhibited a diminished level of consciousness. Computed tomography revealed left frontal intraparenchymal hemorrhage with surrounding edema, trace subarachnoid hemorrhage, intraventricular hemorrhage, and midline shift.

LESSONS

The authors suspect that the hemorrhage occurred secondary to venous infarct, because LA is associated with a paradoxically increased risk of thrombosis. Although there is no documented association between LA and acute or delayed hemorrhage, this case demonstrates a possible relationship in a patient following DBS placement. More research is needed to confirm an association with coexisting LA with PD and an increased hemorrhage risk in neurosurgical interventions.

Open access

Jovanna A. Tracz, Brendan F. Judy, Amanda N. Sacino, Ali Bydon, and Timothy F. Witham

BACKGROUND

Grade V spondylolisthesis, or spondyloptosis, is a complication of high-energy trauma that is most commonly reported at the lumbosacral junction. Sacral intersegmental spondyloptosis is extremely rare. The authors present a case of spondyloptosis of S1 on S2 with a comminuted fracture of S2 and complex fractures of the L4 and L5 transverse processes, resulting in severe stenosis of the lumbosacral nerve roots.

OBSERVATIONS

The patient was a 70-year-old woman with a history of a fall 3 weeks prior and progressive L5 and S1 radiculopathy. Instrumentation and fusion were undertaken, extending from L3 to the pelvis because degenerative stenosis at L3–4 and L4–5 was also found. Reduction was achieved, leading to diminished pain and partial resolution of weakness.

LESSONS

Traumatic sacral spondyloptosis adds a degree of difficulty to reduction, fixation, and fusion. The technique presented herein achieved sagittal realignment via a distraction maneuver of S1–2 in which rods were attached to bilateral dual S2 alar-iliac screws with reduction screws placed at S1, ultimately pulling L5 and S1 up to the rod for fixation.

Open access

David D. Liu, David B. Kurland, Aryan Ali, John G. Golfinos, Erez Nossek, and Howard A. Riina

BACKGROUND

Lesions of the internal auditory canal presenting with partial hearing loss are almost always vestibular schwannomas (VSs). Intracanalicular anterior inferior cerebellar artery (AICA) aneurysms are extremely rare but can mimic VS based on symptoms and imaging. The authors report the case of a flow-related intracanalicular AICA aneurysm from a pial brainstem arteriovenous malformation (AVM) masquerading as VS.

OBSERVATIONS

A 57-year-old male with partial left-sided hearing loss and an intracanalicular enhancing lesion was initially diagnosed with VS and managed conservatively at an outside institution with surveillance imaging over 3 years. When he was referred for VS follow-up, new imaging raised radiological suspicion for vascular pathology. Cerebral angiography revealed a small pial AVM located at the trigeminal root entry zone with an associated flow-related intracanalicular AICA aneurysm. The AVM was obliterated with open surgery, during which intraoperative angiography confirmed no AVM filling, preservation of the AICA, and no further aneurysm filling.

LESSONS

Intracanalicular AICA aneurysms and other lesions, including cavernous malformations, can mimic radiographic features of VS and present with hearing loss or facial weakness. Modern vascular neurosurgical techniques such as endovascular intervention and open surgery in a hybrid operating room allowed definitive management of both lesions without untoward morbidity.

Open access

Ahmad Pour-Rashidi, Payam Asem, Kazem Abbasioun, and Abbas Amirjamshidi

BACKGROUND

Solitary eosinophilic granuloma (EG) occurs anecdotally in the skull base region, and it has been described in only three previous publications. The authors report the first case of EG of the anterior clinoid process (ACP), which was confined to the ACP and presented with decreased vision.

OBSERVATIONS

A 38-year-old woman presented with decreased vision of the left eye of 5 months’ duration. Her visual acuity was 3/10, other neurological examinations were intact, and there were no other osseous or soft tissue lesions. The lesion was excised using a left-sided craniotomy and transdural clinoidectomy, decompressing the optic nerve both intra- and extradurally. The lesion was characteristic for EG, and no recurrence was detected after 2 years.

LESSONS

EG can be confined to the ACP and impair vision. Imaging studies are sensitive but not specific, and surgical decompression is both diagnostic and treatment oriented. Close observation and even adjuvant therapy may be indicated in similar cases.

Open access

Hiroyuki Koizumi, Daisuke Yamamoto, Takaaki Maruhashi, Yuichi Kataoka, Madoka Inukai, Yasushi Asari, and Toshihiro Kumabe

BACKGROUND

Nonocclusive mesenteric ischemia (NOMI) causes intestinal necrosis due to irreversible ischemia of the intestinal tract. The authors evaluated the incidence of NOMI in patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) due to ruptured aneurysms, and they present the clinical characteristics and describe the outcomes to emphasize the importance of recognizing NOMI.

OBSERVATIONS

Overall, 7 of 276 consecutive patients with SAH developed NOMI. Their average age was 71 years, and 5 patients were men. Hunt and Kosnik grades were as follows: grade II, 2 patients; grade III, 3 patients; grade IV, 1 patient; and grade V, 1 patient. Fisher grades were as follows: grade 1, 1 patient; grade 2, 1 patient; and grade 3, 5 patients. Three patients were treated with endovascular coiling, 3 with microsurgical clipping, and 1 with conservative management. Five patients had abdominal symptoms prior to the confirmed diagnosis of NOMI. Four patients fell into shock. Two patients required emergent laparotomy followed by second-look surgery. Four patients could be managed conservatively. The overall mortality of patients with NOMI complication was 29% (2 of 7 cases).

LESSONS

NOMI had a high mortality rate. Neurosurgeons should recognize that NOMI can occur as a fatal complication after SAH.

Open access

Neelan J. Marianayagam, Hanya M. Qureshi, Sagar Vasandani, Shaurey Vetsa, Muhammad Jalal, Kun Wu, and Jennifer Moliterno

BACKGROUND

Hyperactive cranial neuropathies refractory to medical management can often be debilitating to patients. While microvascular decompression (MVD) surgery can provide relief to such patients when an aberrant vessel is compressing the root entry zone (REZ) of the nerve, the arteries of elderly patients over 65 years of age can be less amenable to manipulation because of calcifications and other morphological changes. A dolichoectatic vertebral artery (DVA), in fact, can lead to multiple cranial neuropathies; therefore, a strategy for MVDs in elderly patients is useful.

OBSERVATIONS

A 76-year-old man presented with medically refractory trigeminal neuralgia (TN) and hemifacial spasm (HFS). A DVA was the conflicting vessel at the left REZs of the trigeminal and facial nerves. The authors performed a retrosigmoid craniotomy for MVD of the DVA with Teflon padding at both REZs in approximately 1 hour of operative time. The patient was free of facial pain and spasm immediately after surgery and at follow-up.

LESSONS

The authors described the case of an elderly patient with both TN and HFS caused by compression of a DVA. Simultaneous MVD with Teflon padding at both REZs provided symptomatic relief with limited surgical time. This can be a particularly useful and straightforward surgical strategy in the elderly population.

Open access

Reina Mizuno, Taku Homma, Jun-ichi Adachi, Kazuhiko Mishima, Tomonari Suzuki, Mitsuaki Shirahata, Ryo Nishikawa, and Sasaki Atushi

BACKGROUND

The revised fourth edition of the World Health Organization classification of central nervous system tumors was published in 2016. Based on this classification, one of the infiltrating glioma entities named “oligoastrocytoma/anaplastic oligoastrocytoma” is discouraged. It is proposed that these mixed gliomas should be classified as diffuse astrocytoma/anaplastic astrocytoma or oligodendroglioma/anaplastic oligodendroglioma when analyzing their genetic alteration.

OBSERVATIONS

A 78-year-old female underwent brain computed tomography (CT) because of a traffic accident. Cranial CT revealed a brain tumor in the left temporoparietal lobe; therefore, she was hospitalized. She underwent awake craniotomy. After the operation, she was treated with only local radiotherapy; the authors could not prescribe temozolomide, because she had had levetiracetam-induced pancytopenia. The remaining tumor neuroradiologically disappeared, and she was alive 40 months after the operation without tumor recurrence.

LESSONS

Histopathologically, this tumor was diagnosed as an anaplastic oligoastrocytoma with a distinct dual phenotype of astrocytoma and oligodendroglioma components. Genetically, these two components revealed astrocytoma and oligodendroglioma genotypes, respectively. Therefore, the authors considered the integrated diagnosis of the temporal tumor as a true anaplastic oligoastrocytoma with a dual genotype. Interestingly, this case also included an area composed of spindle to oval neoplastic cells that revealed intermediate genetic alterations between astrocytomas and oligodendrogliomas.

Restricted access

Abhijith V. Matur, Ali S. Yamani, Michael W. Robinson, Matthew S. Smith, Peyman Shirani, Aaron W. Grossman, and Charles J. Prestigiacomo

OBJECTIVE

Although the role of inflammation in the development of aneurysms is established, less is known about the development of intracranial aneurysms in the setting of underlying autoimmune disease. The underlying systemic inflammatory characteristics of disorders such as systemic lupus erythematosus, rheumatoid arthritis, and Sjögren’s syndrome may influence the development of intracranial aneurysms through common inflammatory pathways. The authors hypothesized that there is an association between underlying autoimmune disease and aneurysm growth and rupture.

METHODS

Medical records of patients who underwent cerebral angiography between August 2018 and August 2021 were manually reviewed. Autoimmune diseases as defined for this study are those known to have systemic inflammatory effects on the central nervous system or multiple other organ systems. Statistical analysis, including construction of multivariable linear and logistic regression models, was performed using R version 4.1.0.

RESULTS

Chart review identified 190 patients with 469 ruptured and unruptured saccular intracranial aneurysms. There were 31 patients with 44 aneurysms identified as having an autoimmune disease. The mean size of a ruptured aneurysm was significantly smaller among patients with autoimmune disease compared with patients without autoimmune disease (4.14 mm vs 5.34 mm, p = 0.03). The multivariate logistic regression model did not identify any significant association between rupture and autoimmune disease when controlling for other variables (p = 0.49). In the multivariate linear regression model, autoimmune disease was still significantly associated with a smaller size at rupture (p = 0.04), and smoking was associated with a larger size at rupture (p = 0.03) when controlling for other variables. A second multivariate logistic regression model found autoimmune disease to be independently associated with rupture at a size smaller than 7 mm (p = 0.02), while smoking was independently associated with rupture at a size larger than 7 mm (p = 0.01).

CONCLUSIONS

Autoimmune disease is associated with a smaller aneurysm size at rupture, although it is not associated with rupture itself. This association may be due to inflammatory pathways that are common to autoimmune diseases as well as aneurysm wall development. Although the authors were unable to identify any association between rupture status and the presence of autoimmune disease, the association between smaller size at rupture and autoimmune disease warrants further studies, as autoimmune disease may influence the trajectory of aneurysm development and the decision to treat.

Restricted access

Philip K. Louie, Basel Sheikh Alshabab, Michael H. McCarthy, Sohrab Virk, James E. Dowdell, Michael E. Steinhaus, Francis Lovecchio, Andre M. Samuel, Kyle W. Morse, Frank J. Schwab, Todd J. Albert, Sheeraz A. Qureshi, Sravisht Iyer, Yoshihiro Katsuura, Russel C. Huang, Matthew E. Cunningham, Yu-Cheng Yao, Karen Weissmann, Renaud Lafage, Virginie Lafage, and Han Jo Kim

OBJECTIVE

The objective of this study was to initially validate a recent morphological classification of cervical spine deformity pathology.

METHODS

The records of 10 patients for each of the 3 classification subgroups (flat neck, focal deformity, and cervicothoracic), as well as for 8 patients with coronal deformity only, were extracted from a prospective multicenter database of patients with cervical deformity (CD). A panel of 15 physicians of various training and professional levels (i.e., residents, fellows, and surgeons) categorized each patient into one of the 4 groups. The Fleiss kappa coefficient was utilized to evaluate intra- and interrater reliability. Accuracy, defined as properly selecting the main driver of deformity, was reported overall, by morphotype, and by reviewer experience.

RESULTS

The overall classification demonstrated a moderate to substantial agreement (round 1: interrater Fleiss kappa = 0.563, 95% CI 0.559–0.568; round 2: interrater Fleiss kappa = 0.612, 95% CI 0.606–0.619). Stratification by level of training demonstrated similar mean interrater coefficients (residents 0.547, fellows 0.600, surgeons 0.524). The mean intrarater score was 0.686 (range 0.531–0.823). A substantial agreement between rounds 1 and 2 was demonstrated in 81.8% of the raters, with a kappa score > 0.61. Stratification by level of training demonstrated similar mean intrarater coefficients (residents 0.715, fellows 0.640, surgeons 0.682). Of 570 possible questions, reviewers provided 419 correct answers (73.5%). When considering the true answer as being selected by at least one of the two main drivers of deformity, the overall accuracy increased to 86.0%.

CONCLUSIONS

This initial validation of a CD morphological classification system reiterates the importance of dynamic plain radiographs for the evaluation of patients with CD. The overall reliability of this CD morphological classification has been demonstrated. The overall accuracy of the classification system was not impacted by rater experience, demonstrating its simplicity.

Open access

Kathrin Zimmerman, Arsalaan Salehani, Nathan A. Shlobin, Gabriela R. Oates, Gail Rosseau, Brandon G. Rocque, Sandi Lam, and Jeffrey P. Blount