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Isabelle M. Germano, Masami Ito, Kyung G. Cho, Takao Hoshino, Richard L. Davis, and Charles B. Wilson

✓ One hundred fifty-two intracranial gliomas of various types were reviewed in order to correlate the histopathological features with the proliferative potential of each tumor as reflected by the bromodeoxyuridine (BUdR) labeling index (LI). Patients undergoing surgical removal of gliomas were given a 30-minute intravenous infusion of BUdR (150 to 200 mg/sq m) to label S-phase tumor cells. The tumor specimens were stained immunohistochemically for BUdR and processed for routine histopathological diagnosis. The BUdR LI was calculated as the percentage of labeled cells among cells analyzed. Twenty-seven histological features in three categories (degenerative, vascular, and cellular changes) were considered. A significantly higher BUdR LI (p < 0.05) was found in tumors with necrosis than in those without this feature; tumors with both coagulative and liquefactive necrosis had the highest BUdR LI (p < 0.05). Increased vascularity was also associated with a higher BUdR LI (p < 0.05). Although tumors with abnormal mitotic figures had a significantly higher BUdR LI than those without, the number of mitoses did not correlate with a higher BUdR LI. These results suggest that the number of mitoses is not a good indicator of tumor growth rate. Necrosis and increased vascularity should be heavily weighted in predicting the proliferative potential of individual gliomas.

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Takao Hoshino, Luis A. Rodriguez, Kyung G. Cho, Kyu S. Lee, Charles B. Wilson, Michael S. B. Edwards, Victor A. Levin, and Richard L. Davis

✓ The proliferative potential of low-grade astrocytomas was estimated in 47 patients. Each patient received an intravenous infusion of bromodeoxyuridine (BUdR), 150 to 200 mg/sq m, at the time of craniotomy to label cells in deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) synthesis; the percentage of S-phase cells, or BUdR labeling index (LI), of each tumor was determined immunohistochemically. In 29 patients (60%), the tumors had BUdR LI's of less than 1%, indicating a slow growth rate; only three (10%) of these patients died of recurrent tumor during a follow-up period of up to 3½ years. In contrast, of the 18 patients (40%) whose tumors had BUdR LI's of 1% or more, 12 (67%) had a recurrence and nine died during the same follow-up period. These results show that the proliferative potential, as reflected by the BUdR LI, is an important prognostic factor that separates low-grade astrocytomas into two groups and provides a more scientific rationale for selecting treatment for individual patients.

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Howard P. Charman, Daniel H. Lowenstein, Kyung G. Cho, Stephen J. DeArmond, and Charles B. Wilson

✓ A 65-year-old man with a history of exposure to industrial solvents developed a primary cerebral angiosarcoma in the left posterior parieto-occipital lobe. The tumor had features typical of angiosarcoma on light and electron microscopy, immunohistochemical evidence of factor VIII-related antigen produced in tumor cells, and a high labeling index with bromodeoxyuridine. The relationship of angiosarcoma to toxins and viruses is discussed.

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Prediction of tumor doubling time in recurrent meningiomas

Cell kinetics studies with bromodeoxyuridine labeling

Kyung G. Cho, Takao Hoshino, Tadashi Nagashima, Judith A. Murovic, and Charles B. Wilson

✓ Eight patients with recurrent meningiomas (four malignant, two hemangiopericytic, and two nonmalignant) were given intravenous bromodeoxyuridine (BUdR), 200 mg/sq m, at the time of surgery to label cells in the deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) synthesis phase; labeled cells were detected in excised tumor specimens by immunoperoxidase staining using anti-BUdR monoclonal antibody. These tumors showed a wide range of BUdR labeling indices (LI's), calculated as the percentage of BUdR-labeled cells divided by the total number of cells scored, from 0.3% to 5.4%. The tumor doubling times (Td's), estimated from serial computerized tomography scans, ranged from 8 to 440 days and showed a close inverse correlation with the BUdR LI's. A semilogarithmic linear regression analysis of these values yielded a correlation coefficient of 0.99. Tumor doubling time (Td) can be estimated using the formula: Td = 500 × Exp (−0.73 × LI), where Exp signifies the natural log base. By predicting the growth rate of meningiomas, the BUdR LI may supplement histopathological diagnosis and improve both the determination of prognosis and the design of treatment modalities in individual patients.