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Mark Bernstein

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Othman Bin-Alamer, Arka N. Mallela, Paolo Palmisciano, Zachary C. Gersey, Turki Elarjani, Mohamed A. Labib, Georgios A. Zenonos, Amir R. Dehdashti, Jason P. Sheehan, William T. Couldwell, L. Dade Lunsford, and Hussam Abou-Al-Shaar

OBJECTIVE

The objective of this retrospective study was to compare the survival of patients with biopsy-proven skull base chordoma who had undergone stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) with versus without prior fractionated radiation therapy (RT).

METHODS

Relevant articles from database inception to September 2021 were retrieved from the PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, and Cochrane databases for a systematic review of treatment protocols. Studies were included if they 1) involved adult patients (age ≥ 18 years) with histologically and radiologically confirmed chordomas located within the clival skull base region and treated with SRS; 2) reported data on clinical features, SRS protocols, and outcomes; and 3) were written in the English language. Studies were excluded if they 1) were literature reviews, case reports, technical notes, abstracts, or autopsy reports; 2) did not clearly differentiate the data of patients with chordomas from the data of patients with different tumors or the data of patients with chordomas in locations other than the skull base; or 3) lacked histological confirmation or treatment and outcome data. Extracted data included the following: study author and publication year, patient age and sex, symptoms, cranial nerve involvement, invaded structures, lesion size, treatment modality, surgical details, histopathological type, RT modality, SRS parameters, complications, postradiosurgery outcomes, complications, and survival outcomes.

RESULTS

After the selection process, 15 articles describing 130 patients met the study eligibility criteria, including 94 patients who had undergone postresection SRS (NoRT group) and 36 who had undergone postresection fractionated RT and subsequent SRS (RT group). The NoRT and RT groups were comparable in age (51.3 vs 47.4 years, respectively), sex (57.1% vs 58.3% male), tumor volume (9.5 vs 11.2 cm3), SRS treatment parameters (maximum dose: 35.4 vs 42.2 Gy, marginal dose: 19.6 vs 20.6 Gy, treatment isodose line: 60.2% vs 65.2%), and SRS adverse effects (10.9% vs 17.6%). For the entire cohort, the 3-, 5-, and 10-year progression-free survival (PFS) rates were 23%, 9%, and 3%, respectively, and the overall survival (OS) rates were 94%, 82%, and 76%, respectively. In the NoRT group, SRS was adjuvant treatment after resection in 38 patients (40.4%), salvage treatment for recurrent tumor treated with resection alone in 10 (10.6%), and not specified in 46 (48.9%). In the RT group, SRS was boost treatment in 9 patients (25.0%), salvage treatment after recurrence in 22 (61.1%), and not specified in 5 (13.9%). There was no difference between the two groups in terms of median PFS (24.0 months [Q1 34.0, Q3 15.0] vs 23.8 months [34.0, 18.0], respectively; p = 0.8) or median OS (293.0 months [not reached, 137.4] vs not reached [not reached, 48.0], respectively; p = 0.36). The adverse radiation effect rates were comparable between the groups (10.9% vs 17.6%, respectively; p = 0.4).

CONCLUSIONS

The role of SRS in the management of skull base chordomas is still evolving. This systematic literature review of biopsy-proven chordoma revealed that tumor control and survival rates for SRS alone after chordoma surgery were not inferior to those encountered after SRS plus fractionated RT.

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Albert Guillemette, Sami Heymann, David Roberge, Cynthia Ménard, and Marie-Pierre Fournier-Gosselin

OBJECTIVE

Gamma Knife radiosurgery is recognized as an efficient intervention for the treatment of refractory trigeminal neuralgia (TN). The CyberKnife, a more recent frameless and nonisocentric radiosurgery alternative, has not been studied as extensively for this condition. This study aims to evaluate the clinical outcomes of a first CyberKnife radiosurgery (CKRS) treatment in patients with medically refractory TN.

METHODS

A retrospective cohort study of 166 patients (168 procedures) with refractory TN treated from 2009 to 2021 at the Centre Hospitalier de l’Université de Montréal was conducted. The treatment was performed using a CyberKnife (model G4, VSI, or M6). The treatment median maximum dose was 80 (range 70.0–88.9) Gy.

RESULTS

Adequate pain relief, evaluated using Barrow Neurological Institute pain scale scores (I–IIIb), was achieved in 146 cases (86.9%). The median latency period before adequate pain relief was 35 (range 0–202) days. The median duration of pain relief for cases with a recurrence of pain was 8.3 (range 0.6–85.0) months. The actuarial rates of maintaining adequate pain relief at 12, 36, and 60 months from the treatment date were 77.0%, 62.5%, and 50.2%, respectively. There was new onset or aggravation of facial numbness in 44 cases (26.2%). This facial numbness was predictive of better maintenance of pain relief (p < 0.001). The maintenance of adequate pain relief was sustained longer in idiopathic cases compared with cases associated with multiple sclerosis (MS; p < 0.001).

CONCLUSIONS

In the authors’ experience, CKRS for refractory TN is efficient and safe. The onset or aggravation of facial hypoesthesia after treatment was predictive of a more sustained pain relief, and idiopathic cases had more sustained pain relief in comparison with MS-related cases.

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Arjun Sahgal, Jason P Sheehan, Ajay Niranjan, Lola B Chambless, Lijun Ma, and Daniel M Trifiletti

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Yuping Derek Li, Andrew T. Coxon, Jiayi Huang, Christopher D. Abraham, Joshua L. Dowling, Eric C. Leuthardt, Gavin P. Dunn, Albert H. Kim, Ralph G. Dacey, Gregory J. Zipfel, John Evans, Eric A. Filiput, and Michael R. Chicoine

OBJECTIVE

For patients with surgically accessible solitary metastases or oligometastatic disease, treatment often involves resection followed by postoperative stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS). This strategy has several potential drawbacks, including irregular target delineation for SRS and potential tumor "seeding" away from the resection cavity during surgery. A neoadjuvant (preoperative) approach to radiation therapy avoids these limitations and offers improved patient convenience. This study assessed the efficacy of neoadjuvant SRS as a new treatment paradigm for patients with brain metastases.

METHODS

A retrospective review was performed at a single institution to identify patients who had undergone neoadjuvant SRS (specifically, Gamma Knife radiosurgery) followed by resection of a brain metastasis. Kaplan-Meier survival and log-rank analyses were used to evaluate risks of progression and death. Assessments were made of local recurrence and leptomeningeal spread. Additionally, an analysis of the contemporary literature of postoperative and neoadjuvant SRS for metastatic disease was performed.

RESULTS

Twenty-four patients who had undergone neoadjuvant SRS followed by resection of a brain metastasis were identified in the single-institution cohort. The median age was 64 years (range 32–84 years), and the median follow-up time was 16.5 months (range 1 month to 5.7 years). The median radiation dose was 17 Gy prescribed to the 50% isodose. Rates of local disease control were 100% at 6 months, 87.6% at 12 months, and 73.5% at 24 months. In 4 patients who had local treatment failure, salvage therapy included repeat resection, laser interstitial thermal therapy, or repeat SRS. One hundred thirty patients (including the current cohort) were identified in the literature who had been treated with neoadjuvant SRS prior to resection. Overall rates of local control at 1 year after neoadjuvant SRS treatment ranged from 49% to 91%, and rates of leptomeningeal dissemination from 0% to 16%. In comparison, rates of local control 1 year after postoperative SRS ranged from 27% to 91%, with 7% to 28% developing leptomeningeal disease.

CONCLUSIONS

Neoadjuvant SRS for the treatment of brain metastases is a novel approach that mitigates the shortcomings of postoperative SRS. While additional prospective studies are needed, the current study of 130 patients including the summary of 106 previously published cases supports the safety and potential efficacy of preoperative SRS with potential for improved outcomes compared with postoperative SRS.

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Constantine L. Karras, Pavlos Texakalidis, Jeffrey Z. Nie, S. Joy Trybula, Mark W. Youngblood, Sean Sachdev, Tarita O. Thomas, John Kalapurakal, James P. Chandler, and Stephen T. Magill

OBJECTIVE

Foramen magnum meningiomas (FMMs) pose a unique challenge given their intimate anatomical relationship with the craniovertebral junction. While resection has been studied extensively, much less has been reported about the use of stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) for FMMs. This study includes what is to the authors’ knowledge the first systematic review in the literature that summarizes patient and treatment characteristics and synthesizes outcomes following SRS for FMMs.

METHODS

A retrospective chart review was conducted at a single major academic institution, and a systematic review was performed according to PRISMA guidelines. The initial search on the PubMed and Scopus databases yielded 530 results. Key data extracted from both databases included Karnofsky Performance Status (KPS) score and neurological deficits at presentation, tumor location, treatment indication, target volume, single versus multiple fractions, marginal and maximum doses, isodose line, clinical and radiographic follow-up times, and primary (clinical stability and local control at last follow-up) and secondary (mortality, adverse radiation events, time to regression, progression-free survival) outcomes.

RESULTS

The study patients included 9 patients from the authors’ institution and 165 patients across 4 studies who received SRS for FMMs. The weighted median age at treatment was 60.2 years, and 73.9% of patients were female. Common presenting symptoms included headache (33.9%), dizziness/ataxia (29.7%), cranial nerve deficit(s) (27.9%), numbness (22.4%), weakness (15.2%), and hydrocephalus (4.2%). Lateral/ventrolateral (64.2%) was the most common tumor location. SRS was utilized as the primary therapy in 63.6% of patients and as salvage (21.8%) or adjuvant (14.5%) therapy for the rest of the patients. Most patients (91.5%) were treated with a single fraction. A tumor with a weighted median target volume of 2.9 cm3 was treated with a weighted median marginal dose, maximum dose, and isodose line of 12.9 Gy, 22.8 Gy, and 58%, respectively. Clinical stability and local control at last follow-up were achieved in 98.8% and 97.0% of patients, respectively. Only one possible adverse radiation event occurred, and no mortality directly related to the tumor or SRS was reported.

CONCLUSIONS

In this retrospective analysis and systematic review, the authors demonstrate SRS to be an effective and safe treatment option for carefully selected patients with FMMs.

Free access

Ran Harel, Tehila Kaisman-Elbaz, Todd Emch, Paul Elson, Samuel T Chao, John H Suh, and Lilyana Angelov

OBJECTIVE

Stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) is a precise and conformal treatment modality used in the management of metastatic spine tumors. Multiple studies have demonstrated its safety and efficacy for pain and tumor control. However, no uniform quantitative imaging methodology exists to evaluate response to treatment in these patients. This study presents radiographic local control rates post-SBRT, systematically compares measurements acquired according to WHO and Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (RECIST) criteria, and explores the relationship to patient outcome.

METHODS

The authors performed a retrospective review of prospectively obtained data from a cohort of 59 consecutive patients (81 metastatic isocenters) treated with SBRT and followed with serial MRI scans. Measurements were performed by a neuroradiologist blinded to the patients’ clinical course. Local control status was determined according to both WHO and RECIST measurements, and agreement between the measuring methodologies was calculated and reported.

RESULTS

Eighty-one isocenters (111 vertebral bodies) were treated with SBRT. The mean treatment dose was 13.96 Gy and the median follow-up duration was 10.8 months, during which 408 MRI scans were evaluated with both WHO and RECIST criteria for each scan point. Imaging demonstrated a mean unidimensional size decrease of 0.2 cm (p = 0.14) and a mean area size decrease of 0.99 cm2 (p = 0.03). Although 88% of the case classifications were concordant and the agreement was significant, WHO criteria were found to be more sensitive to tumor size change. The local control rates according to WHO and RECIST were 95% and 98%, respectively.

CONCLUSIONS

Although WHO volumetric measurements are admittedly superior for tumor size measurement, RECIST is simpler, reproducible, and for the first time is shown here to be comparable to WHO criteria. Thus, the application of RECIST methodology appears to be a suitable standard for evaluating post-SBRT treatment response. Moreover, using comprehensive and consistent measuring approaches, this study substantiates the efficacy of SBRT in the treatment of spine metastases.

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Sheng-Han Huang, Chi-Cheng Chuang, Chun-Chieh Wang, Kuo-Chen Wei, Hsien-Chih Chen, and Peng-Wei Hsu

OBJECTIVE

Peritumoral edema (PTE) is recognized as a complication following stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS). The aim of this paper was to evaluate the risk of post-SRS PTE for intracranial benign meningiomas and determine the predictive factors.

METHODS

Between 2006 and 2021, 227 patients with 237 WHO grade I meningiomas were treated with Novalis linear accelerator SRS. All patients were treated with a single-fraction dose of 11–20 Gy (median 14 Gy). The median tumor volume was 3.32 cm3 (range 0.24–51.7 cm3).

RESULTS

The median follow-up was 52 months (range 12–178 months). The actuarial local tumor control rates at 2, 5, and 10 years after SRS were 99.0%, 96.7%, and 86.3%, respectively. Twenty-seven (11.9%) patients developed new or worsened post-SRS PTE, with a median onset time of 5.2 months (range 1.2–50 months). Only 2 patients developed post-SRS PTE after 24 months. The authors evaluated factors related to new-onset or worsened PTE after SRS. In univariate analysis, initial tumor volume > 10 cm3 (p = 0.03), total marginal dose > 14 Gy (p < 0.001), preexisting edema (p < 0.0001), tumor location (p < 0.001), parasagittal location (p < 0.0001), superior sagittal sinus (SSS) involvement (p < 0.0001), and SSS invasion (p < 0.015) were found to be significant risk factors. In multivariate analysis, total marginal dose > 14 Gy (HR 3.38, 95% CI 1.37–8.33, p = 0.008), preexisting SRS edema (HR 12.86, 95% CI 1.09–4.15, p < 0.0001), tumor location (HR 2.13, 95% CI 1.04–3.72, p = 0.027), parasagittal location (HR 8.84, 95% CI 1.48–52.76, p = 0.017), and SSS invasion (HR 0.34, 95% CI 0.13–0.89, p = 0.027) were significant risk factors. Twelve (5.3%) patients were symptomatic. Ten of 27 patients had complete resolution of neurological symptoms and edema improvement with steroid treatment. Steroid treatment failed in 2 patients, who subsequently required resection for PTE.

CONCLUSIONS

Radiosurgery is a safe and effective method of treating benign intracranial meningiomas according to long-term follow-up. We also identified total marginal dose > 14 Gy, preexisting PTE, parasagittal location, and SSS invasion as predictors of post-SRS PTE. Risk factors for post-SRS PTE should be considered in meningioma treatment.