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Christopher L. Kalmar, Zachary D. Zapatero, Mychajlo S. Kosyk, Anna R. Carlson, Scott P. Bartlett, Gregory G. Heuer, Alexander M. Tucker, Jesse A. Taylor, Shih-Shan Lang, and Jordan W. Swanson

OBJECTIVE

Children with multiple prematurely fused cranial sutures and those undergoing surgical correction later in life appear to experience worse neurocognitive outcomes, but it is unclear whether higher intracranial pressure (ICP) is implicated in this process. The purpose of this study was to elucidate the effect of age at intervention and number of involved cranial sutures on ICP, as well as to assess which cranial suture closure may be more associated with elevated ICP.

METHODS

The prospective craniofacial database at the authors’ institution was queried for patients undergoing initial corrective surgery for craniosynostosis in whom intraoperative measurement of ICP was obtained prior to craniectomy. Age, involved sutures, and syndromic status were analyzed in the context of measured ICP by using multiple linear regression.

RESULTS

Fifty patients met the inclusion criteria. Age at procedure (p = 0.028, β = +0.060 mm Hg/month) and multiple-suture involvement (p = 0.010, β = +4.175 mm Hg if multisuture) were both significantly implicated in elevated ICP. The actual number of major sutures involved was significantly correlated to ICP (p = 0.001; β = +1.687 mm Hg/suture). Among patients with single-suture involvement, there was an overall significant difference of median ICP across the suture types (p = 0.008), with metopic having the lowest (12.5 mm Hg) and sagittal having the highest (16.0 mm Hg). Patients with multiple-suture involvement had significantly higher ICP (p = 0.003; 18.5 mm Hg). Patients with craniofacial syndromes were 79.3 times more likely to have multiple-suture involvement (p < 0.001). Corrective surgery for craniosynostosis demonstrated significant intraoperative reduction of elevated ICP (all p < 0.050).

CONCLUSIONS

Syndromic status, older age at intervention for craniosynostosis, and multiple premature fusion of cranial sutures were associated with significantly higher ICP.

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Shih-Shan Lang, Petra M. Meier, William Z. Paden, Phillip B. Storm, Gregory G. Heuer, Scott P. Bartlett, Jesse A. Taylor, Jordan W. Swanson, John G. Meara, Mark Proctor, Oluwatimilehin Okunowo, Paul A. Stricker, and on behalf of the Pediatric Craniofacial Collaborative Group

OBJECTIVE

Endoscopic strip craniectomy (ESC) and spring-mediated cranioplasty (SMC) are two minimally invasive techniques for treating sagittal craniosynostosis in early infancy. Data comparing the perioperative outcomes of these two techniques are sparse. Here, the authors hypothesized that outcomes would be similar between patients undergoing SMC and those undergoing ESC and conducted a study using the multicenter Pediatric Craniofacial Surgery Perioperative Registry (PCSPR).

METHODS

The PCSPR was queried for infants under the age of 6 months who had undergone SMC or ESC for sagittal synostosis. SMC patients were propensity score matched 1:2 with ESC patients on age and weight. Primary outcomes were transfusion-free hospital course, intensive care unit (ICU) admission, ICU length of stay (LOS), and hospital length of stay (HLOS). The authors also obtained data points regarding spring removal. Comparisons of outcomes between matched groups were performed with multivariable regression models.

RESULTS

The query returned data from 676 infants who had undergone procedures from June 2012 through September 2019, comprising 580 ESC infants from 32 centers and 96 SMC infants from 5 centers. Ninety-six SMC patients were matched to 192 ESC patients. There was no difference in transfusion-free hospital course between the two groups (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 0.78, 95% CI 0.45–1.35). SMC patients were more likely to be admitted to the ICU (aOR 7.50, 95% CI 3.75–14.99) and had longer ICU LOSs (incident rate ratio [IRR] 1.42, 95% CI 1.37–1.48) and HLOSs (IRR 1.28, 95% CI 1.17–1.39).

CONCLUSIONS

In this multicenter study of ESC and SMC, the authors found similar transfusion-free hospital courses; however, SMC infants had longer ICU LOSs and HLOSs. A trial comparing longer-term outcomes in SMC versus ESC would further define the roles of these two approaches in the management of sagittal craniosynostosis.

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Shih-Shan Lang, Amber Valeri, Phillip B. Storm, Gregory G. Heuer, Alexander M. Tucker, Benjamin C. Kennedy, Benjamin W. Kozyak, Anjuli Sinha, Todd J. Kilbaugh, and Jimmy W. Huh

OBJECTIVE

Single-ventricle congenital heart disease (CHD) in pediatric patients with Glenn and Fontan physiology represents a unique physiology requiring the surgical diversion of the systemic venous return from the superior vena cava (Glenn) and then the inferior vena cava (Fontan) directly to the pulmonary arteries. Because many of these patients are on chronic anticoagulation therapy and may have right-to-left shunts, arrhythmias, or lymphatic disorders that predispose them to bleeding and/or clotting, they are at risk of experiencing neurological injury requiring intubation and positive pressure ventilation, which can significantly hamper pulmonary blood flow and cardiac output. The aim of this study was to describe the complex neurological and cardiopulmonary interactions of these pediatric patients after acute central nervous system (CNS) injury.

METHODS

The authors retrospectively analyzed the records of pediatric patients who had been admitted to a quaternary children’s hospital with CHD palliated to bidirectional Glenn (BDG) or Fontan circulation and acute CNS injury and who had undergone intubation and mechanical ventilation. Patients who had been admitted from 2005 to 2019 were included in the study. Clinical characteristics, surgical outcomes, cardiovascular and pulmonary data, and intracranial pressure data were collected and analyzed.

RESULTS

Nine pediatric single-ventricle patients met the study inclusion criteria. All had undergone the BDG procedure, and the majority (78%) were status post Fontan palliation. The mean age was 7.4 years (range 1.3–17.3 years). At the time of acute CNS injury, which included traumatic brain injury, intracranial hemorrhage, and cerebral infarct, the median time interval from the most recent cardiac surgical procedure was 3 years (range 2 weeks–11 years). Maintaining normocarbia to mild hypercarbia for most patients during intubation periods did not cause neurological deterioration, and hemodynamic profiles were more favorable as compared to periods of hypocarbia. Hypocarbia was associated with unfavorable hemodynamics but was necessary to decrease intracranial hypertension. Most patients were managed using low mean airway pressure (MAWP) in order to minimize the impact on preload and cardiac output.

CONCLUSIONS

The authors highlight the complex neurological and cardiopulmonary interactions with respect to partial pressure of arterial CO2 (PaCO2) and MAWP when pediatric CHD patients with single-ventricle physiology require mechanical ventilation. The study data demonstrated that tight control of PaCO2 and minimizing MAWP with the goal of early extubation may be beneficial in this population. A multidisciplinary team of pediatric critical care intensivists, cardiac intensivists and anesthesiologists, and pediatric neurosurgeons and neurologists are recommended to ensure the best possible outcomes.

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Brooke Sadler, Alex Skidmore, Jordan Gewirtz, Richard C. E. Anderson, Gabe Haller, Laurie L. Ackerman, P. David Adelson, Raheel Ahmed, Gregory W. Albert, Philipp R. Aldana, Tord D. Alden, Christine Averill, Lissa C. Baird, David F. Bauer, Tammy Bethel-Anderson, Karin S. Bierbrauer, Christopher M. Bonfield, Douglas L. Brockmeyer, Joshua J. Chern, Daniel E. Couture, David J. Daniels, Brian J. Dlouhy, Susan R. Durham, Richard G. Ellenbogen, Ramin Eskandari, Herbert E. Fuchs, Timothy M. George, Gerald A. Grant, Patrick C. Graupman, Stephanie Greene, Jeffrey P. Greenfield, Naina L. Gross, Daniel J. Guillaume, Todd C. Hankinson, Gregory G. Heuer, Mark Iantosca, Bermans J. Iskandar, Eric M. Jackson, Andrew H. Jea, James M. Johnston, Robert F. Keating, Nickalus Khan, Mark D. Krieger, Jeffrey R. Leonard, Cormac O. Maher, Francesco T. Mangano, Timothy B. Mapstone, J. Gordon McComb, Sean D. McEvoy, Thanda Meehan, Arnold H. Menezes, Michael Muhlbauer, W. Jerry Oakes, Greg Olavarria, Brent R. O’Neill, John Ragheb, Nathan R. Selden, Manish N. Shah, Chevis N. Shannon, Jodi Smith, Matthew D. Smyth, Scellig S. D. Stone, Gerald F. Tuite, Scott D. Wait, John C. Wellons III, William E. Whitehead, Tae Sung Park, David D. Limbrick Jr., and Jennifer M. Strahle

OBJECTIVE

Scoliosis is common in patients with Chiari malformation type I (CM-I)–associated syringomyelia. While it is known that treatment with posterior fossa decompression (PFD) may reduce the progression of scoliosis, it is unknown if decompression with duraplasty is superior to extradural decompression.

METHODS

A large multicenter retrospective and prospective registry of 1257 pediatric patients with CM-I (tonsils ≥ 5 mm below the foramen magnum) and syrinx (≥ 3 mm in axial width) was reviewed for patients with scoliosis who underwent PFD with or without duraplasty.

RESULTS

In total, 422 patients who underwent PFD had a clinical diagnosis of scoliosis. Of these patients, 346 underwent duraplasty, 51 received extradural decompression alone, and 25 were excluded because no data were available on the type of PFD. The mean clinical follow-up was 2.6 years. Overall, there was no difference in subsequent occurrence of fusion or proportion of patients with curve progression between those with and those without a duraplasty. However, after controlling for age, sex, preoperative curve magnitude, syrinx length, syrinx width, and holocord syrinx, extradural decompression was associated with curve progression > 10°, but not increased occurrence of fusion. Older age at PFD and larger preoperative curve magnitude were independently associated with subsequent occurrence of fusion. Greater syrinx reduction after PFD of either type was associated with decreased occurrence of fusion.

CONCLUSIONS

In patients with CM-I, syrinx, and scoliosis undergoing PFD, there was no difference in subsequent occurrence of surgical correction of scoliosis between those receiving a duraplasty and those with an extradural decompression. However, after controlling for preoperative factors including age, syrinx characteristics, and curve magnitude, patients treated with duraplasty were less likely to have curve progression than patients treated with extradural decompression. Further study is needed to evaluate the role of duraplasty in curve stabilization after PFD.

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Brooke Sadler, Alex Skidmore, Jordan Gewirtz, Richard C. E. Anderson, Gabe Haller, Laurie L. Ackerman, P. David Adelson, Raheel Ahmed, Gregory W. Albert, Philipp R. Aldana, Tord D. Alden, Christine Averill, Lissa C. Baird, David F. Bauer, Tammy Bethel-Anderson, Karin S. Bierbrauer, Christopher M. Bonfield, Douglas L. Brockmeyer, Joshua J. Chern, Daniel E. Couture, David J. Daniels, Brian J. Dlouhy, Susan R. Durham, Richard G. Ellenbogen, Ramin Eskandari, Herbert E. Fuchs, Timothy M. George, Gerald A. Grant, Patrick C. Graupman, Stephanie Greene, Jeffrey P. Greenfield, Naina L. Gross, Daniel J. Guillaume, Todd C. Hankinson, Gregory G. Heuer, Mark Iantosca, Bermans J. Iskandar, Eric M. Jackson, Andrew H. Jea, James M. Johnston, Robert F. Keating, Nickalus Khan, Mark D. Krieger, Jeffrey R. Leonard, Cormac O. Maher, Francesco T. Mangano, Timothy B. Mapstone, J. Gordon McComb, Sean D. McEvoy, Thanda Meehan, Arnold H. Menezes, Michael Muhlbauer, W. Jerry Oakes, Greg Olavarria, Brent R. O’Neill, John Ragheb, Nathan R. Selden, Manish N. Shah, Chevis N. Shannon, Jodi Smith, Matthew D. Smyth, Scellig S. D. Stone, Gerald F. Tuite, Scott D. Wait, John C. Wellons III, William E. Whitehead, Tae Sung Park, David D. Limbrick Jr., and Jennifer M. Strahle

OBJECTIVE

Scoliosis is common in patients with Chiari malformation type I (CM-I)–associated syringomyelia. While it is known that treatment with posterior fossa decompression (PFD) may reduce the progression of scoliosis, it is unknown if decompression with duraplasty is superior to extradural decompression.

METHODS

A large multicenter retrospective and prospective registry of 1257 pediatric patients with CM-I (tonsils ≥ 5 mm below the foramen magnum) and syrinx (≥ 3 mm in axial width) was reviewed for patients with scoliosis who underwent PFD with or without duraplasty.

RESULTS

In total, 422 patients who underwent PFD had a clinical diagnosis of scoliosis. Of these patients, 346 underwent duraplasty, 51 received extradural decompression alone, and 25 were excluded because no data were available on the type of PFD. The mean clinical follow-up was 2.6 years. Overall, there was no difference in subsequent occurrence of fusion or proportion of patients with curve progression between those with and those without a duraplasty. However, after controlling for age, sex, preoperative curve magnitude, syrinx length, syrinx width, and holocord syrinx, extradural decompression was associated with curve progression > 10°, but not increased occurrence of fusion. Older age at PFD and larger preoperative curve magnitude were independently associated with subsequent occurrence of fusion. Greater syrinx reduction after PFD of either type was associated with decreased occurrence of fusion.

CONCLUSIONS

In patients with CM-I, syrinx, and scoliosis undergoing PFD, there was no difference in subsequent occurrence of surgical correction of scoliosis between those receiving a duraplasty and those with an extradural decompression. However, after controlling for preoperative factors including age, syrinx characteristics, and curve magnitude, patients treated with duraplasty were less likely to have curve progression than patients treated with extradural decompression. Further study is needed to evaluate the role of duraplasty in curve stabilization after PFD.

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Philippe De Vloo, Luc Joyeux, Gregory G. Heuer, N. Scott Adzick, Jan Deprest, and Frank Van Calenbergh

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Alexander T. Yahanda, P. David Adelson, S. Hassan A. Akbari, Gregory W. Albert, Philipp R. Aldana, Tord D. Alden, Richard C. E. Anderson, David F. Bauer, Tammy Bethel-Anderson, Douglas L. Brockmeyer, Joshua J. Chern, Daniel E. Couture, David J. Daniels, Brian J. Dlouhy, Susan R. Durham, Richard G. Ellenbogen, Ramin Eskandari, Timothy M. George, Gerald A. Grant, Patrick C. Graupman, Stephanie Greene, Jeffrey P. Greenfield, Naina L. Gross, Daniel J. Guillaume, Todd C. Hankinson, Gregory G. Heuer, Mark Iantosca, Bermans J. Iskandar, Eric M. Jackson, James M. Johnston, Robert F. Keating, Mark D. Krieger, Jeffrey R. Leonard, Cormac O. Maher, Francesco T. Mangano, J. Gordon McComb, Sean D. McEvoy, Thanda Meehan, Arnold H. Menezes, Brent R. O’Neill, Greg Olavarria, John Ragheb, Nathan R. Selden, Manish N. Shah, Chevis N. Shannon, Joshua S. Shimony, Matthew D. Smyth, Scellig S. D. Stone, Jennifer M. Strahle, James C. Torner, Gerald F. Tuite, Scott D. Wait, John C. Wellons III, William E. Whitehead, Tae Sung Park, and David D. Limbrick Jr.

OBJECTIVE

Posterior fossa decompression with duraplasty (PFDD) is commonly performed for Chiari I malformation (CM-I) with syringomyelia (SM). However, complication rates associated with various dural graft types are not well established. The objective of this study was to elucidate complication rates within 6 months of surgery among autograft and commonly used nonautologous grafts for pediatric patients who underwent PFDD for CM-I/SM.

METHODS

The Park-Reeves Syringomyelia Research Consortium database was queried for pediatric patients who had undergone PFDD for CM-I with SM. All patients had tonsillar ectopia ≥ 5 mm, syrinx diameter ≥ 3 mm, and ≥ 6 months of postoperative follow-up after PFDD. Complications (e.g., pseudomeningocele, CSF leak, meningitis, and hydrocephalus) and postoperative changes in syrinx size, headaches, and neck pain were compared for autograft versus nonautologous graft.

RESULTS

A total of 781 PFDD cases were analyzed (359 autograft, 422 nonautologous graft). Nonautologous grafts included bovine pericardium (n = 63), bovine collagen (n = 225), synthetic (n = 99), and human cadaveric allograft (n = 35). Autograft (103/359, 28.7%) had a similar overall complication rate compared to nonautologous graft (143/422, 33.9%) (p = 0.12). However, nonautologous graft was associated with significantly higher rates of pseudomeningocele (p = 0.04) and meningitis (p < 0.001). The higher rate of meningitis was influenced particularly by the higher rate of chemical meningitis (p = 0.002) versus infectious meningitis (p = 0.132). Among 4 types of nonautologous grafts, there were differences in complication rates (p = 0.02), including chemical meningitis (p = 0.01) and postoperative nausea/vomiting (p = 0.03). Allograft demonstrated the lowest complication rates overall (14.3%) and yielded significantly fewer complications compared to bovine collagen (p = 0.02) and synthetic (p = 0.003) grafts. Synthetic graft yielded higher complication rates than autograft (p = 0.01). Autograft and nonautologous graft resulted in equal improvements in syrinx size (p < 0.0001). No differences were found for postoperative changes in headaches or neck pain.

CONCLUSIONS

In the largest multicenter cohort to date, complication rates for dural autograft and nonautologous graft are similar after PFDD for CM-I/SM, although nonautologous graft results in higher rates of pseudomeningocele and meningitis. Rates of meningitis differ among nonautologous graft types. Autograft and nonautologous graft are equivalent for reducing syrinx size, headaches, and neck pain.

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Shih-Shan Lang, Amber Valeri, Bingqing Zhang, Phillip B. Storm, Gregory G. Heuer, Lauren Leavesley, Richard Bellah, Chong Tae Kim, Heather Griffis, Todd J. Kilbaugh, and Jimmy W. Huh

OBJECTIVE

Head of bed (HOB) elevation to 30° after severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) has become standard positioning across all age groups. This maneuver is thought to minimize the risk of elevated ICP in the hopes of decreasing cerebral blood and fluid volume and increasing cerebral venous outflow with improvement in jugular venous drainage. However, HOB elevation is based on adult population data due to a current paucity of pediatric TBI studies regarding HOB management. In this prospective study of pediatric patients with severe TBI, the authors investigated the role of different head positions on intracranial pressure (ICP), cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP), and cerebral venous outflow through the internal jugular veins (IJVs) on postinjury days 2 and 3 because these time periods are considered the peak risk for intracranial hypertension.

METHODS

Patients younger than 18 years with a Glasgow Coma Scale score ≤ 8 after severe TBI were prospectively recruited at a single quaternary pediatric intensive care unit. All patients had an ICP monitor placed, and no other neurosurgical procedure was performed. On the 2nd and 3rd days postinjury, the degree of HOB elevation was varied between 0° (head-flat or horizontal), 10°, 20°, 30°, 40°, and 50° while ICP, CPP, and bilateral IJV blood flows were recorded.

RESULTS

Eighteen pediatric patients with severe TBI were analyzed. On each postinjury day, 13 of the 18 patients had at least 1 optimal HOB position (the position that simultaneously demonstrated the lowest ICP and the highest CPP). Six patients on each postinjury day had 30° as the optimal HOB position, with only 2 being the same patient on both postinjury days. On postinjury day 2, 3 patients had more than 1 optimal HOB position, while 5 patients did not have an optimal position. On postinjury day 3, 2 patients had more than 1 optimal HOB position while 5 patients did not have an optimal position. Interestingly, 0° (head-flat or horizontal) was the optimal HOB position in 2 patients on postinjury day 2 and 3 patients on postinjury day 3. The optimal HOB position demonstrated lower right IJV blood flow than a nonoptimal position on both postinjury days 2 (p = 0.0023) and 3 (p = 0.0033). There was no significant difference between optimal and nonoptimal HOB positions in the left IJV blood flow.

CONCLUSIONS

In pediatric patients with severe TBI, the authors demonstrated that the optimal HOB position (which decreases ICP and improves CPP) is not always at 30°. Instead, the optimal HOB should be individualized for each pediatric TBI patient on a daily basis.

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Andrew T. Hale, P. David Adelson, Gregory W. Albert, Philipp R. Aldana, Tord D. Alden, Richard C. E. Anderson, David F. Bauer, Christopher M. Bonfield, Douglas L. Brockmeyer, Joshua J. Chern, Daniel E. Couture, David J. Daniels, Susan R. Durham, Richard G. Ellenbogen, Ramin Eskandari, Timothy M. George, Gerald A. Grant, Patrick C. Graupman, Stephanie Greene, Jeffrey P. Greenfield, Naina L. Gross, Daniel J. Guillaume, Gregory G. Heuer, Mark Iantosca, Bermans J. Iskandar, Eric M. Jackson, James M. Johnston, Robert F. Keating, Jeffrey R. Leonard, Cormac O. Maher, Francesco T. Mangano, J. Gordon McComb, Thanda Meehan, Arnold H. Menezes, Brent O’Neill, Greg Olavarria, Tae Sung Park, John Ragheb, Nathan R. Selden, Manish N. Shah, Matthew D. Smyth, Scellig S. D. Stone, Jennifer M. Strahle, Scott D. Wait, John C. Wellons, William E. Whitehead, Chevis N. Shannon, David D. Limbrick Jr., and for the Park-Reeves Syringomyelia Research Consortium Investigators

OBJECTIVE

Factors associated with syrinx size in pediatric patients undergoing posterior fossa decompression (PFD) or PFD with duraplasty (PFDD) for Chiari malformation type I (CM-I) with syringomyelia (SM; CM-I+SM) are not well established.

METHODS

Using the Park-Reeves Syringomyelia Research Consortium registry, the authors analyzed variables associated with syrinx radiological outcomes in patients (< 20 years old at the time of surgery) with CM-I+SM undergoing PFD or PFDD. Syrinx resolution was defined as an anteroposterior (AP) diameter of ≤ 2 mm or ≤ 3 mm or a reduction in AP diameter of ≥ 50%. Syrinx regression or progression was defined using 1) change in syrinx AP diameter (≥ 1 mm), or 2) change in syrinx length (craniocaudal, ≥ 1 vertebral level). Syrinx stability was defined as a < 1-mm change in syrinx AP diameter and no change in syrinx length.

RESULTS

The authors identified 380 patients with CM-I+SM who underwent PFD or PFDD. Cox proportional hazards modeling revealed younger age at surgery and PFDD as being independently associated with syrinx resolution, defined as a ≤ 2-mm or ≤ 3-mm AP diameter or ≥ 50% reduction in AP diameter. Radiological syrinx resolution was associated with improvement in headache (p < 0.005) and neck pain (p < 0.011) after PFD or PFDD. Next, PFDD (p = 0.005), scoliosis (p = 0.007), and syrinx location across multiple spinal segments (p = 0.001) were associated with syrinx diameter regression, whereas increased preoperative frontal-occipital horn ratio (FOHR; p = 0.007) and syrinx location spanning multiple spinal segments (p = 0.04) were associated with syrinx length regression. Scoliosis (HR 0.38 [95% CI 0.16–0.91], p = 0.03) and smaller syrinx diameter (5.82 ± 3.38 vs 7.86 ± 3.05 mm; HR 0.60 [95% CI 0.34–1.03], p = 0.002) were associated with syrinx diameter stability, whereas shorter preoperative syrinx length (5.75 ± 4.01 vs 9.65 ± 4.31 levels; HR 0.21 [95% CI 0.12–0.38], p = 0.0001) and smaller pB-C2 distance (6.86 ± 1.27 vs 7.18 ± 1.38 mm; HR 1.44 [95% CI 1.02–2.05], p = 0.04) were associated with syrinx length stability. Finally, younger age at surgery (8.19 ± 5.02 vs 10.29 ± 4.25 years; HR 1.89 [95% CI 1.31–3.04], p = 0.01) was associated with syrinx diameter progression, whereas increased postoperative syrinx diameter (6.73 ± 3.64 vs 3.97 ± 3.07 mm; HR 3.10 [95% CI 1.67–5.76], p = 0.003), was associated with syrinx length progression. PFD versus PFDD was not associated with syrinx progression or reoperation rate.

CONCLUSIONS

These data suggest that PFDD and age are independently associated with radiological syrinx improvement, although forthcoming results from the PFDD versus PFD randomized controlled trial (NCT02669836, clinicaltrials.gov) will best answer this question.

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Shih-Shan Lang, Omaditya Khanna, Natalie J. Atkin, Judy E. Palma, Ian Yuan, Phillip B. Storm, Gregory G. Heuer, Benjamin Kennedy, Angela J. Waanders, Yimei Li, and Jimmy W. Huh

OBJECTIVE

The lack of a continuous, noninvasive modality for monitoring intracranial pressure (ICP) is a major obstacle in the care of pediatric patients with hydrocephalus who are at risk for intracranial hypertension. Intracranial hypertension can lead to cerebral ischemia and brain tissue hypoxia. In this study, the authors evaluated the use of near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) to measure regional cerebral oxygen saturation (rSO2) in symptomatic pediatric patients with hydrocephalus concerning for elevated ICP.

METHODS

The authors evaluated the NIRS rSO2 trends in pediatric patients presenting with acute hydrocephalus and clinical symptoms of intracranial hypertension. NIRS rSO2 values were recorded hourly before and after neurosurgical intervention. To test for significance between preoperative and postoperative values, the authors constructed a linear regression model with the rSO2 values as the outcome and pre- and postsurgery cohorts as the independent variable, adjusted for age and sex, and used the generalized estimating equation method to account for within-subject correlation.

RESULTS

Twenty-two pediatric patients underwent NIRS rSO2 monitoring before and after CSF diversion surgery. The mean durations of NIRS rSO2 recording pre- and postoperatively were 13.95 and 26.82 hours, respectively. The mean pre- and postoperative rSO2 values were 73.84% and 80.65%, respectively, and the adjusted mean difference estimated from the regression model was 5.98% (adjusted p < 0.0001), suggestive of improved cerebral oxygenation after definitive neurosurgical CSF diversion treatment. Postoperatively, all patients returned to baseline neurological status with no clinical symptoms of elevated ICP.

CONCLUSIONS

Cerebral oxygenation trends measured by NIRS in symptomatic pediatric hydrocephalus patients with intracranial hypertension generally improve after CSF diversion surgery.