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Sinian Wang, Liang Xu, Muyi Wang, Yong Qiu, Zezhang Zhu, Bin Wang, and Xu Sun

OBJECTIVE

This study aimed to investigate reversal of vertebral wedging and to evaluate the contribution of vertebral remodeling to correction maintenance in patients with adolescent Scheuermann’s kyphosis (SK) after posterior-only instrumented correction.

METHODS

A retrospective cohort study of patients with SK was performed. In total, 45 SK patients aged 10–20 years at surgery were included. All patients received at least 24 months of follow-up and had Risser sign greater than grade 4 at latest follow-up. Patients with Risser grade 3 or less at surgery were assigned to the low-Risser group, whereas those with Risser grade 4 or 5 were assigned to the high-Risser group. Radiographic data and patient-reported outcomes were collected preoperatively, immediately postoperatively, and at latest follow-up and compared between the two groups.

RESULTS

Remarkable postoperative correction of global kyphosis was observed, with similar correction rates between the two groups (p = 0.380). However, correction loss was slightly but significantly less in the low-Risser group during follow-up (p < 0.001). The ratio between anterior vertebral body height (AVBH) and posterior vertebral body height (PVBH) of deformed vertebrae notably increased in SK patients from postoperation to latest follow-up (p < 0.05). Loss of correction of global kyphosis was significantly and negatively correlated with increased AVBH/PVBH ratio. Compared with the high-Risser group, the low-Risser group had significantly greater increase in AVBH/PVBH ratio during follow-up (p < 0.05). The two groups had similar preoperative and postoperative Scoliosis Research Society–22 questionnaire scores for all domains.

CONCLUSIONS

Obvious reversal in wedge deformation of vertebrae was observed in adolescent SK patients. Patients with substantial growth potential had greater vertebral remodeling and less correction loss. Structural remodeling of vertebral bodies has a positive effect and protects against correction loss. These results could be help guide treatment decision-making.

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Tianyuan Zhang, Hongda Bao, Shibin Shu, Zhen Liu, Xu Sun, Bin Wang, Yong Qiu, and Zezhang Zhu

OBJECTIVE

Sacral agenesis (SA) is a rare congenital malformation of the spine. There has been a paucity of clinical research to investigate the surgical outcome of spinopelvic fixation in these patients. In this study, the authors aimed to evaluate the outcome of different distal fixation anchors in lumbosacral spinal deformities associated with SA and to determine the optimal distal fixation anchor.

METHODS

Patients with diagnoses of SA and lumbosacral scoliosis undergoing spinopelvic fixation with S1 screws, iliac screws, or S2-alar-iliac (S2AI) screws were analyzed. The main curve, coronal balance distance, and pelvic obliquity were compared at baseline, postoperatively, and during follow-up in three groups. The complications were also recorded.

RESULTS

A total of 24 patients were included: 8 patients were stratified into group 1 (S1 screws), 9 into group 2 (iliac screws), and 7 into group 3 (S2AI screws). The main curves were well corrected postoperatively (p < 0.05) in all groups. Coronal balance showed a tendency of deterioration during follow-up in patients with S1 screws (from 18.8 mm to 27.0 mm). Regarding pelvic obliquity, patients with both iliac and S2AI screws showed significant correction (from 3.7° to 2.3° and from 3.3° to 1.6°). Implant-related complications were rod breakage in 3 patients and infection in 1 patient in group 2, and no implant-related complications were observed in group 3. There were 3 cases of unilateral S1 pedicle screw misplacement in group 1.

CONCLUSIONS

Spinopelvic fixation is a safe and effective procedure that can achieve coronal correction in lumbosacral scoliosis associated with SA. Compared with S1 and iliac screws, S2AI screws as distal fixation anchors can achieve a more satisfactory correction with fewer implant-related complications.

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Qing-shuang Zhou, MM, Xu Sun, Xi Chen, Liang Xu, Bang-ping Qian, Ze-zhang Zhu, Bin Wang, and Yong Qiu

OBJECTIVE

The aim of this study was to investigate sagittal alignment and compensatory mechanisms in patients with monosegmental spondylolysis (mono_lysis) and multisegmental spondylolysis (multi_lysis).

METHODS

A total of 453 adult patients treated for symptomatic low-grade spondylolytic spondylolisthesis were retrospectively studied at a single center. Patients were divided into 2 subgroups, the mono_lysis group and the multi_lysis group, based on the number of spondylolysis segments. A total of 158 asymptomatic healthy volunteers were enrolled in this study as the control group. Radiographic parameters measured on standing sagittal radiographs and the ratios of L4–S1 segmental lordosis (SL) to lumbar lordosis (L4–S1 SL/LL) and pelvic tilt to pelvic incidence (PT/PI) were compared between all experimental groups.

RESULTS

There were 51 patients (11.3%) with a diagnosis of multi_lysis in the spondylolysis group. When compared with the control group, the spondylolysis group exhibited larger PI (p < 0.001), PT (p < 0.001), LL (p < 0.001), and L4–S1 SL (p = 0.025) and a smaller L4–S1 SL/LL ratio (p < 0.001). When analyzing the specific spondylolysis subgroups, there were no significant differences in PI, but the multi_lysis group had a higher L5 incidence (p = 0.004), PT (p = 0.018), and PT/PI ratio (p = 0.039). The multi_lysis group also had a smaller L4–S1 SL/LL ratio (p = 0.012) and greater sagittal vertical axis (p < 0.001).

CONCLUSIONS

A high-PI spinopelvic pattern was involved in the development of spondylolytic spondylolisthesis, and a larger L5 incidence might be associated with the occurrence of consecutive multi_lysis. Unlike patients with mono_lysis, individuals with multi_lysis were characterized by an anterior trunk, insufficiency of L4–S1 SL, and pelvic retroversion.