Browse

You are looking at 1 - 10 of 183 items for

  • Refine by Access: all x
  • By Author: Lawton, Michael T. x
Clear All
Restricted access

Evgenii Belykh, Irakliy Abramov, Liudmila Bardonova, Ruchi Patel, Sarah McBryan, Lara Enriquez Bouza, Neil Majmundar, Xiaochun Zhao, Vadim A. Byvaltsev, Stephen A. Johnson, Amit Singla, Gaurav Gupta, Hai Sun, James K. Liu, Anil Nanda, Mark C. Preul, and Michael T. Lawton

OBJECTIVE

Microsurgical training remains indispensable to master cerebrovascular bypass procedures, but simulation models for training that accurately replicate microanastomosis in narrow, deep-operating corridors are lacking. Seven simulation bypass scenarios were developed that included head models in various surgical positions with premade approaches, simulating the restrictions of the surgical corridors and hand positions for microvascular bypass training. This study describes these models and assesses their validity.

METHODS

Simulation models were created using 3D printing of the skull with a designed craniotomy. Brain and external soft tissues were cast using a silicone molding technique from the clay-sculptured prototypes. The 7 simulation scenarios included: 1) temporal craniotomy for a superficial temporal artery (STA)–middle cerebral artery (MCA) bypass using the M4 branch of the MCA; 2) pterional craniotomy and transsylvian approach for STA-M2 bypass; 3) bifrontal craniotomy and interhemispheric approach for side-to-side bypass using the A3 branches of the anterior cerebral artery; 4) far lateral craniotomy and transcerebellomedullary approach for a posterior inferior cerebellar artery (PICA)–PICA bypass or 5) PICA reanastomosis; 6) orbitozygomatic craniotomy and transsylvian-subtemporal approach for a posterior cerebral artery bypass; and 7) extended retrosigmoid craniotomy and transcerebellopontine approach for an occipital artery–anterior inferior cerebellar artery bypass. Experienced neurosurgeons evaluated each model by practicing the aforementioned bypasses on the models. Face and content validities were assessed using the bypass participant survey.

RESULTS

A workflow for model production was developed, and these models were used during microsurgical courses at 2 neurosurgical institutions. Each model is accompanied by a corresponding prototypical case and surgical video, creating a simulation scenario. Seven experienced cerebrovascular neurosurgeons practiced microvascular anastomoses on each of the models and completed surveys. They reported that actual anastomosis within a specific approach was well replicated by the models, and difficulty was comparable to that for real surgery, which confirms the face validity of the models. All experts stated that practice using these models may improve bypass technique, instrument handling, and surgical technique when applied to patients, confirming the content validity of the models.

CONCLUSIONS

The 7 bypasses simulation set includes novel models that effectively simulate surgical scenarios of a bypass within distinct deep anatomical corridors, as well as hand and operator positions. These models use artificial materials, are reusable, and can be implemented for personal training and during microsurgical courses.

Restricted access

Visish M. Srinivasan, Katherine Karahalios, Vamsi P. Reddy, Lea Scherschinski, Joseph D. DiDomenico, Redi Rahmani, Joshua S. Catapano, Mohamed A. Labib, Kavelin Rumalla, Christopher S. Graffeo, and Michael T. Lawton

OBJECTIVE

The objective of this paper was to assess applications of the supratentorial-infraoccipital (STIO) approach for cerebrovascular neurosurgery.

METHODS

The authors conducted a cohort study of all consecutive cases in which the STIO approach was used during the study period, December 1995 to January 2021, as well as a systematic review of the literature.

RESULTS

Twenty-five cerebrovascular cases were identified in which the STIO approach was used. Diagnoses included arteriovenous malformation (n = 15), cerebral cavernous malformation (n = 5), arteriovenous fistula (n = 4), and aneurysm (n = 1). The arteriovenous malformations consisted of Spetzler-Martin grade II (n = 3), grade III (n = 8), and grade IV (n = 4) lesions. Lesion locations included the occipital lobe (n = 15), followed by the tentorial dural (n = 4), temporal-occipital (n = 3), temporal (n = 1), thalamic (n = 1), and quadrigeminal cistern (n = 1) regions. Many patients (75%) experienced transient visual deficits attributable to retraction of the occipital lobe, all of which resolved. As of last follow-up (n = 12), modified Rankin Scale scores had improved for 6 patients and were unchanged for 6 patients compared with the preoperative baseline.

CONCLUSIONS

The STIO approach is a safe and effective skull base approach that provides a specialized access corridor for appropriately selected cerebrovascular lesions.

Restricted access

Irakliy Abramov, Marian T. Park, Evgenii Belykh, Alexander B. Dru, Yuan Xu, Timothy C. Gooldy, Lea Scherschinski, S. Harrison Farber, Andrew S. Little, Randall W. Porter, Kris A. Smith, Michael T. Lawton, Jennifer M. Eschbacher, and Mark C. Preul

OBJECTIVE

The authors evaluated the feasibility of using the first clinical-grade confocal laser endomicroscopy (CLE) system using fluorescein sodium for intraoperative in vivo imaging of brain tumors.

METHODS

A CLE system cleared by the FDA was used in 30 prospectively enrolled patients with 31 brain tumors (13 gliomas, 5 meningiomas, 6 other primary tumors, 3 metastases, and 4 reactive brain tissue). A neuropathologist classified CLE images as interpretable or noninterpretable. Images were compared with corresponding frozen and permanent histology sections, with image correlation to biopsy location using neuronavigation. The specificities and sensitivities of CLE images and frozen sections were calculated using permanent histological sections as the standard for comparison. A recently developed surgical telepathology software platform was used in 11 cases to provide real-time intraoperative consultation with a neuropathologist.

RESULTS

Overall, 10,713 CLE images from 335 regions of interest were acquired. The mean duration of the use of the CLE system was 7 minutes (range 3–18 minutes). Interpretable CLE images were obtained in all cases. The first interpretable image was acquired within a mean of 6 (SD 10) images and within the first 5 (SD 13) seconds of imaging; 4896 images (46%) were interpretable. Interpretable image acquisition was positively correlated with study progression, number of cases per surgeon, cumulative length of CLE time, and CLE time per case (p ≤ 0.01). The diagnostic accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity of CLE compared with frozen sections were 94%, 94%, and 100%, respectively, and the diagnostic accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity of CLE compared with permanent histological sections were 92%, 90%, and 94%, respectively. No difference was observed between lesion types for the time to first interpretable image (p = 0.35). Deeply located lesions were associated with a higher percentage of interpretable images than superficial lesions (p = 0.02). The study met the primary end points, confirming the safety and feasibility and acquisition of noninvasive digital biopsies in all cases. The study met the secondary end points for the duration of CLE use necessary to obtain interpretable images. A neuropathologist could interpret the CLE images in 29 (97%) of 30 cases.

CONCLUSIONS

The clinical-grade CLE system allows in vivo, intraoperative, high-resolution cellular visualization of tissue microstructure and identification of lesional tissue patterns in real time, without the need for tissue preparation.

Free access

Ethan A. Winkler, Mark A. Pacult, Joshua S. Catapano, Lea Scherschinski, Visish M. Srinivasan, Christopher S. Graffeo, S. Paul Oh, and Michael T. Lawton

A variety of pathogenic mechanisms have been described in the formation, maturation, and rupture of brain arteriovenous malformations (bAVMs). While the understanding of bAVMs has largely been formulated based on animal models of rare hereditary diseases in which AVMs form, a new era of “omics” has permitted large-scale examinations of contributory genetic variations in human sporadic bAVMs. New findings regarding the pathogenesis of bAVMs implicate changes to endothelial and mural cells that result in increased angiogenesis, proinflammatory recruitment, and breakdown of vascular barrier properties that may result in hemorrhage; a greater diversity of cell populations that compose the bAVM microenvironment may also be implicated and complicate traditional models. Genomic sequencing of human bAVMs has uncovered inherited, de novo, and somatic activating mutations, such as KRAS, which contribute to the pathogenesis of bAVMs. New droplet-based, single-cell sequencing technologies have generated atlases of cell-specific molecular derangements. Herein, the authors review emerging genomic and transcriptomic findings underlying pathologic cell transformations in bAVMs derived from human tissues. The application of multiple sequencing modalities to bAVM tissues is a natural next step for researchers, although the potential therapeutic benefits or clinical applications remain unknown.

Restricted access

Satvir Saggi, Ethan A. Winkler, Simon G. Ammanuel, Ramin A. Morshed, Joseph H. Garcia, Jacob S. Young, Alexa Semonche, Heather J. Fullerton, Helen Kim, Daniel L. Cooke, Steven W. Hetts, Adib Abla, Michael T. Lawton, and Nalin Gupta

OBJECTIVE

Ruptured brain arteriovenous malformations (bAVMs) in a child are associated with substantial morbidity and mortality. Prior studies investigating predictors of hemorrhagic presentation of a bAVM during childhood are limited. Machine learning (ML), which has high predictive accuracy when applied to large data sets, can be a useful adjunct for predicting hemorrhagic presentation. The goal of this study was to use ML in conjunction with a traditional regression approach to identify predictors of hemorrhagic presentation in pediatric patients based on a retrospective cohort study design.

METHODS

Using data obtained from 186 pediatric patients over a 19-year study period, the authors implemented three ML algorithms (random forest models, gradient boosted decision trees, and AdaBoost) to identify features that were most important for predicting hemorrhagic presentation. Additionally, logistic regression analysis was used to ascertain significant predictors of hemorrhagic presentation as a comparison.

RESULTS

All three ML models were consistent in identifying bAVM size and patient age at presentation as the two most important factors for predicting hemorrhagic presentation. Age at presentation was not identified as a significant predictor of hemorrhagic presentation in multivariable logistic regression. Gradient boosted decision trees/AdaBoost and random forest models identified bAVM location and a concurrent arterial aneurysm as the third most important factors, respectively. Finally, logistic regression identified a left-sided bAVM, small bAVM size, and the presence of a concurrent arterial aneurysm as significant risk factors for hemorrhagic presentation.

CONCLUSIONS

By using an ML approach, the authors found predictors of hemorrhagic presentation that were not identified using a conventional regression approach.

Free access

Irakliy Abramov, Marian T. Park, Timothy C. Gooldy, Yuan Xu, Michael T. Lawton, Andrew S. Little, Randall W. Porter, Kris A. Smith, Jennifer M. Eschbacher, and Mark C. Preul

OBJECTIVE

Communication between neurosurgeons and pathologists is mandatory for intraoperative decision-making and optimization of resection, especially for invasive masses. Handheld confocal laser endomicroscopy (CLE) technology provides in vivo intraoperative visualization of tissue histoarchitecture at cellular resolution. The authors evaluated the feasibility of using an innovative surgical telepathology software platform (TSP) to establish real-time, on-the-fly remote communication between the neurosurgeon using CLE and the pathologist.

METHODS

CLE and a TSP were integrated into the surgical workflow for 11 patients with brain masses (6 patients with gliomas, 3 with other primary tumors, 1 with metastasis, and 1 with reactive brain tissue). Neurosurgeons used CLE to generate video-flow images of the operative field that were displayed on monitors in the operating room. The pathologist simultaneously viewed video-flow CLE imaging using a digital tablet and communicated with the surgeon while physically located outside the operating room (1 pathologist was in another state, 4 were at home, and 6 were elsewhere in the hospital). Interpretations of the still CLE images and video-flow CLE imaging were compared with the findings on the corresponding frozen and permanent H&E histology sections.

RESULTS

Overall, 24 optical biopsies were acquired with mean ± SD 2 ± 1 optical biopsies per case. The mean duration of CLE system use was 1 ± 0.3 minutes/case and 0.25 ± 0.23 seconds/optical biopsy. The first image with identifiable histopathological features was acquired within 6 ± 0.1 seconds. Frozen sections were processed within 23 ± 2.8 minutes, which was significantly longer than CLE usage (p < 0.001). Video-flow CLE was used to correctly interpret tissue histoarchitecture in 96% of optical biopsies, which was substantially higher than the accuracy of using still CLE images (63%) (p = 0.005).

CONCLUSIONS

When CLE is employed in tandem with a TSP, neurosurgeons and pathologists can view and interpret CLE images remotely and in real time without the need to biopsy tissue. A TSP allowed neurosurgeons to receive real-time feedback on the optically interrogated tissue microstructure, thereby improving cross-functional communication and intraoperative decision-making and resulting in significant workflow advantages over the use of frozen section analysis.

Restricted access

Joshua S. Catapano, Kavelin Rumalla, Visish M. Srinivasan, Peter M. Lawrence, Kristen Larson Keil, and Michael T. Lawton

OBJECTIVE

Medullary cavernous malformations are the least common of the brainstem cavernous malformations (BSCMs), accounting for only 14% of lesions in the authors’ surgical experience. In this article, a novel taxonomy for these lesions is proposed based on clinical presentation and anatomical location.

METHODS

The taxonomy system was applied to a large 2-surgeon experience over a 30-year period (1990–2019). Of 601 patients who underwent microsurgical resection of BSCMs, 551 were identified who had the clinical and radiological information needed for inclusion. These 551 patients were classified by lesion location: midbrain (151 [27%]), pons (323 [59%]), and medulla (77 [14%]). Medullary lesions were subtyped on the basis of their predominant surface presentation. Neurological outcomes were assessed according to the modified Rankin Scale (mRS), with an mRS score ≤ 2 defined as favorable.

RESULTS

Five distinct subtypes were defined for the 77 medullary BSCMs: pyramidal (3 [3.9%]), olivary (35 [46%]), cuneate (24 [31%]), gracile (5 [6.5%]), and trigonal (10 [13%]). Pyramidal lesions are located in the anterior medulla and were associated with hemiparesis and hypoglossal nerve palsy. Olivary lesions are found in the anterolateral medulla and were associated with ataxia. Cuneate lesions are located in the posterolateral medulla and were associated with ipsilateral upper-extremity sensory deficits. Gracile lesions are located outside the fourth ventricle in the posteroinferior medulla and were associated with ipsilateral lower-extremity sensory deficits. Trigonal lesions in the ventricular floor were associated with nausea, vomiting, and diplopia. A single surgical approach was preferred (> 90% of cases) for each medullary subtype: the far lateral approach for pyramidal and olivary lesions, the suboccipital-telovelar approach for cuneate lesions, the suboccipital-transcisterna magna approach for gracile lesions, and the suboccipital-transventricular approach for trigonal lesions. Of these 77 patients for whom follow-up data were available (n = 73), 63 (86%) had favorable outcomes and 67 (92%) had unchanged or improved functional status.

CONCLUSIONS

This study confirms that the constellation of neurological signs and symptoms associated with a hemorrhagic medullary BSCM subtype is useful for defining the BSCM clinically according to a neurologically recognizable syndrome at the bedside. The proposed taxonomical classifications may be used to guide the selection of surgical approaches, which may enhance the consistency of clinical communications and help improve patient outcomes.

Restricted access

Christopher S. Graffeo, Michael J. Link, and Michael T. Lawton

Restricted access

Visish M. Srinivasan, Katherine Karahalios, Kavelin Rumalla, Nathan A. Shlobin, Redi Rahmani, Lea Scherschinski, Dimitri Benner, Joshua S. Catapano, Mohamed A. Labib, Christopher S. Graffeo, and Michael T. Lawton

OBJECTIVE

Giant cerebral cavernous malformations (GCCMs) are rare vascular malformations. Unlike for tumors and aneurysms, there is no clear definition of a "giant" cavernous malformation (CM). As a result of variable definitions, working descriptions and outcome data of patients with GCCM are unclear. A new definition of GCCM related to surgical outcomes is needed.

METHODS

An institutional database was searched for all patients who underwent resection of CMs > 1 cm in diameter. Patient information, surgical technique, and clinical and radiographic outcomes were assessed. A systematic review was performed to augment an earlier published review.

RESULTS

In the authors’ institutional cohort of 183 patients with a large CM, 179 with preoperative and postoperative modified Rankin Scale (mRS) scores were analyzed. A maximum CM diameter of ≥ 3 cm was associated with greater risk of severe postoperative decline (≥ 2-point increase in mRS score). After adjustment for age and deep versus superficial location, size ≥ 3 cm was strongly predictive of severe postoperative decline (OR 4.5, 95% CI 1.2–16.9). A model with CM size and deep versus superficial location was developed to predict severe postoperative decline (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve 0.79). Thirteen more patients with GCCMs have been reported in the literature since the most recent systematic review, including some patients who were treated earlier and not discussed in the previous review.

CONCLUSIONS

The authors propose that cerebral CMs with a diameter ≥ 3 cm be defined as GCCMs on the basis of the inflection point for functional and neurological outcomes. This definition is in line with the definitions for other giant lesions. It is less exclusive than earlier definitions but captures the rarity of these lesions (approximately 1% incidence) and variation in outcomes. GCCMs remain operable with potentially favorable outcomes. The term "giant" is not meant to deter or contraindicate surgery.

Restricted access

Joshua S. Catapano, Kavelin Rumalla, Visish M. Srinivasan, Peter M. Lawrence, Kristen Larson Keil, and Michael T. Lawton

OBJECTIVE

Brainstem cavernous malformations (BSCMs) are complex, difficult to access, and highly variable in size, shape, and position. The authors have proposed a novel taxonomy for pontine cavernous malformations (CMs) based upon clinical presentation (syndromes) and anatomical location (findings on MRI).

METHODS

The proposed taxonomy was applied to a 30-year (1990–2019), 2-surgeon experience. Of 601 patients who underwent microsurgical resection of BSCMs, 551 with appropriate data were classified on the basis of BSCM location: midbrain (151 [27%]), pons (323 [59%]), and medulla (77 [14%]). Pontine lesions were then subtyped on the basis of their predominant surface presentation identified on preoperative MRI. Neurological outcomes were assessed according to the modified Rankin Scale, with a score ≤ 2 defined as favorable.

RESULTS

The 323 pontine BSCMs were classified into 6 distinct subtypes: basilar (6 [1.9%]), peritrigeminal (53 [16.4%]), middle peduncular (MP) (100 [31.0%]), inferior peduncular (47 [14.6%]), rhomboid (80 [24.8%]), and supraolivary (37 [11.5%]). Part 1 of this 2-part series describes the taxonomic basis for the first 3 of these 6 subtypes of pontine CM. Basilar lesions are located in the anteromedial pons and associated with contralateral hemiparesis. Peritrigeminal lesions are located in the anterolateral pons and are associated with hemiparesis and sensory changes. Patients with MP lesions presented with mild anterior inferior cerebellar artery syndrome with contralateral hemisensory loss, ipsilateral ataxia, and ipsilateral facial numbness without cranial neuropathies. A single surgical approach and strategy were preferred for each subtype: for basilar lesions, the pterional craniotomy and anterior transpetrous approach was preferred; for peritrigeminal lesions, extended retrosigmoid craniotomy and transcerebellopontine angle approach; and for MP lesions, extended retrosigmoid craniotomy and trans–middle cerebellar peduncle approach. Favorable outcomes were observed in 123 of 143 (86%) patients with follow-up data. There were no significant differences in outcomes between the 3 subtypes or any other subtypes.

CONCLUSIONS

The neurological symptoms and key localizing signs associated with a hemorrhagic pontine subtype can help to define that subtype clinically. The proposed taxonomy for pontine CMs meaningfully guides surgical strategy and may improve patient outcomes.