Intracranial arterial dissections (IADs) are classically associated with the vertebrobasilar system, yet are a devastating cause of ischemic stroke within the anterior circulation. Current literature regarding the surgical management of anterior circulation IAD is lacking. As a result, data on 9 patients presenting with ischemic stroke due to spontaneous anterior circulation IAD between 2019 and 2021 were collected in a retrospective manner. Symptoms, diagnostic modalities, treatment, and outcomes are presented for each case. Patients who underwent endovascular procedures had 10-minute follow-up angiography performed to identify signs of reocclusion, which prompted initiation of glycoprotein IIb/IIIa therapy and stent placement.
Seven patients underwent emergent endovascular intervention (stenting: n = 5; thrombectomy alone: n = 2). The remaining 2 were managed medically. Two patients developed progressive flow limiting stenosis requiring further intervention, 2 developed asymptomatic progressive stenosis/occlusion with robust collateral formation and the remainder have patent vasculature upon follow up imaging at 6 to 12 months. Seven patients had a modified Rankin Scale score of 1 or less at the 3-month follow-up.
IAD is a devastating yet rare cause of anterior circulation ischemic stroke. The treatment algorithm proposed resulted in positive clinical and angiographic outcomes warranting future consideration and study in the emergent management of spontaneous anterior circulation IAD.