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Akiyoshi Ogino, L. Dade Lunsford, Hao Long, Stephen Johnson, Andrew Faramand, Ajay Niranjan, John C. Flickinger, and Hideyuki Kano

OBJECTIVE

While extensive long-term outcome studies support the role of stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) for smaller-volume vestibular schwannomas (VSs), its role in the management for larger-volume tumors remains controversial.

METHODS

Between 1987 and 2017, the authors performed single-session SRS on 170 patients with previously untreated Koos grade IV VSs (volumes ranged from 5 to 20 cm3). The median tumor volume was 7.4 cm3. The median maximum extracanalicular tumor diameter was 27.5 mm. All tumors compressed the middle cerebellar peduncle and distorted the fourth ventricle. Ninety-three patients were male, 77 were female, and the median age was 61 years. Sixty-two patients had serviceable hearing (Gardner-Robertson [GR] grades I and II). The median margin dose was 12.5 Gy.

RESULTS

At a median follow-up of 5.1 years, the progression-free survival rates of VSs treated with a margin dose ≥ 12.0 Gy were 98.4% at 3 years, 95.3% at 5 years, and 90.7% at 10 years. In contrast, the tumor control rate after delivery of a margin dose < 12.0 Gy was 76.9% at 3, 5, and 10 years. The hearing preservation rates in patients with serviceable hearing at the time of SRS were 58.1% at 3 years, 50.3% at 5 years, and 35.9% at 7 years. Younger age (< 60 years, p = 0.036) and initial GR grade I (p = 0.006) were associated with improved serviceable hearing preservation rate. Seven patients (4%) developed facial neuropathy during the follow-up interval. A smaller tumor volume (< 10 cm3, p = 0.002) and a lower margin dose (≤ 13.0 Gy, p < 0.001) were associated with preservation of facial nerve function. The probability of delayed facial neuropathy when the margin dose was ≤ 13.0 Gy was 1.1% at 10 years. Nine patients (5%) required a ventriculoperitoneal shunt because of delayed symptomatic hydrocephalus. Fifteen patients (9%) developed detectable trigeminal neuropathy. Delayed resection was performed in 4% of patients.

CONCLUSIONS

Even for larger-volume VSs, single-session SRS prevented the need for delayed resection in almost 90% at 10 years. For patients with minimal symptoms of tumor mass effect, SRS should be considered an effective alternative to surgery in most patients, especially those with advanced age or medical comorbidities.

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Akiyoshi Ogino, L. Dade Lunsford, Hao Long, Stephen Johnson, Andrew Faramand, Ajay Niranjan, John C. Flickinger, and Hideyuki Kano

OBJECTIVE

While extensive long-term outcome studies support the role of stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) for smaller-volume vestibular schwannomas (VSs), its role in the management for larger-volume tumors remains controversial.

METHODS

Between 1987 and 2017, the authors performed single-session SRS on 170 patients with previously untreated Koos grade IV VSs (volumes ranged from 5 to 20 cm3). The median tumor volume was 7.4 cm3. The median maximum extracanalicular tumor diameter was 27.5 mm. All tumors compressed the middle cerebellar peduncle and distorted the fourth ventricle. Ninety-three patients were male, 77 were female, and the median age was 61 years. Sixty-two patients had serviceable hearing (Gardner-Robertson [GR] grades I and II). The median margin dose was 12.5 Gy.

RESULTS

At a median follow-up of 5.1 years, the progression-free survival rates of VSs treated with a margin dose ≥ 12.0 Gy were 98.4% at 3 years, 95.3% at 5 years, and 90.7% at 10 years. In contrast, the tumor control rate after delivery of a margin dose < 12.0 Gy was 76.9% at 3, 5, and 10 years. The hearing preservation rates in patients with serviceable hearing at the time of SRS were 58.1% at 3 years, 50.3% at 5 years, and 35.9% at 7 years. Younger age (< 60 years, p = 0.036) and initial GR grade I (p = 0.006) were associated with improved serviceable hearing preservation rate. Seven patients (4%) developed facial neuropathy during the follow-up interval. A smaller tumor volume (< 10 cm3, p = 0.002) and a lower margin dose (≤ 13.0 Gy, p < 0.001) were associated with preservation of facial nerve function. The probability of delayed facial neuropathy when the margin dose was ≤ 13.0 Gy was 1.1% at 10 years. Nine patients (5%) required a ventriculoperitoneal shunt because of delayed symptomatic hydrocephalus. Fifteen patients (9%) developed detectable trigeminal neuropathy. Delayed resection was performed in 4% of patients.

CONCLUSIONS

Even for larger-volume VSs, single-session SRS prevented the need for delayed resection in almost 90% at 10 years. For patients with minimal symptoms of tumor mass effect, SRS should be considered an effective alternative to surgery in most patients, especially those with advanced age or medical comorbidities.

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Akiyoshi Ogino, L. Dade Lunsford, Hao Long, Stephen Johnson, Andrew Faramand, Ajay Niranjan, John C. Flickinger, and Hideyuki Kano

OBJECTIVE

This report evaluates the outcomes of stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) as the first-line treatment of intracanalicular vestibular schwannomas (VSs).

METHODS

Between 1987 and 2017, the authors identified 209 patients who underwent SRS as the primary intervention for a unilateral intracanalicular VS. The median patient age was 54 years (range 22–85 years); 94 patients were male and 115 were female. Three patients had facial neuropathy at the time of SRS. One hundred fifty-five patients (74%) had serviceable hearing (Gardner-Robertson [GR] grades I and II) at the time of SRS. The median tumor volume was 0.17 cm3 (range 0.015–0.63 cm3). The median margin dose was 12.5 Gy (range 11.0–25.0 Gy). The median maximum dose was 24.0 Gy (range 15.7–50.0 Gy).

RESULTS

The progression-free survival rates of all patients with intracanalicular VS were 97.5% at 3 years, 95.6% at 5 years, and 92.1% at 10 years. The rates of freedom from the need for any additional intervention were 99.4% at 3 years, 98.3% at 5 years, and 98.3% at 10 years. The serviceable hearing preservation rates in GR grade I and II patients at the time of SRS were 76.6% at 3 years, 63.5% at 5 years, and 27.3% at 10 years. In univariate analysis, younger age (< 55 years, p = 0.011), better initial hearing (GR grade I, p < 0.001), and smaller tumor volumes (< 0.14 cm3, p = 0.016) were significantly associated with improved hearing preservation. In multivariate analysis, better hearing (GR grade I, p = 0.001, HR 2.869, 95% CI 1.569–5.248) and smaller tumor volumes (< 0.14 cm3, p = 0.033, HR 2.071, 95% CI 1.059–4.047) at the time of SRS were significantly associated with improved hearing preservation. The hearing preservation rates of patients with GR grade I VS were 88.1% at 3 years, 77.9% at 5 years, and 38.1% at 10 years. The hearing preservation rates of patients with VSs smaller than 0.14 cm3 were 85.5% at 3 years, 77.7% at 5 years, and 42.6% at 10 years. Facial neuropathy developed in 1.4% from 6 to 156 months after SRS.

CONCLUSIONS

SRS provided sustained tumor control in more than 90% of patients with intracanalicular VS at 10 years and freedom from the need for additional intervention in more than 98% at 10 years. Patients with initially better hearing and smaller VSs had enhanced serviceable hearing preservation during an observation interval up to 10 years after SRS.

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Monica Mureb, Danielle Golub, Carolina Benjamin, Jason Gurewitz, Ben A. Strickland, Gabriel Zada, Eric Chang, Dušan Urgošík, Roman Liščák, Ronald E. Warnick, Herwin Speckter, Skyler Eastman, Anthony M. Kaufmann, Samir Patel, Caleb E. Feliciano, Carlos H. Carbini, David Mathieu, William Leduc, DCS, Sean J. Nagel, Yusuke S. Hori, Yi-Chieh Hung, Akiyoshi Ogino, Andrew Faramand, Hideyuki Kano, L. Dade Lunsford, Jason Sheehan, and Douglas Kondziolka

OBJECTIVE

Trigeminal neuralgia (TN) is a chronic pain condition that is difficult to control with conservative management. Furthermore, disabling medication-related side effects are common. This study examined how stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) affects pain outcomes and medication dependence based on the latency period between diagnosis and radiosurgery.

METHODS

The authors conducted a retrospective analysis of patients with type I TN at 12 Gamma Knife treatment centers. SRS was the primary surgical intervention in all patients. Patient demographics, disease characteristics, treatment plans, medication histories, and outcomes were reviewed.

RESULTS

Overall, 404 patients were included. The mean patient age at SRS was 70 years, and 60% of the population was female. The most common indication for SRS was pain refractory to medications (81%). The median maximum radiation dose was 80 Gy (range 50–95 Gy), and the mean follow-up duration was 32 months. The mean number of medications between baseline (pre-SRS) and the last follow-up decreased from 1.98 to 0.90 (p < 0.0001), respectively, and this significant reduction was observed across all medication categories. Patients who received SRS within 4 years of their initial diagnosis achieved significantly faster pain relief than those who underwent treatment after 4 years (median 21 vs 30 days, p = 0.041). The 90-day pain relief rate for those who received SRS ≤ 4 years after their diagnosis was 83.8% compared with 73.7% in patients who received SRS > 4 years after their diagnosis. The maximum radiation dose was the strongest predictor of a durable pain response (OR 1.091, p = 0.003). Early intervention (OR 1.785, p = 0.007) and higher maximum radiation dose (OR 1.150, p < 0.0001) were also significant predictors of being pain free (a Barrow Neurological Institute pain intensity score of I–IIIA) at the last follow-up visit. New sensory symptoms of any kind were seen in 98 patients (24.3%) after SRS. Higher maximum radiation dose trended toward predicting new sensory deficits but was nonsignificant (p = 0.075).

CONCLUSIONS

TN patients managed with SRS within 4 years of diagnosis experienced a shorter interval to pain relief with low risk. SRS also yielded significant decreases in adjunct medication utilization. Radiosurgery should be considered earlier in the course of treatment for TN.

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Ching-Jen Chen, Cheng-Chia Lee, Hideyuki Kano, Kathryn N. Kearns, Dale Ding, Shih-Wei Tzeng, Ahmet Atik, Krishna Joshi, Gene H. Barnett, Paul P. Huang, Douglas Kondziolka, David Mathieu, Christian Iorio-Morin, Inga S. Grills, Thomas J. Quinn, Zaid A. Siddiqui, Kim Marvin, Caleb Feliciano, Andrew Faramand, L. Dade Lunsford, and Jason P. Sheehan

OBJECTIVE

Contrary to the better described obliteration- and hemorrhage-related data after stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) of brain arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) in pediatric patients, estimates of the rarer complications, including cyst and tumor formation, are limited in the literature. The aim of the present study was to assess the long-term outcomes and risks of SRS for AVMs in pediatric patients (age < 18 years).

METHODS

The authors retrospectively analyzed the International Radiosurgery Research Foundation pediatric AVM database for the years 1987 to 2018. AVM obliteration, post-SRS hemorrhage, cyst formation, and tumor formation were assessed. Cumulative probabilities, adjusted for the competing risk of death, were calculated.

RESULTS

The study cohort comprised 539 pediatric AVM patients (mean follow-up 85.8 months). AVM obliteration was observed in 64.3% of patients, with cumulative probabilities of 63.6% (95% CI 58.8%–68.0%), 77.1% (95% CI 72.1%–81.3%), and 88.1% (95% CI 82.5%–92.0%) over 5, 10, and 15 years, respectively. Post-SRS hemorrhage was observed in 8.4% of patients, with cumulative probabilities of 4.9% (95% CI 3.1%–7.2%), 9.7% (95% CI 6.4%–13.7%), and 14.5% (95% CI 9.5%–20.5%) over 5, 10, and 15 years, respectively. Cyst formation was observed in 2.1% of patients, with cumulative probabilities of 5.5% (95% CI 2.3%–10.7%) and 6.9% (95% CI 3.1%–12.9%) over 10 and 15 years, respectively. Meningiomas were observed in 2 patients (0.4%) at 10 and 12 years after SRS, with a cumulative probability of 3.1% (95% CI 0.6%–9.7%) over 15 years.

CONCLUSIONS

AVM obliteration can be expected after SRS in the majority of the pediatric population, with a relatively low risk of hemorrhage during the latency period. Cyst and benign tumor formation after SRS can be observed in 7% and 3% of patients over 15 years, respectively. Longitudinal surveillance for delayed neoplasia is prudent despite its low incidence.

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Stephen Johnson, Hideyuki Kano, Andrew Faramand, Ajay Niranjan, John C. Flickinger, and L. Dade Lunsford

OBJECTIVE

Optimizing outcomes in the management of patients with vestibular schwannomas (VSs) requires consideration of the patient’s goals. Earlier recognition of VS by imaging has led to an evolution in management. Stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) has emerged as a frequently used strategy designed to reduce management risks, obtain long-term tumor control, and preserve current neurological function. The authors analyzed features that impact hearing preservation rates in patients with serviceable hearing prior to SRS.

METHODS

The study included 307 patients who had serviceable hearing (Gardner-Robertson hearing scale [GR] grade 1 or 2, speech discrimination score ≥ 50%, pure tone average ≤ 50 dB) at the time of SRS. The authors evaluated parameters that included age, tumor volume, hearing status, disequilibrium, tinnitus, Koos class, sex, and tumor margin dose. The Pittsburgh Hearing Prediction Score (PHPS) was evaluated as a method to predict long-term hearing outcomes in these cases.

RESULTS

At a median of 7.6 years after SRS (range 1–23 years), tumor control was achieved in 95% of patients. The overall serviceable hearing preservation rate was 77.8% at 3 years, 68.8% at 5 years, and 51.8% at 10 years. The PHPS assigns a total of 5 points based on patient age (1 point if < 45 years, 2 points if 45–59 years, and 3 points if ≥ 60 years), tumor volume (0 points if < 1.2 cm3, 1 point if ≥ 1.2 cm3), and GR grade (0 points if grade 1 hearing, 1 point if grade 2 hearing) The serviceable hearing preservation rate was 92.3% at 10 years in patients whose score total was 1. In contrast, none of the patients whose PHPS was 5 maintained serviceable hearing at 10 years (p < 0.001).

CONCLUSIONS

SRS resulted in a high rate of long-term tumor control and cranial nerve preservation. The PHPS helped to predict long-term hearing preservation rates in patients who underwent SRS when they still had serviceable hearing. The best long-term hearing preservation rates were found in younger patients with smaller tumor volumes.

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Kyung-Jae Park, Hideyuki Kano, Aditya Iyer, Xiaomin Liu, Daniel A. Tonetti, Craig Lehocky, Andrew Faramand, Ajay Niranjan, John C. Flickinger, Douglas Kondziolka, and L. Dade Lunsford

OBJECTIVE

The authors of this study evaluate the long-term outcomes of stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) for cavernous sinus meningioma (CSM).

METHODS

The authors retrospectively assessed treatment outcomes 5–18 years after SRS in 200 patients with CSM. The median patient age was 57 years (range 22–83 years). In total, 120 (60%) patients underwent Gamma Knife SRS as primary management, 46 (23%) for residual tumors, and 34 (17%) for recurrent tumors after one or more surgical procedures. The median tumor target volume was 7.5 cm3 (range 0.1–37.3 cm3), and the median margin dose was 13.0 Gy (range 10–20 Gy).

RESULTS

Tumor volume regressed in 121 (61%) patients, was unchanged in 49 (25%), and increased over time in 30 (15%) during a median imaging follow-up of 101 months. Actuarial tumor control rates at the 5-, 10-, and 15-year follow-ups were 92%, 84%, and 75%, respectively. Of the 120 patients who had undergone SRS as a primary treatment (primary SRS), tumor progression was observed in 14 (11.7%) patients at a median of 48.9 months (range 4.8–120.0 months) after SRS, and actuarial tumor control rates were 98%, 93%, 85%, and 85% at the 1-, 5-, 10-, and 15-year follow-ups post-SRS. A history of tumor progression after microsurgery was an independent predictor of an unfavorable response to radiosurgery (p = 0.009, HR = 4.161, 95% CI 1.438–12.045). Forty-four (26%) of 170 patients who had presented with at least one cranial nerve (CN) deficit improved after SRS. Development of new CN deficits after initial microsurgical resection was an unfavorable factor for improvement after SRS (p = 0.014, HR = 0.169, 95% CI 0.041–0.702). Fifteen (7.5%) patients experienced permanent CN deficits without evidence of tumor progression at a median onset of 9 months (range 2.3–85 months) after SRS. Patients with larger tumor volumes (≥ 10 cm3) were more likely to develop permanent CN complications (p = 0.046, HR = 3.629, 95% CI 1.026–12.838). Three patients (1.5%) developed delayed pituitary dysfunction after SRS.

CONCLUSIONS

This long-term study showed that Gamma Knife radiosurgery provided long-term tumor control for most patients with CSM. Patients who underwent SRS for progressive tumors after prior microsurgery had a greater chance of tumor growth than the patients without prior surgery or those with residual tumor treated after microsurgery.