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Bruno Braga Sisnando da Costa, Isabela Costola Windlin, Edwin Koterba, Vitor Nagai Yamaki, Nícollas Nunes Rabelo, Davi Jorge Fontoura Solla, Antonio Carlos Samaia da Silva Coelho, João Paulo Mota Telles, Manoel Jacobsen Teixeira, and Eberval Gadelha Figueiredo

OBJECTIVE

Glibenclamide has been shown to improve outcomes in cerebral ischemia, traumatic brain injury, and subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). The authors sought to evaluate glibenclamide’s impact on mortality and functional outcomes of patients with aneurysmal SAH (aSAH).

METHODS

Patients with radiologically confirmed aSAH, aged 18 to 70 years, who presented to the hospital within 96 hours of ictus were randomly allocated to receive 5 mg of oral glibenclamide for 21 days or placebo, in a modified intention-to-treat analysis. Outcomes were mortality and functional status at discharge and 6 months, evaluated using the modified Rankin Scale (mRS).

RESULTS

A total of 78 patients were randomized and allocated to glibenclamide (n = 38) or placebo (n = 40). Baseline characteristics were similar between groups. The mean patient age was 53.1 years, and the majority of patients were female (75.6%). The median Hunt and Hess, World Federation of Neurosurgical Societies (WFNS), and modified Fisher scale (mFS) scores were 3 (IQR 2–4), 3 (IQR 3–4), and 3 (IQR 1–4), respectively. Glibenclamide did not improve the functional outcome (mRS) after 6 months (ordinal analysis, unadjusted common OR 0.66 [95% CI 0.29–1.48], adjusted common OR 1.25 [95% CI 0.46–3.37]). Similar results were found for analyses considering the dichotomized 6-month mRS score (favorable score 0–2), as well as for the secondary outcomes of discharge mRS score (either ordinal or dichotomized), mortality, and delayed cerebral ischemia. Hypoglycemia was more frequently observed in the glibenclamide group (5.3%).

CONCLUSIONS

In this study, glibenclamide was not associated with better functional outcomes after aSAH. Mortality and delayed cerebral ischemia rates were also similar compared with placebo.

Open access

Nícollas Nunes Rabelo, Antonio Carlos Samaia da Silva Coelho, João Paulo Mota Telles, Giselle Coelho, Caio Santos de Souza, Tania Regina Tozetto-Mendoza, Natan Ponzoni Galvani de Oliveira, Paulo Henrique Braz-Silva, Manoel Jacobsen Teixeira, and Eberval Gadelha Figueiredo

BACKGROUND

Subarachnoid hemorrhages secondary to intracranial aneurysms (IAs) are events of high mortality. These neurological vascular diseases arise from local and systemic inflammation that culminates in vessel wall changes. They may also have a possible relationship with chronic viral infections, such as human herpesvirus (HHV), and especially Epstein–Barr virus (EBV), which causes several medical conditions. This is the first description of the presence of HHV deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) in a patient with IA.

OBSERVATIONS

A 61-year-old woman with a downgraded level of consciousness underwent radiological examinations that identified a 10-mm ruptured aneurysm in the anterior communicating artery. A microsurgery clip was performed to definitively treat the aneurysm and occurred without surgical complications. Molecular analysis of the material obtained revealed the presence of EBV DNA in the aneurysm wall. The patient died 21 days after admission due to clinical complications and brain swelling.

LESSONS

This is the first description of the presence of herpesvirus DNA in a patient with IA, presented in 2.8% of our data. These findings highlight that viral infection may contribute to the pathophysiology and is an additional risk factor for IA formation, progression, and rupture by modulating vessel wall inflammation and structural changes in chronic infections.

Free access

Roberto Sergio Martins, Mario Gilberto Siqueira, Carlos Otto Heise, Luciano Foroni, Hugo Sterman Neto, and Manoel Jacobsen Teixeira

OBJECTIVE

Nerve transfers are commonly used in treating complete injuries of the brachial plexus, but donor nerves are limited and preferentially directed toward the recovery of elbow flexion and shoulder abduction. The aims of this study were to characterize the anatomical parameters for identifying the nerve to the levator scapulae muscle (LSN) in brachial plexus surgery, to evaluate the feasibility of transferring this branch to the suprascapular nerve (SSN) or lateral pectoral nerve (LPN), and to present the results from a surgical series.

METHODS

Supra- and infraclavicular exposure of the brachial plexus was performed on 20 fresh human cadavers in order to measure different anatomical parameters for identification of the LSN. Next, an anatomical and histomorphometric evaluation of the feasibility of transferring this branch to the SSN and LPN was made. Lastly, the effectiveness of the LSN-LPN transfer was evaluated among 10 patients by quantifying their arm adduction strength.

RESULTS

The LSN was identified in 95% of the cadaveric specimens. A direct coaptation of the LSN and SSN was possible in 45% of the specimens (n = 9) but not between the LSN and LPN in any of the specimens. Comparison of axonal counts among the three nerves did not show any significant difference. Good results from reinnervation of the major pectoral muscle (Medical Research Council grade ≥ 3) were observed in 70% (n = 7) of the patients who had undergone LSN to LPN transfer.

CONCLUSIONS

The LSN is consistently identified through a supraclavicular approach to the brachial plexus, and its transfer to supply the functions of the SSN and LPN is anatomically viable. Good results from an LSN-LPN transfer are observed in most patients, even if long nerve grafts need to be used.

Free access

Roberto Sergio Martins, Mario Gilberto Siqueira, Carlos Otto Heise, Luciano Foroni, Hugo Sterman Neto, and Manoel Jacobsen Teixeira

OBJECTIVE

Nerve transfers are commonly used in treating complete injuries of the brachial plexus, but donor nerves are limited and preferentially directed toward the recovery of elbow flexion and shoulder abduction. The aims of this study were to characterize the anatomical parameters for identifying the nerve to the levator scapulae muscle (LSN) in brachial plexus surgery, to evaluate the feasibility of transferring this branch to the suprascapular nerve (SSN) or lateral pectoral nerve (LPN), and to present the results from a surgical series.

METHODS

Supra- and infraclavicular exposure of the brachial plexus was performed on 20 fresh human cadavers in order to measure different anatomical parameters for identification of the LSN. Next, an anatomical and histomorphometric evaluation of the feasibility of transferring this branch to the SSN and LPN was made. Lastly, the effectiveness of the LSN-LPN transfer was evaluated among 10 patients by quantifying their arm adduction strength.

RESULTS

The LSN was identified in 95% of the cadaveric specimens. A direct coaptation of the LSN and SSN was possible in 45% of the specimens (n = 9) but not between the LSN and LPN in any of the specimens. Comparison of axonal counts among the three nerves did not show any significant difference. Good results from reinnervation of the major pectoral muscle (Medical Research Council grade ≥ 3) were observed in 70% (n = 7) of the patients who had undergone LSN to LPN transfer.

CONCLUSIONS

The LSN is consistently identified through a supraclavicular approach to the brachial plexus, and its transfer to supply the functions of the SSN and LPN is anatomically viable. Good results from an LSN-LPN transfer are observed in most patients, even if long nerve grafts need to be used.

Free access

Nícollas Nunes Rabelo, Manoel Jacobsen Teixeira, Robert F. Spetzler, and Eberval Gadelha Figueiredo

Free access

Nícollas Nunes Rabelo, Manoel Jacobsen Teixeira, Robert F. Spetzler, and Eberval Gadelha Figueiredo

Free access

Mauricio Mandel, Igor Araújo Ferreira da Silva, Wellingson Paiva, Yiping Li, Gary K. Steinberg, and Manoel Jacobsen Teixeira

OBJECTIVE

Craniocervical junction–related syringomyelia (CCJS) is the most common form of syringomyelia. Approximately 30% of patients treated with foramen magnum decompression (FMD) will show persistence, recurrence, or progression of the syrinx. The authors present a pilot study with a new minimally invasive surgery technique targeting the pathophysiology of CCJS in adult patients.

METHODS

The authors retrospectively analyzed the clinical and radiological features of a consecutive series of patients treated for CCJS. An FMD and FM durectomy were performed through a 1.5- to 2-cm skin incision. Then arachnoid adhesions were cleared, creating a permanent communication from the fourth ventricle to the new paraspinal extradural cavity (obexostomy) and with the spinal subarachnoid space. The hypothesis was that the new CSF pouch acts like a pressure leak, interrupting the CCJS pathogenesis.

RESULTS

Twenty-four patients (13 female, 21–61 years old) were treated between 2014 and 2018. The etiology of CCJS was Chiari malformation type I (CM-I) in 20 patients (83.3%), Chiari malformation type 0 (CM-0) in 2 patients (8.3%), and CCJ arachnoiditis in 2 patients (8.3%). Two patients underwent reoperations after failed FMD for CM-I at other institutions. No major surgical complication occurred. One patient had postoperative meningitis with no CSF fistula. On postoperative MRI, shrinkage of the syrinx was seen in all patients. No patients experienced recurrence of the CCJS. No patient required a subsequent operation. The mean duration of surgery was 72 ± 11 minutes (mean ± SD), and blood loss was 35–80 ml (mean 51 ml). Follow-up ranged from 12 to 58 months. The average overall improvement in modified Japanese Orthopaedic Association scores was 10% (p < 0.001). The Odom scale showed that 19 patients (79.1%) were satisfied, 4 (16.7%) remained the same, and 1 (4.2%) reported a poor outcome. All patients experienced postoperative improvement in perception of quality of life (p < 0.001).

CONCLUSIONS

Minimally invasive FM durectomy and obexostomy is a safe and effective treatment for CCJS and for patients who have not responded to other treatment.

Free access

Giselle Coelho, Nicollas Nunes Rabelo, Eduardo Vieira, Kid Mendes, Gustavo Zagatto, Ricardo Santos de Oliveira, Cassio Eduardo Raposo-Amaral, Maurício Yoshida, Matheus Rodrigues de Souza, Caroline Ferreira Fagundes, Manoel Jacobsen Teixeira, and Eberval Gadelha Figueiredo

OBJECTIVE

The main objective of neurosurgery is to establish safe and reliable surgical techniques. Medical technology has advanced during the 21st century, enabling the development of increasingly sophisticated tools for preoperative study that can be used by surgeons before performing surgery on an actual patient. Laser-printed models are a robust tool for improving surgical performance, planning an operative approach, and developing the skills and strategy to deal with uncommon and high-risk intraoperative difficulties. Practice with these models enhances the surgeon’s understanding of 3D anatomy but has some limitations with regard to tactile perception. In this study, the authors aimed to develop a preoperative planning method that combines a hybrid model with augmented reality (AR) to enhance preparation for and planning of a specific surgical procedure, correction of metopic craniosynostosis, also known as trigonocephaly.

METHODS

With the use of imaging data of an actual case patient who underwent surgical correction of metopic craniosynostosis, a physical hybrid model (for hands-on applications) and an AR app for a mobile device were created. The hybrid customized model was developed by using analysis of diagnostic CT imaging of a case patient with metopic craniosynostosis. Created from many different types of silicone, the physical model simulates anatomical conditions, allowing a multidisciplinary team to deal with different situations and to precisely determine the appropriate surgical approach. A real-time AR interface with the physical model was developed by using an AR app that enhances the anatomic aspects of the patient’s skull. This method was used by 38 experienced surgeons (craniofacial plastic surgeons and neurosurgeons), who then responded to a questionnaire that evaluated the realism and utility of the hybrid AR simulation used in this method as a beneficial educational tool for teaching and preoperative planning in performing surgical metopic craniosynostosis correction.

RESULTS

The authors developed a practice model for planning the surgical cranial remodeling used in the correction of metopic craniosynostosis. In the hybrid AR model, all aspects of the surgical procedure previously performed on the case patient were simulated: subcutaneous and subperiosteal dissection, skin incision, and skull remodeling with absorbable miniplates. The pre- and postoperative procedures were also carried out, which emphasizes the role of the AR app in the hybrid model. On the basis of the questionnaire, the hybrid AR tool was approved by the senior surgery team and considered adequate for educational purposes. Statistical analysis of the questionnaire responses also highlighted the potential for the use of the hybrid model in future applications.

CONCLUSIONS

This new preoperative platform that combines physical and virtual models may represent an important method to improve multidisciplinary discussion in addition to being a powerful teaching tool. The hybrid model associated with the AR app provided an effective training environment, and it enhanced the teaching of surgical anatomy and operative strategies in a challenging neurosurgical procedure.

Restricted access

Nícollas Nunes Rabelo, Renan Salomão Rodrigues, Arthur Araújo Massoud Salame, Paulo Henrique Braz-Silva, Manoel Jacobsen Teixeira, and Eberval Gadelha Figueiredo

Restricted access

Sergio Brasil, Edson Bor-Seng-Shu, Marcelo de-Lima-Oliveira, Fabio Silvio Taccone, Gabriel Gattás, Douglas Mendes Nunes, Raphael A. Gomes de Oliveira, Bruno Martins Tomazini, Paulo Fernando Tierno, Rafael Akira Becker, Estevão Bassi, Luiz Marcelo Sá Malbouisson, Wellingson da Silva Paiva, Manoel Jacobsen Teixeira, and Ricardo de Carvalho Nogueira

OBJECTIVE

The present study was designed to answer several concerns disclosed by systematic reviews indicating no evidence to support the use of computed tomography angiography (CTA) in the diagnosis of brain death (BD). Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness of CTA for the diagnosis of BD and to define the optimal tomographic criteria of intracranial circulatory arrest.

METHODS

A unicenter, prospective, observational case-control study was undertaken. Comatose patients (Glasgow Coma Scale score ≤ 5), even those presenting with the first signs of BD, were included. CTA scanning of arterial and venous vasculature and transcranial Doppler (TCD) were performed. A neurological determination of BD and consequently determination of case (BD group) or control (no-BD group) was conducted. All personnel involved with assessing patients were blinded to further tests results. Accuracy of BD diagnosis determined by using CTA was calculated based on the criteria of bilateral absence of visualization of the internal cerebral veins and the distal middle cerebral arteries, the 4-point score (4PS), and an exclusive criterion of absence of deep brain venous drainage as indicated by the absence of deep venous opacification on CTA, the venous score (VS), which considers only the internal cerebral veins bilaterally.

RESULTS

A total of 106 patients were enrolled in this study; 52 patients did not have BD, and none of these patients had circulatory arrest observed by CTA or TCD (100% specificity). Of the 54 patients with a clinical diagnosis of BD, 33 met the 4PS (61.1% sensitivity), whereas 47 met the VS (87% sensitivity). The accuracy of CTA was time related, with greater accuracy when scanning was performed less than 12 hours prior to the neurological assessment, reaching 95.5% sensitivity with the VS.

CONCLUSIONS

CTA can reliably support a diagnosis of BD. The criterion of the absence of deep venous opacification, which can be assessed by use of the VS criteria investigated in this study, can confirm the occurrence of cerebral circulatory arrest.

Clinical trial registration no.: 12500913400000068 (clinicaltrials.gov)