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R. Michael Scott and Edward R. Smith

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Gyang Markus Bot, Jan-Karl Burkhardt, Nalin Gupta, and Michael T. Lawton


Revascularization is indicated in the management of moyamoya disease (MMD), with options that include direct and indirect techniques. Indirect bypass is popular in young children because the diminutive caliber of donors and recipients makes direct bypass difficult. The authors reviewed a series of patients treated with direct superficial temporal artery (STA)–to–middle cerebral artery (MCA) bypass in combination with encephalomyosynangiosis (EMS) in children 3 years or younger to demonstrate feasibility and safety.


A retrospective review of all surgeries for MMD over a 19-year period identified 11 procedures in 6 patients. Surgical results, angiographic outcomes, and clinical outcomes were analyzed.


Patients had a mean age of 22.4 months. The symptomatic hemisphere was revascularized first, and the contralateral hemisphere was revascularized on average 2.8 months later in 5 patients. All direct bypasses were patent postoperatively and remained patent at late follow-up (mean 4.1 years), with both STA and MCA diameters increasing significantly (n = 5, p < 0.03). At last follow-up (mean follow-up duration, 5.0 years), favorable outcomes (modified Rankin Scale scores 0–2) were observed in 5 of the 6 patients (83%), with 1 dependent patient remaining unchanged postoperatively.


Direct STA-MCA bypass in combination with EMS for MMD is feasible and safe in patients 3 years or younger, based on favorable clinical and radiological outcomes in this patient cohort. Direct bypass should be considered when immediate revascularization is needed, without the biological delay associated with indirect bypass.