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Open access

Megan Rajagopal, Jamie Toms, and R. Scott Graham

BACKGROUND

This report describes an unusual meningioma with a large left frontal component and extensive growth within the sagittal sinus and its successful treatment with a staged approach: left frontal craniotomy followed by a sagittal craniotomy and intrinsic removal of the tumor from the sagittal sinus.

OBSERVATIONS

A previously healthy 27-year-old presented with 6 months of progressively worsening bilateral headaches, visual changes, and nausea. On examination she had a left cranial nerve VI palsy and severe papilledema. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed a 5.1 × 3.8 × 4.1 cm homogenously enhancing left superior frontal parafalcine extra-axial mass with surrounding vasogenic edema and growth through the sagittal sinus extending just short of the torcula.

LESSONS

This case report describes a fast-growing meningioma with a unique pattern of spread, growing through the sagittal sinus as if it were a conduit and resulting in complete occlusion of flow in the sinus. An important recognition in this case was that a robust parasagittal venous plexus had developed on either side of the falx cerebri with drainage to the inferior sagittal sinus. This collateral drainage pattern allowed for an extradural opening of the sagittal sinus from front to back and intrinsic resection of the tumor from the sinus with preservation of the lateral walls of the sinus.

Open access

Lisa B. E. Shields, Vasudeva G. Iyer, John E. Harpring, Abigail J. Rao, Yi Ping Zhang, and Christopher B. Shields

BACKGROUND

Double crush syndrome consists of two compression sites along a peripheral nerve and is rare in the lower extremities. Electrodiagnostic and ultrasound (US) studies may be helpful in evaluating foot drop involving overlapping pathologies.

OBSERVATIONS

Case 1 involved a man who presented with left dorsiflexor weakness and left foot numbness. Electromyography (EMG) revealed a left common fibular nerve entrapment neuropathy and left L5 radiculopathy. US and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed a large cystic lesion of the left common fibular nerve treated by cyst removal. The left foot drop persisted postoperatively. Lumbar computed tomography myelography revealed severe left foraminal stenosis at L5–S1. Multilevel lumbar laminectomies and facetectomies with an L5–S1 fusion were performed. Within 1 month postoperatively, the left foot drop had improved. Case 2 involved a man who developed a right foot drop caused by right lumbar foraminal stenosis at L4–5 and L5–S1. EMG and US of the right common fibular neuropathy showed large fascicles involving the right common fibular nerve. MRI revealed a hyperintense signal of the right common fibular nerve. Spontaneous improvement occurred within 6 months without surgery.

LESSONS

Spine surgeons should recognize double crush in the lower extremities. EMG and US are valuable in detecting peripheral nerve abnormalities, especially in cases with overlapping lumbar pathology.

Open access

Keisuke Onoda, Ryohei Sashida, Ren Fujiwara, Tomihiro Wakamiya, Yuhei Michiwaki, Tatsuya Tanaka, Kazuaki Shimoji, Eiichi Suehiro, Fumitaka Yamane, Masatou Kawashima, and Akira Matsuno

BACKGROUND

Vaccines against coronavirus disease 2019 have a high level of efficacy and safety across all populations. However, numerous case series have been published on neurological disorders, including Bell’s palsy, Guillain-Barre syndrome, transverse myelitis, and multiple sclerosis. The authors presented a case of trigeminal neuropathy after coronavirus vaccination in a patient who had undergone microvascular decompression (MVD) for trigeminal neuralgia (TN).

OBSERVATIONS

A 77-year-old woman presented with acute trigeminal neuropathy after receiving a Pfizer-BioNtech vaccination (tozinameran) against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2. The patient had undergone MVD for TN and the facial pain completely disappeared. One month later, she received the first injection of the tozinameran vaccine. Twelve hours after vaccination, she presented with numbness and pain induced by touching any place on the entire right face. No eruption was observed on her face. The serum herpes zoster virus antibodies were confirmed within the normal range. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed no abnormalities. The authors suspected a right trigeminal neuropathy after vaccination. Administration of carbamazepine and pregabalin improved TN but facial numbness persisted, especially in the mandibular division.

LESSONS

The coronavirus is a possible etiology of secondary trigeminal neuropathy in the case of MVD for TN.

Open access

Mosaab Alsuwaihel, Dana El-Mughayyar, Matthew MacLennan, and Najmedden Attabib

BACKGROUND

Unilateral agenesis of a cervical pedicle is a known rare entity that has been well described over the past 70 years. It is usually an incidental or minimally symptomatic presentation with no significant clinical repercussion. No previous report has described concurrent non-osseous developmental abnormalities alongside this unique pathology.

OBSERVATIONS

This case reported a cervical hemangioma with associated unilateral pedicle agenesis and an incidental finding of callosal dysgenesis and lipoma. The initial presentation consisted solely of persistent neck pain, with cervical radiography illustrating significant kyphotic deformity secondary to apparent anterolisthesis of C3-C4. The patient underwent a combined approach: anterior cervical corpectomy at C4-C5 with supplemental posterior fusion. The authors provided a review of the literature concerning developmental pedicle abnormalities and vertebral hemangioma. Pedicle agenesis is known to be associated with multiple pathologies, but the authors have not found evidence of a clinical paradigm consisting of a vertebral hemangioma in the presence of cervical pedicle agenesis, callosal dysgenesis, or callosal lipoma.

LESSONS

Careful evaluation of radiographs with appropriate subsequent multimodal imaging is key to identifying unique pathologies in the spine that complement a patient’s history and clinical findings. If multiple abnormalities are noted, a novel clinical etiology or syndrome must be considered.

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S. Hassan A. Akbari, Alexander T. Yahanda, Laurie L. Ackerman, P. David Adelson, Raheel Ahmed, Gregory W. Albert, Philipp R. Aldana, Tord D. Alden, Richard C. E. Anderson, David F. Bauer, Tammy Bethel-Anderson, Karin Bierbrauer, Douglas L. Brockmeyer, Joshua J. Chern, Daniel E. Couture, David J. Daniels, Brian J. Dlouhy, Susan R. Durham, Richard G. Ellenbogen, Ramin Eskandari, Herbert E. Fuchs, Gerald A. Grant, Patrick C. Graupman, Stephanie Greene, Jeffrey P. Greenfield, Naina L. Gross, Daniel J. Guillaume, Todd C. Hankinson, Gregory G. Heuer, Mark Iantosca, Bermans J. Iskandar, Eric M. Jackson, George I. Jallo, James M. Johnston, Bruce A. Kaufman, Robert F. Keating, Nicklaus R. Khan, Mark D. Krieger, Jeffrey R. Leonard, Cormac O. Maher, Francesco T. Mangano, J. Gordon McComb, Sean D. McEvoy, Thanda Meehan, Arnold H. Menezes, Michael S. Muhlbauer, Brent R. O’Neill, Greg Olavarria, John Ragheb, Nathan R. Selden, Manish N. Shah, Chevis N. Shannon, Joshua S. Shimony, Matthew D. Smyth, Scellig S. D. Stone, Jennifer M. Strahle, Mandeep S. Tamber, James C. Torner, Gerald F. Tuite, Elizabeth C. Tyler-Kabara, Scott D. Wait, John C. Wellons III, William E. Whitehead, Tae Sung Park, and David D. Limbrick Jr.

OBJECTIVE

The aim of this study was to determine differences in complications and outcomes between posterior fossa decompression with duraplasty (PFDD) and without duraplasty (PFD) for the treatment of pediatric Chiari malformation type I (CM1) and syringomyelia (SM).

METHODS

The authors used retrospective and prospective components of the Park-Reeves Syringomyelia Research Consortium database to identify pediatric patients with CM1-SM who received PFD or PFDD and had at least 1 year of follow-up data. Preoperative, treatment, and postoperative characteristics were recorded and compared between groups.

RESULTS

A total of 692 patients met the inclusion criteria for this database study. PFD was performed in 117 (16.9%) and PFDD in 575 (83.1%) patients. The mean age at surgery was 9.86 years, and the mean follow-up time was 2.73 years. There were no significant differences in presenting signs or symptoms between groups, although the preoperative syrinx size was smaller in the PFD group. The PFD group had a shorter mean operating room time (p < 0.0001), fewer patients with > 50 mL of blood loss (p = 0.04), and shorter hospital stays (p = 0.0001). There were 4 intraoperative complications, all within the PFDD group (0.7%, p > 0.99). Patients undergoing PFDD had a 6-month complication rate of 24.3%, compared with 13.7% in the PFD group (p = 0.01). There were no differences between groups for postoperative complications beyond 6 months (p = 0.33). PFD patients were more likely to require revision surgery (17.9% vs 8.3%, p = 0.002). PFDD was associated with greater improvements in headaches (89.6% vs 80.8%, p = 0.04) and back pain (86.5% vs 59.1%, p = 0.01). There were no differences between groups for improvement in neurological examination findings. PFDD was associated with greater reduction in anteroposterior syrinx size (43.7% vs 26.9%, p = 0.0001) and syrinx length (18.9% vs 5.6%, p = 0.04) compared with PFD.

CONCLUSIONS

PFD was associated with reduced operative time and blood loss, shorter hospital stays, and fewer postoperative complications within 6 months. However, PFDD was associated with better symptom improvement and reduction in syrinx size and lower rates of revision decompression. The two surgeries have low intraoperative complication rates and comparable complication rates beyond 6 months.

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Lara Passfall, Tyler K. Williamson, Oscar Krol, Jordan Lebovic, Bailey Imbo, Rachel Joujon-Roche, Peter Tretiakov, Katerina Dangas, Stephane Owusu-Sarpong, Heiko Koller, Andrew J. Schoenfeld, Bassel G. Diebo, Shaleen Vira, Renaud Lafage, Virginie Lafage, and Peter G. Passias

OBJECTIVE

Surgical correction of cervical deformity (CD) has been associated with superior alignment and functional outcomes. It has not yet been determined whether baseline or postoperative T1 slope (T1S) and C2 slope (C2S) correlate with health-related quality-of-life (HRQoL) metrics and radiographic complications, such as distal junctional kyphosis (DJK) and distal junctional failure (DJF). The objective of this study was to determine the impact of T1S and C2S deformity severity on HRQoL metrics and DJF development in patients with CD who underwent a cervical fusion procedure.

METHODS

All operative CD patients with upper instrumented vertebra above C7 and preoperative (baseline) and up to 2-year postoperative radiographic and HRQoL data were included. CD was defined as meeting at least one of the following radiographic parameters: C2–7 lordosis < −15°, TS1–cervical lordosis mismatch > 35°, segmental cervical kyphosis > 15° across any 3 vertebrae between C2 and T1, C2–7 sagittal vertical axis > 4 cm, McGregor’s slope > 20°, or chin-brow vertical angle > 25°. Spearman’s rank-order correlation and linear regression analysis assessed the impact of T1S and C2S on HRQoL metrics (Neck Disability Index [NDI], modified Japanese Orthopaedic Association [mJOA] scale, EuroQOL 5-Dimension Questionnaire [EQ-5D] visual analog scale [VAS] score, and numeric rating scale [NRS]–neck) and complications (DJK, DJF, reoperation). Logistic regression and a conditional inference tree (CIT) were used to determine radiographic thresholds for achieving optimal clinical outcome, defined as meeting good clinical outcome criteria (≥ 2 of the following: NDI < 20 or meeting minimal clinically important difference, mild myelopathy [mJOA score ≥ 14], and NRS-neck ≤ 5 or improved by ≥ 2 points), not undergoing reoperation, or developing DJF or mechanical complication by 2 years.

RESULTS

One hundred five patients with CD met inclusion criteria. By surgical approach, 14.7% underwent an anterior-only approach, 46.1% a posterior-only approach, and 39.2% combined anterior and posterior approaches. The mean baseline radiographic parameters were T1S 28.3° ± 14.5° and C2S 25.9° ± 17.5°. Significant associations were found between 3-month C2S and mJOA score (r = −0.248, p = 0.034), NDI (r = 0.399, p = 0.001), EQ-5D VAS (r = −0.532, p < 0.001), NRS-neck (r = 0.239, p = 0.040), and NRS-back (r = 0.264, p = 0.021), while significant correlation was also found between 3-month T1S and mJOA score (r = −0.314, p = 0.026), NDI (r = 0.445, p = 0.001), EQ-5D VAS (r = −0.347, p = 0.018), and NRS-neck (r = 0.269, p = 0.049). A significant correlation was also found between development of DJF and 3-month C2S (odds ratio [OR] 1.1, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.01–1.1, p = 0.015) as well as for T1S (OR 1.1, 95% CI 1.01–1.1, p = 0.023). Logistic regression with CIT identified thresholds for optimal outcome by 2 years: optimal 3-month T1S < 26° (OR 5.6) and C2S < 10° (OR 10.4), severe 3-month T1S < 45.5° (OR 0.2) and C2S < 38.0° (no patient above this threshold achieved optimal outcome; all p < 0.05). Patients below both optimal thresholds achieved rates of 0% for DJK and DJF, and 100% met optimal outcome.

CONCLUSIONS

The severity of CD, defined by T1S and C2S at baseline and especially at 3 months, can be predictive of postoperative functional improvement and occurrence of worrisome complications in patients with CD, necessitating the use of thresholds in surgical planning to achieve optimal outcomes.

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Sungmi Jeon, Jee Hyeok Chung, Sukwha Kim, Seung-Ki Kim, Ji Hoon Phi, Ji Yeoun Lee, Kyung Hyun Kim, Kyu-Chang Wang, and Byung Jun Kim

OBJECTIVE

Posterior distraction osteogenesis (DO) is widely accepted for the treatment of craniosynostosis. The aim of this study was to quantitatively compare the effect of DO on the cranial vault according to the age of the patient and direction of distraction.

METHODS

This was a retrospective study of patients with craniosynostosis who underwent DO in the anteroposterior direction. Postdistraction changes in intracranial volume (ICV), anteroposterior distance, biparietal distance, cranial height, and frontal bossing angle were measured using Mimics software on CT scans. Craniometric data were analyzed using a multivariate regression model.

RESULTS

Thirty-two patients (16 anterior and 16 posterior DOs) were included in the study. The mean ICV increase in the anterior and posterior DO group was 211 cm3 (range 142–281 cm3) and 214 cm3 (range 150–279 cm3), respectively. Patients who were aged 1 year or younger showed a greater percentage increase in ICV than patients older than 1 year. In the anterior DO group, a more balanced increase in both anterior and posterior anteroposterior distance was observed in patients aged 1 year or younger when compared to patients older than 1 year. In the posterior DO group, a bigger expansion and smoother contour in the posterior cranial fossa was observed in patients aged 1 year or younger.

CONCLUSIONS

Both anterior and posterior DO are effective surgical options for expanding the cranial vault in patients with craniosynostosis. Early distraction appeared to show greater morphological changes in the growing cranial vault than those predicted with the vector of distraction.

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Roozbeh Tavanaei, Pooria Ahmadi, Bahador Malekipour, Bijan Herfedoust Biazar, Mohsen Keikhaee, Kaveh Oraii Yazdani, Alireza Zali, and Saeed Oraee-Yazdani

OBJECTIVE

Prior evidence has supported the use of local intraoperative epidural steroids in lumbar discectomy for improvements in postoperative pain and outcomes. However, currently there is a paucity of data regarding the efficacy of local epidural steroids in spinal fusion procedures. The present investigation aimed to evaluate the impact of local epidural administration of triamcinolone acetonide–soaked Gelfoam on postoperative pain and patient-reported outcomes in patients undergoing instrumented posterolateral lumbar spinal fusion.

METHODS

In this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, patients were randomly divided into two groups (treatment and control). Patients in the treatment group received a Gelfoam carrier soaked in 1 ml of triamcinolone acetonide (40 mg), which was placed over the nerve roots in the epidural space before the closure. Patients in the control group received a Gelfoam carrier soaked in normal saline in a similar fashion to the treatment group. Patients were followed up during their hospital stay and at 4 and 12 weeks postoperatively. The primary outcome measure was early postoperative visual analog scale (VAS) scores for pain both at rest and with movement.

RESULTS

A total of 100 patients were recruited in this study and were randomly allocated to the treatment or control group. No significant difference was found in baseline demographic, clinical, and surgical characteristics between the two groups. Postoperative VAS scores for pain both at rest and with movement were comparable between the treatment and control groups. Cumulative morphine consumption, length of hospital stay, and incidence of postoperative complications such as surgical site infection were also similar between the two groups. There was no significant difference in patient-reported outcomes including VAS scores for back and leg pain as well as the Oswestry Disability Index at 4 and 12 weeks postoperatively. The proportion of patients who achieved a minimum clinically important difference for patient-reported outcomes were also similar between the two groups.

CONCLUSIONS

In contrast to the existing literature on the beneficial use of local intraoperative epidural steroids in conventional lumbar discectomy, the present study did not demonstrate such significant efficacy for the use of local epidural steroids in instrumented posterolateral lumbar spinal fusion. However, there is still a lack of evidence in this regard and further high-quality clinical trials are required to evaluate the efficacy of local epidural steroids in this group of patients.

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Alberto Di Somma, Doo-Sik Kong, Matteo de Notaris, Kris S. Moe, Juan Carlos Sánchez España, Theodore H. Schwartz, and Joaquim Enseñat