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Brian P. Walcott, Jae Seung Bang, Omar Choudhri, Sirin Gandhi, Halima Tabani, Arnau Benet, and Michael T. Lawton

A 46-year-old male presented with an incidentally discovered left ventricular body arteriovenous malformation (AVM). It measured 2 cm in diameter and had drainage via an atrial vein into the internal cerebral vein (Spetzler-Martin Grade III, Supplementary Grade 4). Preoperative embolization of the posterior medial choroidal artery reduced nidus size by 50%. Subsequently, he underwent a right-sided craniotomy for a contralateral transcallosal approach to resect the AVM. This case demonstrates strategic circumferential disconnection of feeding arteries (FAs) to the nidus, the use of aneurysm clips to control large FAs, and the use of dynamic retraction and importance of a generous callosotomy. Postoperatively, he was neurologically intact, and angiogram confirmed complete resection.

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W. Caleb Rutledge, Omar Choudhri, Brian P. Walcott, Arnau Benet, Christine K. Fox, Nalin Gupta, and Michael T. Lawton

Mutations in the smooth muscle–specific isoform of alpha actin (ACTA2) cause smooth muscle dysfunction in arteries. This rare loss-of-function mutation may cause a diffuse occlusive cerebral arteriopathy, resulting in stroke. While ACTA2 arteriopathy is often described as moyamoya-like, it has a distinct phenotype characterized by dilation of the proximal internal carotid artery (ICA) and occlusion of the terminal ICA and proximal middle cerebral artery. Intracranial arteries have an abnormally straight course, often with small aneurysms. There is limited experience with revascularization procedures for ACTA2 arteriopathy, and the safety and efficacy of these procedures are unknown. In this paper the authors present a symptomatic 6-year-old patient with ACTA2 cerebral arteriopathy who underwent both indirect revascularization and direct cerebrovascular bypass. Postoperatively, the patient suffered an ischemic infarct in a neighboring vascular territory. While direct cerebrovascular bypass is technically feasible, patients with ACTA2 arteriopathy may be at increased risk for perioperative stroke compared with patients with moyamoya disease.

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Omar Choudhri and Michael T. Lawton

The middle tentorial incisural space, located lateral to the midbrain and medial to the temporal lobe, contains the ambient cistern through which courses the third, fourth, and fifth cranial nerves, posterior cerebral artery (PCA), superior cerebellar artery, and the choroidal arteries. Arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) in this compartment are supplied by the thalamogeniculate and posterior temporal branches of the PCA, and drain into tributaries of the basal vein of Rosenthal. We present a case of an AVM in this middle tentorial incisural space that persisted after embolization and radiosurgery, and was microsurgically resected through a subtemporal approach. This case demonstrates the anatomy of the middle incisural space and technical aspects in microsurgical resection of these rare AVMs.

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