Browse

You are looking at 91 - 100 of 37,381 items for

  • Refine by Access: all x
Clear All
Restricted access

Lei Zhao, Liwei Peng, Peng Wang, and Weixin Li

Restricted access

Wyatt L. Ramey, Andrew S. Jack, and Jens R. Chapman

The use of multirod constructs in the setting of adult spinal deformity (ASD) began to prevent rod fracture and pseudarthrosis near the site of pedicle subtraction osteotomies (PSOs) and 3-column osteotomies (3COs). However, there has been unclear and inconsistent nomenclature, both clinically and in the literature, for the various techniques of supplemental rod implantation. In this review the authors aim to provide the first succinct lexicon of multirod constructs available for the treatment of ASD, providing a universal nomenclature and definition for each type of supplementary rod. The primary rod of ASD constructs is the longest rod that typically spans from the bottom of the construct to the upper instrumented vertebrae. The secondary rod is shorter than the primary rod, but is connected directly to pedicle screws, albeit fewer of them, and connects to the primary rod via lateral connectors or cross-linkers. Satellite rods are a 4-rod technique in which 2 rods span only the site of a 3CO via pedicle screws at the levels above and below, and are not connected to the primary rod (hence the term “satellite”). Accessory rods are connected to the primary rods via side connectors and buttress the primary rod in areas of high rod strain, such as at a 3CO or the lumbosacral junction. Delta rods span the site of a 3CO, typically a PSO, and are not contoured to the newly restored lordosis of the spine, thus buttressing the primary rod above and below a 3CO. The kickstand rod itself functions as an additional means of restoring coronal balance and is secured to a newly placed iliac screw on the side of truncal shift and connected to the primary rod; distracting against the kickstand then helps to correct the concavity of a coronal curve. The use of multirod constructs has dramatically increased over the last several years in parallel with the increasing prevalence of ASD correction surgery. However, ambiguity persists both clinically and in the literature regarding the nomenclature of each supplemental rod. This nomenclature of supplemental rods should help unify the lexicon of multirod constructs and generalize their usage in a variety of scientific and clinical scenarios.

Restricted access

Thorbjørn Søren Rønn Jensen, Mette Haldrup, Mads Hjortdal Grønhøj, Rares Miscov, Carl Christian Larsen, Birgit Debrabant, Frantz Rom Poulsen, Bo Bergholt, Torben Hundsholt, Carsten Reidies Bjarkam, and Kåre Fugleholm

OBJECTIVE

Placement of a subdural drain reduces recurrence and death after evacuation of chronic subdural hematoma (CSDH), but little is known about optimal drainage duration. In the present national trial, the authors investigated the effect of drainage duration on recurrence and death.

METHODS

In a randomized controlled trial involving all neurosurgical departments in Denmark, patients treated with single burr hole evacuation of CSDH were randomly assigned to 24 hours or 48 hours of postoperative passive subdural drainage. Follow-up duration was 90 days, and the primary study outcome was recurrent hematoma requiring reoperation. Secondary outcome was death. In addition, complications and length of hospital stay were recorded and analyzed.

RESULTS

Of the 420 included patients, 212 were assigned 24-hour drainage and 208 were assigned 48-hour drainage. The recurrence rate was 14% in the 24-hour group and 13% in the 48-hour group. Four patients died in the 24-hour group, and 8 patients died in the 48-hour group; this difference was not statistically significant. The ORs (95% CIs) for recurrence and mortality (48 hours vs 24 hours) were 0.94 (0.53–1.66) and 2.07 (0.64–7.85), respectively, in the intention-to-treat analysis. The ORs (95% CIs) for recurrence and mortality per 1-hour increase in drainage time were 1.0005 (0.9770–1.0244) and 1.0046 (0.9564–1.0554), respectively, in the as-treated sensitivity analysis that used the observed drainage times instead of the preassigned treatment groups. The rates of surgical and drain-related complications, postoperative infections, and thromboembolic events were not different between groups. The mean ± SD postoperative length of hospital stay was 7.4 ± 4.3 days for patients who received 24-hour drainage versus 8.4 ± 4.9 days for those who received 48-hour drainage (p = 0.14). The mean ± SD postoperative length of stay in the neurosurgical department was significantly shorter for the 24-hour group (2 ± 0.9 days vs 2.8 ± 1.6 days, p < 0.001).

CONCLUSIONS

No significant differences in the rates of recurrent hematoma or death during 90-day follow-up were identified between the two groups that randomly received either 24- or 48-hour passive subdural drainage after burr hole evacuation of CSDH.

Restricted access

Keisuke Takai, Toshiki Endo, Toshitaka Seki, Tomoo Inoue, Izumi Koyanagi, Takafumi Mitsuhara, and

OBJECTIVE

Craniocervical junction (CCJ) arteriovenous fistulas (AVFs) are treated using neurosurgical or endovascular options; however, there is still no consensus on the safest and most effective treatment. The present study compared the treatment results of neurosurgical and endovascular procedures for CCJ AVFs, specifically regarding retreatment, complications, and outcomes.

METHODS

This was a multicenter cohort study authorized by the Neurospinal Society of Japan. Data on consecutive patients with CCJ AVFs who underwent neurosurgical or endovascular treatment between 2009 and 2019 at 29 centers were analyzed. The primary endpoint was the retreatment rate by procedure. Secondary endpoints were the overall complication rate, the ischemic complication rate, the mortality rate, posttreatment changes in the neurological status, independent risk factors for retreatment, and poor outcomes.

RESULTS

Ninety-seven patients underwent neurosurgical (78 patients) or endovascular (19 patients) treatment. Retreatment rates were 2.6% (2/78 patients) in the neurosurgery group and 63% (12/19 patients) in the endovascular group (p < 0.001). Overall complication rates were 22% and 42% in the neurosurgery and endovascular groups, respectively (p = 0.084). Ischemic complication rates were 7.7% and 26% in the neurosurgery and endovascular groups, respectively (p = 0.037). Ischemic complications included 8 spinal infarctions, 2 brainstem infarctions, and 1 cerebellar infarction, which resulted in permanent neurological deficits. Mortality rates were 2.6% and 0% in the neurosurgery and endovascular groups, respectively (p > 0.99). Two patients died of systemic complications. The percentages of patients with improved modified Rankin Scale (mRS) scores were 60% and 37% in the neurosurgery and endovascular groups, respectively, with a median follow-up of 23 months (p = 0.043). Multivariate analysis identified endovascular treatment as an independent risk factor associated with retreatment (OR 54, 95% CI 9.9–300; p < 0.001). Independent risk factors associated with poor outcomes (a postoperative mRS score of 3 or greater) were a pretreatment mRS score of 3 or greater (OR 13, 95% CI 2.7–62; p = 0.001) and complications (OR 5.8; 95% CI 1.3–26; p = 0.020).

CONCLUSIONS

Neurosurgical treatment was more effective and safer than endovascular treatment for patients with CCJ AVFs because of lower retreatment and ischemic complication rates and better outcomes.

Restricted access

Jihwan Yoo, Seon-Jin Yoon, Kyung Hwan Kim, In-Ho Jung, Seung Hoon Lim, Woohyun Kim, Hong In Yoon, Se Hoon Kim, Kyoung Su Sung, Tae Hoon Roh, Ju Hyung Moon, Hun Ho Park, Eui Hyun Kim, Chang-Ok Suh, Seok-Gu Kang, and Jong Hee Chang

OBJECTIVE

In glioblastoma (GBM) patients, controlling the microenvironment around the tumor using various treatment modalities, including surgical intervention, is essential in determining the outcome of treatment. This study was conducted to elucidate whether recurrence patterns differ according to the extent of resection (EOR) and whether this difference affects prognosis.

METHODS

This single-center study included 358 eligible patients with histologically confirmed isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH)–wild-type GBM from November 1, 2005, to December 31, 2018. Patients were assigned to one of three separate groups according to EOR: supratotal resection (SupTR), gross-total resection (GTR), and subtotal resection (STR) groups. The patterns of recurrence were classified as local, marginal, and distant based on the range of radiation. The relationship between EOR and recurrence pattern was statistically analyzed.

RESULTS

Observed tumor recurrence rates for each group were as follows: SupTR group, 63.4%; GTR group, 75.3%; and STR group, 80.5% (p = 0.072). Statistically significant differences in patterns of recurrences among groups were observed with respect to local recurrence (SupTR, 57.7%; GTR, 76.0%; STR, 82.8%; p = 0.036) and distant recurrence (SupTR, 50.0%; GTR, 30.1%; STR, 23.2%; p = 0.028). Marginal recurrence showed no statistical difference between groups. Both overall survival and progression-free survival were significantly increased in the SupTR group compared with the STR and GTR groups (p < 0.0001).

CONCLUSIONS

In this study, the authors investigated the association between EOR and patterns of recurrence in patients with IDH–wild-type GBM. The findings not only show that recurrence patterns differ according to EOR but also provide clinical evidence supporting the hypothesized mechanism by which distant recurrence occurs.

Restricted access

Karina A. González Otárula, Yee-Leng Tan, Jeffery A. Hall, Edward F. Chang, José A. Correa, François Dubeau, Viviane Sziklas, Jean-Paul Soucy, Marie-Christine Guiot, Robert C. Knowlton, and Eliane Kobayashi

OBJECTIVE

The authors’ objective was to report postsurgical seizure outcome of temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) patients with normal or subtle, nonspecific MRI findings and to identify prognostic factors related to seizure control after surgery.

METHODS

This was a retrospective study of patients who underwent surgery from 1999 to 2014 at two comprehensive epilepsy centers. Patients with a clear MRI lesion according to team discussion and consensus were excluded. Presurgical information, surgery details, pathological data, and postsurgical outcomes were retrospectively collected from medical charts. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to assess the effect of clinical, surgical, and neuroimaging factors on the probability of Engel class I (favorable) versus class II–IV (unfavorable) outcome at last follow-up.

RESULTS

The authors included 73 patients (59% were female; median age at surgery 35.9 years) who underwent operations after a median duration of epilepsy of 13 years. The median follow-up after surgery was 30.6 months. At latest follow-up, 44% of patients had Engel class I outcome. Favorable prognostic factors were focal nonmotor aware seizures and unilateral or no spikes on interictal scalp EEG.

CONCLUSIONS

Favorable outcome can be achieved in a good proportion of TLE patients with normal or subtle, nonspecific MRI findings, particularly when presurgical investigation suggests a rather circumscribed generator. Presurgical factors such as the presence of focal nonmotor aware seizures and unilateral or no spikes on interictal EEG may indicate a higher probability of seizure freedom.

Restricted access

Samuel D. Pettersson, Michael Kitlinski, Grzegorz Miękisiak, Shan Ali, Michał Krakowiak, and Tomasz Szmuda

OBJECTIVE

A review article assessing all the risk factors reported in the literature for postoperative cerebellar mutism syndrome (pCMS) among children remains absent. The authors sought to perform a systematic review and meta-analysis to evaluate this issue.

METHODS

PubMed, Embase, and Web of Science were queried to systematically extract potential references. The articles relating to pCMS were required to be written in the English language, involve pediatric patients (≤ 18 years of age), and provide extractable data, which included a comparison group of patients who did not develop pCMS. The quality of the included studies was evaluated using the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale. Data were pooled using RevMan 5.4, and publication bias was assessed by visual inspection for funnel plot asymmetry. The study protocol was registered through PROSPERO (ID: CRD42021256177).

RESULTS

Overall, 28 studies involving 2276 patients were included. Statistically significant risk factors identified from univariate analysis were brainstem invasion (OR 4.28, 95% CI 2.23–8.23; p < 0.0001), fourth ventricle invasion (OR 12.84, 95% CI 4.29–38.44; p < 0.00001), superior cerebellar peduncle invasion (OR 6.77, 95% CI 2.35–19.48; p = 0.0004), diagnosis of medulloblastoma (OR 3.26, 95% CI 1.93–5.52; p < 0.0001), medulloblastoma > 50 mm (OR 8.85, 95% CI 1.30–60.16; p = 0.03), left-handedness (OR 6.57, 95% CI 1.25–34.44; p = 0.03), and a vermis incision (OR 5.44, 95% CI 2.09–14.16; p = 0.0005). On the other hand, a tumor located in the cerebellar hemisphere (OR 0.23, 95% CI 0.06–0.92; p = 0.04), cerebellar hemisphere compression (OR 0.23, 95% CI 0.11–0.45; p < 0.0001), and intraoperative imaging (OR 0.36, 95% CI 0.18–0.72; p = 0.004) reduced the risk of pCMS.

CONCLUSIONS

This study provides the largest and most reliable review of risk factors associated with pCMS. Although some risk factors may be dependent on one another, the data may be used by surgeons to better identify patients at risk for pCMS and for intervention planning.

Open access

David S. Xu, Corey T. Walker, S. Harrison Farber, Jakub Godzik, Shashank V. Gandhi, Robert M. Koffie, Jay D. Turner, and Juan S. Uribe

OBJECTIVE

The thoracolumbar (TL) junction spanning T11 to L2 is difficult to access because of the convergence of multiple anatomical structures and tissue planes. Earlier studies have described different approaches and anatomical structures relevant to the TL junction. This anatomical study aims to build a conceptual framework for selecting and executing a minimally invasive lateral approach to the spine for interbody fusion at any level of the TL junction with appropriate adjustments for local anatomical variations.

METHODS

The authors reviewed anatomical dissections from 9 fresh-frozen cadaveric specimens as well as clinical case examples to denote key anatomical relationships and considerations for approach selection.

RESULTS

The retroperitoneal and retropleural spaces reside within the same extracoelomic cavity and are separated from each other by the lateral attachments of the diaphragm to the rib and the L1 transverse process. If the lateral diaphragmatic attachments are dissected and the diaphragm is retracted anteriorly, the retroperitoneal and retropleural spaces will be in direct continuity, allowing full access to the TL junction. The T12–L2 disc spaces can be reached by a conventional lateral retroperitoneal exposure with the rostral displacement of the 11th and 12th ribs. With caudally displaced ribs, or to expose T12–L1 disc spaces, the diaphragm can be freed from its lateral attachments to perform a retrodiaphragmatic approach. The T11–12 disc space can be accessed purely through a retropleural approach without significant mobilization of the diaphragm.

CONCLUSIONS

The entirety of the TL junction can be accessed through a minimally invasive extracoelomic approach, with or without manipulation of the diaphragm. Approach selection is determined by the region of interest, degree of diaphragmatic mobilization required, and rib anatomy.

Restricted access

Dhiraj J. Pangal, Guillaume Kugener, Tyler Cardinal, Elizabeth Lechtholz-Zey, Casey Collet, Sasha Lasky, Shivani Sundaram, Yichao Zhu, Arman Roshannai, Justin Chan, Aditya Sinha, Andrew J. Hung, Animashree Anandkumar, Gabriel Zada, and Daniel A. Donoho

OBJECTIVE

Experts can assess surgeon skill using surgical video, but a limited number of expert surgeons are available. Automated performance metrics (APMs) are a promising alternative but have not been created from operative videos in neurosurgery to date. The authors aimed to evaluate whether video-based APMs can predict task success and blood loss during endonasal endoscopic surgery in a validated cadaveric simulator of vascular injury of the internal carotid artery.

METHODS

Videos of cadaveric simulation trials by 73 neurosurgeons and otorhinolaryngologists were analyzed and manually annotated with bounding boxes to identify the surgical instruments in the frame. APMs in five domains were defined—instrument usage, time-to-phase, instrument disappearance, instrument movement, and instrument interactions—on the basis of expert analysis and task-specific surgical progressions. Bounding-box data of instrument position were then used to generate APMs for each trial. Multivariate linear regression was used to test for the associations between APMs and blood loss and task success (hemorrhage control in less than 5 minutes). The APMs of 93 successful trials were compared with the APMs of 49 unsuccessful trials.

RESULTS

In total, 29,151 frames of surgical video were annotated. Successful simulation trials had superior APMs in each domain, including proportionately more time spent with the key instruments in view (p < 0.001) and less time without hemorrhage control (p = 0.002). APMs in all domains improved in subsequent trials after the participants received personalized expert instruction. Attending surgeons had superior instrument usage, time-to-phase, and instrument disappearance metrics compared with resident surgeons (p < 0.01). APMs predicted surgeon performance better than surgeon training level or prior experience. A regression model that included APMs predicted blood loss with an R2 value of 0.87 (p < 0.001).

CONCLUSIONS

Video-based APMs were superior predictors of simulation trial success and blood loss than surgeon characteristics such as case volume and attending status. Surgeon educators can use APMs to assess competency, quantify performance, and provide actionable, structured feedback in order to improve patient outcomes. Validation of APMs provides a benchmark for further development of fully automated video assessment pipelines that utilize machine learning and computer vision.

Open access

Hernán F. J. González, Ramin A. Morshed, and Ezequiel Goldschmidt

BACKGROUND

Acute postoperative sialadenitis is a rare and potentially morbid complication of cranial neurosurgery. This rapidly progressive, unilateral neck swelling often presents within hours of extubation. Diagnosis is made by imaging and exclusion of other causes of etiologies, such as neck hematoma, sialolithiasis, and dependent soft tissue edema.

OBSERVATIONS

The authors presented a case of acute postoperative sialadenitis after suboccipital resection of a right cerebellar metastasis. Shortly after extubation, extensive left-sided neck swelling was apparent in the postanesthesia care unit. No central lines were placed during the procedure. Imaging revealed submandibular gland edema and fluid accumulation in the surrounding tissue. The patient was managed conservatively with steroids, antibiotics, and warm compresses, with complete resolution of symptoms 2 weeks after the procedure.

LESSONS

This case emphasizes the broad differential of acute neck swelling after cranial surgery. Physical examination of the neck and airway protection should guide initial treatment. If a patient is stable, bedside ultrasound and computed tomography can be helpful with the differential diagnosis. Here the authors proposed an algorithm for diagnosis and treatment of acute neck swelling after cranial surgery.