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Michael Eibach, Sae-Yeon Won, Markus Bruder, Fee Keil, Eva Herrmann, Joachim Berkefeld, Volker Seifert, and Juergen Konczalla

OBJECTIVE

The Subarachnoid Hemorrhage Early Brain Edema Score (SEBES) system measures cerebral edema on CT and can be used to predict outcome after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). The authors developed a modified SEBES (SEBES 6c) and assessed whether it could predict outcome after SAH better than the SEBES. Furthermore, they verified the age dependency of these scores.

METHODS

In this retrospective study, all patients with aneurysmal SAH in the period from January 2011 to February 2017 at a single institution were analyzed. The SEBES, which is based on the absence of visible sulci at two defined CT levels (0–4 points), and the SEBES 6c were determined from the initial CT. The SEBES 6c system includes the two levels from the original SEBES and one level located 2 cm below the vertex (0–6 points). The authors investigated whether the various SEBESs are age dependent and if they can predict delayed infarction (DI) and outcome.

RESULTS

Two hundred sixty-one patients met the study inclusion criteria. The SEBES was an independent predictor for DI (OR 1.6 per 1-point increase) and unfavorable outcome (OR 1.36 per 1-point increase), in accordance with findings in the first publication on SEBES. However, here the authors found that the SEBES was age dependent. In the age group younger than 60 years, the patients with high-grade SEBESs (3–4 points) had DIs and unfavorable outcomes significantly more often than the patients with low-grade scores (0–2 points). In the age groups 60–69 years and ≥ 70 years, no significant differences in DI and outcome were identified between high-grade and low-grade scores, although trends toward DI and unfavorable outcomes among the 60–69 age group were noted in patients with high-grade SEBESs.

Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis showed that SEBES 6c had a higher prognostic value in predicting outcome than SEBES (p < 0.001). Furthermore, SEBES 6c predicted an unfavorable outcome (OR 1.31 per 1-point increase) and DI (OR 1.36 per 1-point increase) independent of vasospasms. SEBES 6c showed an age dependency similar to that of SEBES.

CONCLUSIONS

SEBES 6c is more suitable for predicting outcome after SAH than SEBES. Furthermore, it predicts outcome and DI independently of vasospasm, so it can be used to differentiate between early brain injury– and vasospasm-dependent infarctions and outcome. However, SEBES and SEBES 6c are both age dependent and can be used for patients aged < 60 years and may have limited suitability for patients aged 60–69 years and no suitability for patients aged ≥ 70 years.

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Michael Eibach, Sae-Yeon Won, Markus Bruder, Fee Keil, Eva Herrmann, Joachim Berkefeld, Volker Seifert, and Juergen Konczalla

OBJECTIVE

The Subarachnoid Hemorrhage Early Brain Edema Score (SEBES) system measures cerebral edema on CT and can be used to predict outcome after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). The authors developed a modified SEBES (SEBES 6c) and assessed whether it could predict outcome after SAH better than the SEBES. Furthermore, they verified the age dependency of these scores.

METHODS

In this retrospective study, all patients with aneurysmal SAH in the period from January 2011 to February 2017 at a single institution were analyzed. The SEBES, which is based on the absence of visible sulci at two defined CT levels (0–4 points), and the SEBES 6c were determined from the initial CT. The SEBES 6c system includes the two levels from the original SEBES and one level located 2 cm below the vertex (0–6 points). The authors investigated whether the various SEBESs are age dependent and if they can predict delayed infarction (DI) and outcome.

RESULTS

Two hundred sixty-one patients met the study inclusion criteria. The SEBES was an independent predictor for DI (OR 1.6 per 1-point increase) and unfavorable outcome (OR 1.36 per 1-point increase), in accordance with findings in the first publication on SEBES. However, here the authors found that the SEBES was age dependent. In the age group younger than 60 years, the patients with high-grade SEBESs (3–4 points) had DIs and unfavorable outcomes significantly more often than the patients with low-grade scores (0–2 points). In the age groups 60–69 years and ≥ 70 years, no significant differences in DI and outcome were identified between high-grade and low-grade scores, although trends toward DI and unfavorable outcomes among the 60–69 age group were noted in patients with high-grade SEBESs.

Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis showed that SEBES 6c had a higher prognostic value in predicting outcome than SEBES (p < 0.001). Furthermore, SEBES 6c predicted an unfavorable outcome (OR 1.31 per 1-point increase) and DI (OR 1.36 per 1-point increase) independent of vasospasms. SEBES 6c showed an age dependency similar to that of SEBES.

CONCLUSIONS

SEBES 6c is more suitable for predicting outcome after SAH than SEBES. Furthermore, it predicts outcome and DI independently of vasospasm, so it can be used to differentiate between early brain injury– and vasospasm-dependent infarctions and outcome. However, SEBES and SEBES 6c are both age dependent and can be used for patients aged < 60 years and may have limited suitability for patients aged 60–69 years and no suitability for patients aged ≥ 70 years.

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Sae-Yeon Won, Florian Gessler, Daniel Dubinski, Michael Eibach, Bedjan Behmanesh, Eva Herrmann, Volker Seifert, Juergen Konczalla, Stephanie Tritt, and Christian Senft

OBJECTIVE

Prophylactic placement of an external ventricular drain (EVD) is often performed prior to resection of a posterior fossa tumor (PFT); however, there is no general consensus regarding the indications. The purpose of this study was to establish a novel grading system for the prediction of required CSF drainage due to symptomatic elevated intracranial pressure (ICP) after resection of a PFT to identify patients who require an EVD.

METHODS

The authors performed a retrospective analysis of data from a prospective database. All patients who had undergone resection of a PFT between 2012 and 2017 at the University Hospital, Goethe University Frankfurt, were identified and data from their cases were analyzed. PFTs were categorized as intraparenchymal (iPFT) or extraparenchymal (ePFT). Prior to resection, patients underwent EVD placement, prophylactic burr hole placement, or neither. The authors assessed the amount of CSF drainage (if applicable), rate of EVD placement at a later time point, and complication rate and screened for factors associated with CSF drainage. By applying those factors, they established a grading system to predict the necessity of CSF drainage for elevated ICP.

RESULTS

A total of 197 patients met the inclusion criteria. Of these 197, 70.6% received an EVD, 15.7% underwent prophylactic burr hole placement, and 29.4% required temporary CSF drainage. In the prophylactic burr hole group, 1 of 32 patients (3.1%) required EVD placement at a later time. Independent predictors for postoperative need for CSF drainage due to symptomatic intracranial hypertension in patients with iPFTs were preoperative hydrocephalus (OR 2.9) and periventricular CSF capping (OR 2.9), whereas semi-sitting surgical position (OR 0.2) and total resection (OR 0.3) were protective factors. For patients with ePFTs, petroclival/midline tumor location (OR 12.2/OR 5.7), perilesional edema (OR 10.0), and preoperative hydrocephalus (OR 4.0) were independent predictors of need for CSF drainage. According to our grading system, CSF drainage after resection of iPFT or ePFT, respectively, was required in 16.7% and 5.1% of patients with a score of 0, in 21.1% and 12.5% of patients with a score of 1, in 47.1% and 26.3% of patients with a score of 2, and in 100% and 76.5% of patients with a score ≥ 3 (p < 0.0001). The rate of relevant EVD complications was 4.3%, and 10.1% of patients were shunt-dependent at 3-month follow-up.

CONCLUSIONS

This novel grading system for the prediction of need for CSF drainage following resection of PFT might be of help in deciding in favor of or against prophylactic EVD placement.

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Atul Verma, Subodh Verma, Mohammed Al-Omran, and James T. Rutka

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Juergen Konczalla, Johannes Platz, Stephan Fichtlscherer, Haitham Mutlak, Ulrich Strouhal, and Volker Seifert

OBJECTIVE

To date, treatment of complex unruptured intracranial aneurysms (UIAs) remains challenging. Therefore, advanced techniques are required to achieve an optimal result in treating these patients safely. In this study, the safety and efficacy of rapid ventricular pacing (RVP) to facilitate microsurgical clip reconstruction was investigated prospectively in a joined neurosurgery, anesthesiology, and cardiology study.

METHODS

Patients with complex UIAs were prospectively enrolled. Both the safety and efficacy of RVP were evaluated by recording cardiovascular events and outcomes of patients as well as the amount of aneurysm occlusion after the surgical clip reconstruction procedure. A questionnaire was used to evaluate aneurysm preparation and clip application under RVP.

RESULTS

Twenty patients (mean age 51.6 years, range 28–66 years) were included in this study. Electrode positioning was easy in 19 (95%) of 20 patients, and removal of electrodes was easily accomplished in all patients (100%). No complications associated with the placement of the pacing electrodes occurred, such as cardiac perforation or cardiac tamponade. RVP was applied in 16 patients. The mean aneurysm size was 11.1 ± 5.5 mm (range 6–30 mm). RVP proved to be a very helpful tool in aneurysm preparation and clip application in 15 (94%) of 16 patients. RVP was used for a mean duration of 60 ± 25 seconds, a mean heart rate of 173 ± 23 bpm (range 150–210 bpm), and a reduction of mean arterial pressure to 35–55 mm Hg. RVP leads to softening of the aneurysm sac facilitating its mobilization, clip application, and closure of the clip blades. In 2 patients, cardiac events were documented that resolved without permanent sequelae in both. In every patient with successful RVP (n = 14) a total or near-total aneurysm occlusion was documented. In the 1 patient in whom the second RVP failed due to pacemaker electrode dislocation, additional temporary clipping was required to secure the aneurysm, but was not as sufficient as RVP. This led to an incomplete clipping of the aneurysm and finally a remnant on postoperative digital subtraction angiography. A pacemaker lead dislocation occurred in 3 (19%) of 16 patients, but intraoperative repositioning requires less than 20 seconds. Outcome was favorable in all patients according to the modified Rankin Scale.

CONCLUSIONS

To the best of the authors’ knowledge this is the first prospective interdisciplinary study of RVP use in patients with UIAs. RVP is an elegant technique that facilitates clip reconstruction in complex UIAs. The safety of the procedure is good. However, because this procedure requires extensive preoperative cardiological workup of the patient and an experienced neurosurgery and neuroanesthesiology team with much cerebrovascular expertise, actually it remains reserved for selected elective cases and highly specialized centers.

Clinical trial registration no.: NCT02766972 (clinicaltrials.gov)

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Florian Gessler, Markus Bruder, Stephan Duetzmann, Stephanie Tritt, Joshua D. Bernstock, Volker Seifert, and Christian Senft

OBJECTIVE

Neurosurgical intervention may increase the risk of developing cerebral vein and dural sinus thrombosis (CVT). The clinical management of CVT in postoperative patients remains unclear. This retrospective study explores the disease occurrence, associated risk factors, and outcomes in patients with tumors who developed CVT after craniotomy.

METHODS

A retrospective analysis and review of patient records in those who had undergone cranial tumor removal within the authors' neurosurgical department was performed. In so doing, the authors identified a cohort of patients who developed CVT postoperatively. The study included patients who presented to the department between January 2004 and December 2013.

RESULTS

Of 2286 patients with intracranial lesions who underwent craniotomy, 35 (1.5%) went on to develop CVT. The authors identified the semisitting position (OR 7.55, 95% CI 3.73–15.31, p < 0.001); intraoperative sinus injury (OR 1.5, 95% CI 3.57–15.76, p < 0.001); and known CVT risk factors (OR 7.77, 95% CI 2.28–21.39, p < 0.001) as predictors of CVT development. Of note, 19 patients (54.3%) had good outcomes (modified Rankin Scale Score 0–1), whereas 9 patients (25.7%) had suffered dependency or death (modified Rankin Scale Score 4–6) at last follow-up. Intracerebral hemorrhage (OR 21.27, 95% CI 1.59–285.01, p = 0.02) and delayed delivery of an intermediate dose of low-molecular-weight heparin anticoagulation (OR 24.12, 95% CI 2.08–280.13, p = 0.01) were associated with unfavorable outcomes.

CONCLUSIONS

Only a minority of patients undergoing craniotomy for tumor removal develop CVT, and the majority of those who do develop CVT recover well. Early administration of an intermediate dose of low-molecular-weight heparin anticoagulation might be considered once CVT is diagnosed.

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Johannes Platz, Marlies Wagner, Erdem Güresir, Se-Jong You, Juergen Konczalla, Richard du Mesnil de Rochemont, Joachim Berkefeld, and Volker Seifert

OBJECTIVE

Diffusion-weighted MRI was used to assess periprocedural lesion load after repair of unruptured intracranial aneurysms (UIA) by microsurgical clipping (MC) and endovascular coiling (EC).

METHODS

Patients with UIA were assigned to undergo MC or EC according to interdisciplinary consensus and underwent diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) 1 day before and 1 day after aneurysm treatment. Newly detected lesions by DWI after treatment were the primary end point of this prospective study. Lesions detected by DWI were categorized as follows: A) 1–3 DWI spots < 10 mm, B) > 3 DWI spots < 10 mm, C) single DWI lesion > 10 mm, or D) DWI lesion related to surgical access.

RESULTS

Between 2010 and 2014, 99 cases were included. Sixty-two UIA were treated by MC and 37 by EC. There were no significant differences between groups in age, sex, aneurysm size, occurrence of multiple aneurysms in 1 patient, or presence of lesions detected by DWI before treatment. Aneurysms treated by EC were significantly more often located in the posterior circulation (p < 0.001). Diffusion-weighted MRI detected new lesions in 27 (43.5%) and 20 (54.1%) patients after MC and EC, respectively (not significant). The pattern of lesions detected by DWI varied significantly between groups (p < 0.001). Microembolic lesions (A and B) found on DWI were detected more frequently after EC (A, 14 cases; B, 5 cases) than after MC (A, 5 cases), whereas C and D were rare after EC (C, 1 case) and occurred more often after MC (C, 12 cases and D, 10 cases). No procedure-related unfavorable outcomes were detected.

CONCLUSIONS

According to the specific techniques, lesion patterns differ between MC and EC, whereas the frequency of new lesions found on DWI is similar after occlusion of UIA. In general, the lesion load was low in both groups, and lesions were clinically silent.

Clinical trial registration no.: NCT01490463 (clinicaltrials.gov)

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Juergen Konczalla, Volker Seifert, Juergen Beck, Erdem Güresir, Hartmut Vatter, Andreas Raabe, and Gerhard Marquardt

OBJECTIVE

Outcome analysis of comatose patients (Hunt and Hess Grade V) after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is still lacking. The aims of this study were to analyze the outcome of Hunt and Hess Grade V SAH and to compare outcomes in the current period with those of the pre–International Subarachnoid Aneurysm Trial (ISAT) era as well as with published data from trials of decompressive craniectomy (DC) for middle cerebral artery (MCA) infarction.

METHODS

The authors analyzed cases of Hunt and Hess Grade V SAH from 1980–1995 (referred to in this study as the earlier period) and 2005–2014 (current period) and compared the results for the 2 periods. The outcomes of 257 cases were analyzed and stratified on the basis of modified Rankin Scale (mRS) scores obtained 6 months after SAH. Outcomes were dichotomized as favorable (mRS score of 0–2) or unfavorable (mRS score of 3–6). Data and number needed to treat (NNT) were also compared with the results of decompressive craniectomy (DC) trials for middle cerebral artery (MCA) infarctions.

RESULTS

Early aneurysm treatment within 72 hours occurred significantly more often in the current period (in 67% of cases vs 22% in earlier period). In the earlier period, patients had a significantly higher 30-day mortality rate (83% vs 39% in the current period) and 6-month mortality rate (94% vs 49%), and no patient (0%) had a favorable outcome, compared with 23% overall in the current period (p < 0.01, OR 32), or 29.5% of patients whose aneurysms were treated (p < 0.01, OR 219). Cerebral infarctions occurred in up to 65% of the treated patients in the current period.

Comparison with data from DC MCA trials showed that the NNTs were significantly lower in the current period with 2 for survival and 3 for mRS score of 0–3 (vs 3 and 7, respectively, for the DC MCA trials).

CONCLUSIONS

Early and aggressive treatment resulted in a significant improvement in survival rate (NNT = 2) and favorable outcome (NNT = 3 for mRS score of 0–3) for comatose patients with Hunt and Hess Grade V SAH compared with the earlier period. Independent predictors for favorable outcome were younger age and bilateral intact corneal reflexes. Despite a high rate of cerebral infarction (65%) in the current period, 29.5% of the patients who received treatment for their aneurysms during the current era (2005–2014) had a favorable outcome. However, careful individual decision making is essential in these cases.

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Johannes Platz, Erdem Güresir, Marlies Wagner, Volker Seifert, and Juergen Konczalla

OBJECTIVE

Delayed cerebral ischemia (DCI) has a major impact on the outcome of patients suffering from aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). The aim of this study was to assess the influence of an additional intracerebral hematoma (ICH) on the occurrence of DCI.

METHODS

The authors conducted a single-center retrospective analysis of cases of SAH involving patients treated between 2006 and 2011. Patients who died or were transferred to another institution within 10 days after SAH without the occurrence of DCI were excluded from the analysis.

RESULTS

Additional ICH was present in 123 (24.4%) of 504 included patients (66.7% female). ICH was classified as frontal in 72 patients, temporal in 24, and perisylvian in 27. DCI occurred in 183 patients (36.3%). A total of 59 (32.2%) of these 183 patients presented with additional ICH, compared with 64 (19.9%) of the 321 without DCI (p = 0.002). In addition, DCI was detected significantly more frequently in patients with higher World Federation of Neurosurgical Societies (WFNS) grades.

The authors compared the original and modified Fisher Scales with respect to the occurrence of DCI. The modified Fisher Scale (mFS) was superior to the original Fisher Scale (oFS) in predicting DCI. Furthermore, they suggest a new classification based on the mFS, which demonstrates the impact of additional ICH on the occurrence of DCI.

After the different scales were corrected for age, sex, WFNS score, and aneurysm site, the oFS no longer was predictive for the occurrence of DCI, while the new scale demonstrated a superior capacity for prediction as compared with the mFS.

CONCLUSIONS

Additional ICH was associated with an increased risk of DCI in this study. Furthermore, adding the presence or absence of ICH to the mFS improved the identification of patients at the highest risk for the development of DCI. Thus, a simple adjustment of the mFS might help to identify patients at high risk for DCI.

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Philipp J. Slotty, Amr Abdulazim, Kunihiko Kodama, Mani Javadi, Daniel Hänggi, Volker Seifert, and Andrea Szelényi

OBJECTIVE

Methods of choice for neurophysiological intraoperative monitoring (IOM) within the infratentorial compartment mostly include early brainstem auditory evoked potentials, free-running electromyography, and direct cranial nerve (CN) stimulation. Long-tract monitoring with somatosensory evoked potentials (SEPs) and motor evoked potentials (MEPs) is rarely used. This study investigated the incidence of IOM alterations during posterior fossa surgery stratified for lesion location.

METHODS

Standardized CN and SEP/MEP IOM was performed in 305 patients being treated for various posterior fossa pathologies. The IOM data were correlated with lesion locations and histopathological types as well as other possible confounding factors.

RESULTS

Alterations in IOM were observed in 158 of 305 cases (51.8%) (CN IOM alterations in 130 of 305 [42.6%], SEP/MEP IOM alterations in 43 of 305 [14.0%]). In 15 cases (4.9%), simultaneous changes in long tracts and CNs were observed. The IOM alterations were followed by neurological sequelae in 98 of 305 cases (32.1%); 62% of IOM alterations resulted in neurological deficits. Sensitivity and specificity for detection of CN deficits were 98% and 77%, respectively, and 95% and 85%, respectively, for long-tract deficits. Regarding location, brainstem and petroclival lesions were closely associated with concurrent CN IOM and SEP/MEP alterations.

CONCLUSIONS

The incidence of IOM alterations during surgery in the posterior fossa varied widely between different lesion locations and histopathological types. This analysis provides crucial information on the necessity of IOM in different surgical settings. Because MEP/SEP and CN IOM alterations were commonly observed during posterior fossa surgery, the authors recommend the simultaneous use of both modalities based on lesion location.