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Bruno Braga Sisnando da Costa, Isabela Costola Windlin, Edwin Koterba, Vitor Nagai Yamaki, Nícollas Nunes Rabelo, Davi Jorge Fontoura Solla, Antonio Carlos Samaia da Silva Coelho, João Paulo Mota Telles, Manoel Jacobsen Teixeira, and Eberval Gadelha Figueiredo

OBJECTIVE

Glibenclamide has been shown to improve outcomes in cerebral ischemia, traumatic brain injury, and subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). The authors sought to evaluate glibenclamide’s impact on mortality and functional outcomes of patients with aneurysmal SAH (aSAH).

METHODS

Patients with radiologically confirmed aSAH, aged 18 to 70 years, who presented to the hospital within 96 hours of ictus were randomly allocated to receive 5 mg of oral glibenclamide for 21 days or placebo, in a modified intention-to-treat analysis. Outcomes were mortality and functional status at discharge and 6 months, evaluated using the modified Rankin Scale (mRS).

RESULTS

A total of 78 patients were randomized and allocated to glibenclamide (n = 38) or placebo (n = 40). Baseline characteristics were similar between groups. The mean patient age was 53.1 years, and the majority of patients were female (75.6%). The median Hunt and Hess, World Federation of Neurosurgical Societies (WFNS), and modified Fisher scale (mFS) scores were 3 (IQR 2–4), 3 (IQR 3–4), and 3 (IQR 1–4), respectively. Glibenclamide did not improve the functional outcome (mRS) after 6 months (ordinal analysis, unadjusted common OR 0.66 [95% CI 0.29–1.48], adjusted common OR 1.25 [95% CI 0.46–3.37]). Similar results were found for analyses considering the dichotomized 6-month mRS score (favorable score 0–2), as well as for the secondary outcomes of discharge mRS score (either ordinal or dichotomized), mortality, and delayed cerebral ischemia. Hypoglycemia was more frequently observed in the glibenclamide group (5.3%).

CONCLUSIONS

In this study, glibenclamide was not associated with better functional outcomes after aSAH. Mortality and delayed cerebral ischemia rates were also similar compared with placebo.

Open access

Nícollas Nunes Rabelo, Antonio Carlos Samaia da Silva Coelho, João Paulo Mota Telles, Giselle Coelho, Caio Santos de Souza, Tania Regina Tozetto-Mendoza, Natan Ponzoni Galvani de Oliveira, Paulo Henrique Braz-Silva, Manoel Jacobsen Teixeira, and Eberval Gadelha Figueiredo

BACKGROUND

Subarachnoid hemorrhages secondary to intracranial aneurysms (IAs) are events of high mortality. These neurological vascular diseases arise from local and systemic inflammation that culminates in vessel wall changes. They may also have a possible relationship with chronic viral infections, such as human herpesvirus (HHV), and especially Epstein–Barr virus (EBV), which causes several medical conditions. This is the first description of the presence of HHV deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) in a patient with IA.

OBSERVATIONS

A 61-year-old woman with a downgraded level of consciousness underwent radiological examinations that identified a 10-mm ruptured aneurysm in the anterior communicating artery. A microsurgery clip was performed to definitively treat the aneurysm and occurred without surgical complications. Molecular analysis of the material obtained revealed the presence of EBV DNA in the aneurysm wall. The patient died 21 days after admission due to clinical complications and brain swelling.

LESSONS

This is the first description of the presence of herpesvirus DNA in a patient with IA, presented in 2.8% of our data. These findings highlight that viral infection may contribute to the pathophysiology and is an additional risk factor for IA formation, progression, and rupture by modulating vessel wall inflammation and structural changes in chronic infections.

Free access

Nícollas Nunes Rabelo, Manoel Jacobsen Teixeira, Robert F. Spetzler, and Eberval Gadelha Figueiredo

Free access

Nícollas Nunes Rabelo, Manoel Jacobsen Teixeira, Robert F. Spetzler, and Eberval Gadelha Figueiredo

Free access

Giselle Coelho, Nicollas Nunes Rabelo, Eduardo Vieira, Kid Mendes, Gustavo Zagatto, Ricardo Santos de Oliveira, Cassio Eduardo Raposo-Amaral, Maurício Yoshida, Matheus Rodrigues de Souza, Caroline Ferreira Fagundes, Manoel Jacobsen Teixeira, and Eberval Gadelha Figueiredo

OBJECTIVE

The main objective of neurosurgery is to establish safe and reliable surgical techniques. Medical technology has advanced during the 21st century, enabling the development of increasingly sophisticated tools for preoperative study that can be used by surgeons before performing surgery on an actual patient. Laser-printed models are a robust tool for improving surgical performance, planning an operative approach, and developing the skills and strategy to deal with uncommon and high-risk intraoperative difficulties. Practice with these models enhances the surgeon’s understanding of 3D anatomy but has some limitations with regard to tactile perception. In this study, the authors aimed to develop a preoperative planning method that combines a hybrid model with augmented reality (AR) to enhance preparation for and planning of a specific surgical procedure, correction of metopic craniosynostosis, also known as trigonocephaly.

METHODS

With the use of imaging data of an actual case patient who underwent surgical correction of metopic craniosynostosis, a physical hybrid model (for hands-on applications) and an AR app for a mobile device were created. The hybrid customized model was developed by using analysis of diagnostic CT imaging of a case patient with metopic craniosynostosis. Created from many different types of silicone, the physical model simulates anatomical conditions, allowing a multidisciplinary team to deal with different situations and to precisely determine the appropriate surgical approach. A real-time AR interface with the physical model was developed by using an AR app that enhances the anatomic aspects of the patient’s skull. This method was used by 38 experienced surgeons (craniofacial plastic surgeons and neurosurgeons), who then responded to a questionnaire that evaluated the realism and utility of the hybrid AR simulation used in this method as a beneficial educational tool for teaching and preoperative planning in performing surgical metopic craniosynostosis correction.

RESULTS

The authors developed a practice model for planning the surgical cranial remodeling used in the correction of metopic craniosynostosis. In the hybrid AR model, all aspects of the surgical procedure previously performed on the case patient were simulated: subcutaneous and subperiosteal dissection, skin incision, and skull remodeling with absorbable miniplates. The pre- and postoperative procedures were also carried out, which emphasizes the role of the AR app in the hybrid model. On the basis of the questionnaire, the hybrid AR tool was approved by the senior surgery team and considered adequate for educational purposes. Statistical analysis of the questionnaire responses also highlighted the potential for the use of the hybrid model in future applications.

CONCLUSIONS

This new preoperative platform that combines physical and virtual models may represent an important method to improve multidisciplinary discussion in addition to being a powerful teaching tool. The hybrid model associated with the AR app provided an effective training environment, and it enhanced the teaching of surgical anatomy and operative strategies in a challenging neurosurgical procedure.

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Nícollas Nunes Rabelo, Renan Salomão Rodrigues, Arthur Araújo Massoud Salame, Paulo Henrique Braz-Silva, Manoel Jacobsen Teixeira, and Eberval Gadelha Figueiredo

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Giselle Coelho, Eberval Gadelha Figueiredo, Nícollas Nunes Rabelo, Manoel Jacobsen Teixeira, and Nelci Zanon

OBJECTIVE

Craniosynostosis is a premature cranial suture junction and requires a craniectomy to decrease cranial compression and remodel the affected areas of the skull. However, mastering these neurosurgical procedures requires many years of supervised training. The use of surgical simulation can reduce the risk of intraoperative error. The authors propose a new instrument for neurosurgical education, which mixes reality with virtual and realistic simulation for repair of craniosynostosis (scaphocephaly type).

METHODS

This study tested reality simulators with a synthetic thermo-retractile/thermosensitive rubber joined with different polymers. To validate the model, 18 experienced surgeons participated in this study using 3D videos developed using 3DS Max software. Renier’s “H” technique for craniosynostosis correction was applied during the simulation. All participants completed questionnaires to evaluate the simulator.

RESULTS

An expert surgical team approved the craniosynostosis reality and virtual simulators. More than 94% of participants found the simulator relevant, considering aspects such as weight, surgical positioning, dissection by planes, and cranial reconstruction. The consistency and material resistance were also approved on average by more than 60% of the surgeons.

CONCLUSIONS

The virtual simulator demands a high degree of effectiveness with 3D perception in anatomy and operative strategies in neurosurgical training. Physical and virtual simulation with mixed reality required psychomotor and cognitive abilities otherwise acquired only during practical surgical training with supervision.

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Nícollas Nunes Rabelo, Manoel Jacobsen Teixeira, and Eberval Gadelha Figueiredo

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Nícollas Nunes Rabelo, Bruno Braga Sisnando da Costa, Gabriel Reis Sakaya, Manoel Jacobsen Teixeira, and Eberval Gadelha Figueiredo

Restricted access

Daniel Dutra Cavalcanti, Bárbara Albuquerque Morais, Eberval Gadelha Figueiredo, Robert F. Spetzler, and Mark C. Preul

OBJECTIVE

The brainstem is a compact, delicate structure. The surgeon must have good anatomical knowledge of the safe entry points to safely resect intrinsic lesions. Lesions located at the lateral midbrain surface are better approached through the lateral mesencephalic sulcus (LMS). The goal of this study was to compare the surgical exposure to the LMS provided by the subtemporal (ST) approach and the paramedian and extreme-lateral variants of the supracerebellar infratentorial (SCIT) approach.

METHODS

These 3 approaches were used in 10 cadaveric heads. The authors performed measurements of predetermined points by using a neuronavigation system. Areas of microsurgical exposure and angles of the approaches were determined. Statistical analysis was performed to identify significant differences in the respective exposures.

RESULTS

The surgical exposure was similar for the different approaches—369.8 ± 70.1 mm2 for the ST; 341.2 ± 71.2 mm2 for the SCIT paramedian variant; and 312.0 ± 79.3 mm2 for the SCIT extreme-lateral variant (p = 0.13). However, the vertical angular exposure was 16.3° ± 3.6° for the ST, 19.4° ± 3.4° for the SCIT paramedian variant, and 25.1° ± 3.3° for the SCIT extreme-lateral variant craniotomy (p < 0.001). The horizontal angular exposure was 45.2° ± 6.3° for the ST, 35.6° ± 2.9° for the SCIT paramedian variant, and 45.5° ± 6.6° for the SCIT extreme-lateral variant opening, presenting no difference between the ST and extreme-lateral variant (p = 0.92), but both were superior to the paramedian variant (p < 0.001). Data are expressed as the mean ± SD.

CONCLUSIONS

The extreme-lateral SCIT approach had the smaller area of surgical exposure; however, these differences were not statistically significant. The extreme-lateral SCIT approach presented a wider vertical and horizontal angle to the LMS compared to the other craniotomies. Also, it provides a 90° trajectory to the sulcus that facilitates the intraoperative microsurgical technique.