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Yike Jin, Ann Liu, Jessica R. Overbey, Ravi Medikonda, James Feghali, Sonya Krishnan, Wataru Ishida, Sutipat Pairojboriboon, Ziya L. Gokaslan, Jean-Paul Wolinsky, Nicholas Theodore, Ali Bydon, Daniel M. Sciubba, Timothy F. Witham, and Sheng-Fu L. Lo

OBJECTIVE

Treatment of primary spinal infection includes medical management with or without surgical intervention. The objective of this study was to identify risk factors for the eventual need for surgery in patients with primary spinal infection on initial presentation.

METHODS

From January 2010 to July 2019, 275 patients presented with primary spinal infection. Demographic, infectious, imaging, laboratory, treatment, and outcome data were retrospectively reviewed and collected. Thirty-three patients were excluded due to insufficient follow-up (≤ 90 days) or death prior to surgery.

RESULTS

The mean age of the 242 patients was 58.8 ± 13.6 years. The majority of the patients were male (n = 130, 53.7%), White (n = 150, 62.0%), and never smokers (n = 132, 54.5%). Fifty-four patients (22.3%) were intravenous drug users. One hundred fifty-four patients (63.6%) ultimately required surgery while 88 (36.4%) never needed surgery during the duration of follow-up. There was no significant difference in age, gender, race, BMI, or comorbidities between the surgery and no-surgery groups. On univariate analysis, the presence of an epidural abscess (55.7% in the no-surgery group vs 82.5% in the surgery group, p < 0.0001), the median spinal levels involved (2 [interquartile range (IQR) 2–3] in the no-surgery group vs 3 [IQR 2–5] in the surgery group, p < 0.0001), and active bacteremia (20.5% in the no-surgery vs 35.1% in the surgery group, p = 0.02) were significantly different. The cultured organism and initial laboratory values (erythrocyte sedimentation rate, C-reactive protein, white blood cell count, creatinine, and albumin) were not significantly different between the groups. On multivariable analysis, the final model included epidural abscess, cervical or thoracic spine involvement, and number of involved levels. After adjusting for other variables, epidural abscess (odds ratio [OR] 3.04, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.64–5.63), cervical or thoracic spine involvement (OR 2.03, 95% CI 1.15–3.61), and increasing number of involved levels (OR 1.16, 95% CI 1.01–1.35) were associated with greater odds of surgery. Fifty-two surgical patients (33.8%) underwent decompression alone while 102 (66.2%) underwent decompression with fusion. Of those who underwent decompression alone, 2 (3.8%) of 52 required subsequent fusion due to kyphosis. No patient required hardware removal due to persistent infection.

CONCLUSIONS

At time of initial presentation of primary spinal infection, the presence of epidural abscess, cervical or thoracic spine involvement, as well as an increasing number of involved spinal levels were potential risk factors for the eventual need for surgery in this study. Additional studies are needed to assess for risk factors for surgery and antibiotic treatment failure.

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Tadatsugu Morimoto, Takaomi Kobayashi, Masaya Ueno, Hirohito Hirata, and Masaaki Mawatari

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Ann Liu, Yike Jin, Ethan Cottrill, Majid Khan, Erick Westbroek, Jeff Ehresman, Zach Pennington, Sheng-fu L. Lo, Daniel M. Sciubba, Camilo A. Molina, and Timothy F. Witham

OBJECTIVE

Augmented reality (AR) is a novel technology which, when applied to spine surgery, offers the potential for efficient, safe, and accurate placement of spinal instrumentation. The authors report the accuracy of the first 205 pedicle screws consecutively placed at their institution by using AR assistance with a unique head-mounted display (HMD) navigation system.

METHODS

A retrospective review was performed of the first 28 consecutive patients who underwent AR-assisted pedicle screw placement in the thoracic, lumbar, and/or sacral spine at the authors’ institution. Clinical accuracy for each pedicle screw was graded using the Gertzbein-Robbins scale by an independent neuroradiologist working in a blinded fashion.

RESULTS

Twenty-eight consecutive patients underwent thoracic, lumbar, or sacral pedicle screw placement with AR assistance. The median age at the time of surgery was 62.5 (IQR 13.8) years and the median body mass index was 31 (IQR 8.6) kg/m2. Indications for surgery included degenerative disease (n = 12, 43%); deformity correction (n = 12, 43%); tumor (n = 3, 11%); and trauma (n = 1, 4%). The majority of patients (n = 26, 93%) presented with low-back pain, 19 (68%) patients presented with radicular leg pain, and 10 (36%) patients had documented lower extremity weakness. A total of 205 screws were consecutively placed, with 112 (55%) placed in the lumbar spine, 67 (33%) in the thoracic spine, and 26 (13%) at S1. Screw placement accuracy was 98.5% for thoracic screws, 97.8% for lumbar/S1 screws, and 98.0% overall.

CONCLUSIONS

AR depicted through a unique HMD is a novel and clinically accurate technology for the navigated insertion of pedicle screws. The authors describe the first 205 AR-assisted thoracic, lumbar, and sacral pedicle screws consecutively placed at their institution with an accuracy of 98.0% as determined by a Gertzbein-Robbins grade of A or B.

Free access

Joseph Driver and Michael W. Groff