Browse

You are looking at 1 - 10 of 20 items for

  • Refine by Access: all x
  • By Author: Zanaty, Mario x
Clear All
Restricted access

Nikolaos Mouchtouris, David Hasan, Edgar A. Samaniego, Fadi Al Saiegh, Ahmad Sweid, Rawad Abbas, Kareem El Naamani, Rizwan Tahir, Mario Zanaty, Omaditya Khanna, Nohra Chalouhi, Stavropoula Tjoumakaris, M. Reid Gooch, Robert Rosenwasser, and Pascal Jabbour

OBJECTIVE

Wide-neck bifurcation cerebral aneurysms have historically required either clip ligation or stent- or balloon-assisted coil embolization. This predicament led to the development of the Woven EndoBridge (WEB) aneurysm embolization system, a self-expanding mesh device that achieves intrasaccular flow disruption and does not require antithrombotic medications. The authors report their operative experience and 6-month follow-up occlusion outcomes with the first 115 aneurysms they treated via WEB embolization.

METHODS

The authors reviewed the first 115 cerebral aneurysms they treated by WEB embolization after FDA approval of the WEB embolization device (from February 2019 to January 2021). Data were collected on patient demographics and clinical presentation, aneurysm characteristics, procedural details, postembolization angiographic contrast stasis, and functional outcomes.

RESULTS

A total of 110 patients and 115 aneurysms were included in our study (34 ruptured and 81 unruptured aneurysms). WEB embolization was successful in 106 (92.2%) aneurysms, with a complication occurring in 6 (5.5%) patients. Contrast clearance was seen in the arterial phase in 14 (12.2%) aneurysms, in the capillary phase in 16 (13.9%), in the venous phase in 63 (54.8%), and no contrast was seen in 13 (11.3%) of the aneurysms studied. Follow-up angiography was performed on 60 (52.6%) of the aneurysms, with complete occlusion in 38 (63.3%), neck remnant in 14 (23.3%), and aneurysmal remnant in 8 (13.3%). Six (5.5%) patients required re-treatment for persistent aneurysmal residual on follow-up angiography.

CONCLUSIONS

The WEB device has been successfully used for the treatment of both unruptured and ruptured wide-neck bifurcation aneurysms by achieving intrasaccular flow diversion. Here, the authors have shared their experience with its unique technical considerations and device size selection, as well as critically reviewed complications and aneurysm occlusion rates.

Open access

Pranish A. Kantak, Sarv Priya, Girish Bathla, Mario Zanaty, and Patrick W. Hitchon

BACKGROUND

Rotational vertebral artery insufficiency (RVAI), also known as bow hunter’s syndrome, is an uncommon cause of vertebrobasilar insufficiency that leads to signs of posterior circulation ischemia during head rotation. RVAI can be subdivided on the basis of the anatomical location of vertebral artery compression into atlantoaxial RVAI (pathology at C1-C2) or subaxial RVAI (pathology below C2). Typically, RVAI is only seen with contralateral vertebral artery pathologies, such as atherosclerosis, hypoplasia, or morphological atypia.

OBSERVATIONS

The authors present a unique case of atlantoaxial RVAI due to rotational instability, causing marked subluxation of the C1-C2 facet joints. This case is unique in both the mechanism of compression and the lack of contralateral vertebral artery pathology. The patient was successfully treated with posterior C1-C2 instrumentation and fusion.

LESSONS

When evaluating patients for RVAI, neurosurgeons should be aware of the variety of pathological causes, including rotational instability from facet joint subluxation. Due to the heterogeneous nature of the pathologies causing RVAI, care must be taken to decide if conservative management or surgical correction is the right course of action. Because of this heterogeneous nature, there is no set guideline for the treatment or management of RVAI.

Free access

Jorge A. Roa, Mario Zanaty, Daizo Ishii, Yongjun Lu, David K. Kung, Robert M. Starke, James C. Torner, Pascal M. Jabbour, Edgar A. Samaniego, and David M. Hasan

OBJECTIVE

Inflammation plays an integral role in the formation, growth, and progression to rupture of unruptured intracranial aneurysms (UIAs). Animal and human studies have suggested that, due to its antiinflammatory effect, aspirin (ASA) may decrease the risks of growth and rupture of UIAs. High-resolution vessel wall imaging (HR-VWI) has emerged as a noninvasive method to assess vessel wall inflammation and UIA instability. To the authors’ knowledge, to date no studies have found a significant correlation between patient use of ASA and contrast enhancement of UIAs on HR-VWI.

METHODS

The University of Iowa HR-VWI Project database was analyzed. This database is a compilation of data on patients with UIAs who prospectively underwent HR-VWI on a 3T Siemens MRI scanner. The presence of aneurysmal wall enhancement was objectively defined using the aneurysm-to–pituitary stalk contrast ratio (CRstalk). This ratio was calculated by measuring the maximal signal intensity in the aneurysmal wall and the pituitary stalk on postcontrast T1-weighted images. Data on aneurysm size, morphology, and location and patient demographics and comorbidities were collected. Use of ASA was defined as daily intake of ≥ 81 mg during the previous 6 months or longer. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to determine factors independently associated with increased contrast enhancement of UIAs on HR-VWI.

RESULTS

In total, 74 patients harboring 96 UIAs were included in the study. The mean patient age was 64.7 ± 12.4 years, and 60 patients (81%) were women. Multivariate analysis showed that age (OR 1.12, 95% CI 1.05–1.19), aneurysm size ≥ 7 mm (OR 21.3, 95% CI 4.88–92.8), and location in the anterior communicating, posterior communicating, and basilar arteries (OR 10.7, 95% CI 2.45–46.5) were significantly associated with increased wall enhancement on HR-VWI. On the other hand, use of ASA was significantly associated with decreased aneurysmal wall enhancement on HR-VWI (OR 0.22, 95% CI 0.06–0.83, p = 0.026).

CONCLUSIONS

The study results establish a correlation between use of ASA daily for ≥ 6 months and significant decreases in wall enhancement of UIAs on HR-VWI. The findings also demonstrate that detection of wall enhancement using HR-MRI may be a valuable noninvasive method for assessing aneurysmal wall inflammation and UIA instability.

Free access

Jorge A. Roa, Mario Zanaty, Daizo Ishii, Yongjun Lu, David K. Kung, Robert M. Starke, James C. Torner, Pascal M. Jabbour, Edgar A. Samaniego, and David M. Hasan

OBJECTIVE

Inflammation plays an integral role in the formation, growth, and progression to rupture of unruptured intracranial aneurysms (UIAs). Animal and human studies have suggested that, due to its antiinflammatory effect, aspirin (ASA) may decrease the risks of growth and rupture of UIAs. High-resolution vessel wall imaging (HR-VWI) has emerged as a noninvasive method to assess vessel wall inflammation and UIA instability. To the authors’ knowledge, to date no studies have found a significant correlation between patient use of ASA and contrast enhancement of UIAs on HR-VWI.

METHODS

The University of Iowa HR-VWI Project database was analyzed. This database is a compilation of data on patients with UIAs who prospectively underwent HR-VWI on a 3T Siemens MRI scanner. The presence of aneurysmal wall enhancement was objectively defined using the aneurysm-to–pituitary stalk contrast ratio (CRstalk). This ratio was calculated by measuring the maximal signal intensity in the aneurysmal wall and the pituitary stalk on postcontrast T1-weighted images. Data on aneurysm size, morphology, and location and patient demographics and comorbidities were collected. Use of ASA was defined as daily intake of ≥ 81 mg during the previous 6 months or longer. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to determine factors independently associated with increased contrast enhancement of UIAs on HR-VWI.

RESULTS

In total, 74 patients harboring 96 UIAs were included in the study. The mean patient age was 64.7 ± 12.4 years, and 60 patients (81%) were women. Multivariate analysis showed that age (OR 1.12, 95% CI 1.05–1.19), aneurysm size ≥ 7 mm (OR 21.3, 95% CI 4.88–92.8), and location in the anterior communicating, posterior communicating, and basilar arteries (OR 10.7, 95% CI 2.45–46.5) were significantly associated with increased wall enhancement on HR-VWI. On the other hand, use of ASA was significantly associated with decreased aneurysmal wall enhancement on HR-VWI (OR 0.22, 95% CI 0.06–0.83, p = 0.026).

CONCLUSIONS

The study results establish a correlation between use of ASA daily for ≥ 6 months and significant decreases in wall enhancement of UIAs on HR-VWI. The findings also demonstrate that detection of wall enhancement using HR-MRI may be a valuable noninvasive method for assessing aneurysmal wall inflammation and UIA instability.

Free access

Rafael Martinez-Perez, Guru Dutta-Satyarthee, Ezequiel García-Ballestas, Amit Agrawal, and Luis Rafael Moscote-Salazar

Free access

Jorge A. Roa, Mario Zanaty, Carlos Osorno-Cruz, Daizo Ishii, Girish Bathla, Santiago Ortega-Gutierrez, David M. Hasan, and Edgar A. Samaniego

OBJECTIVE

High-resolution vessel wall imaging (HR-VWI) has emerged as a valuable tool in assessing unruptured intracranial aneurysms (UIAs). There is no standardized method to quantify contrast enhancement of the aneurysm wall. Contrast enhancement can be objectively measured as signal intensity (SI) or subjectively adjudicated. In this study, the authors compared the different methods to quantify wall enhancement of UIAs and determined the sensitivity and specificity of each method as a surrogate of aneurysm instability. They also compared SI quantification between scanners from different manufacturers.

METHODS

The University of Iowa HR-VWI Project database was analyzed. This database compiles patients with UIAs who prospectively underwent HR-VWI using a 3T MRI scanner. The mean and maximal SI values of the aneurysm wall, pituitary stalk, and genu of the corpus callosum were used to compare 3 different measurement methods: 1) aneurysm enhancement ratio AER = (SIwall post − SIwall pre)/SIwall pre; 2) aneurysm-to–pituitary stalk contrast ratio CRstalk = SIwall post/SIstalk post; and 3) aneurysm enhancement index AEI = ([SIwall post/SIbrain post] − [SIwall pre/SIbrain pre])/(SIwall pre/SIbrain pre) (where “pre” indicates precontrast images and “post” indicates postcontrast images). Size ≥ 7 mm was used as a surrogate of aneurysm instability for receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis. To determine if the objective quantification of SI varies among scanners from different manufacturers, 9 UIAs underwent the same HR-VWI protocol using a 3T General Electric (GE) scanner and a 3T Siemens scanner. Three UIAs also underwent a third scanning procedure on a unit with a different magnet strength (7T GE).

RESULTS

Eighty patients with 102 UIAs were included in the study. The mean age was 64.5 ± 12.2 years, and 64 (80%) patients were women. UIAs ≥ 7 mm had significantly higher SIs than smaller UIAs (< 7 mm): AER = 0.82 vs 0.49, p < 0.001; CRstalk = 0.84 vs 0.61, p < 0.001; and AEI = 0.81 vs 0.48, p < 0.001. ROC curves demonstrated optimal sensitivity of 81.5% for CRstalk ≥ 0.60, 75.9% for AEI ≥ 0.50, and 74.1% for AER ≥ 0.49. Intermanufacturer correlation between 3T GE and 3T Siemens MRI scanners for CRstalk using mean and maximal SI values was excellent (Pearson coefficients > 0.80, p < 0.001). A similar correlation was identified among the 3 UIAs that underwent 7T imaging.

CONCLUSIONS

CRstalk using maximal SI values was the most reliable objective method to quantify enhancement of UIAs on HR-VWI. The same ratios were obtained between different manufacturers and on scans obtained using magnets of different strengths.

Free access

Mario Zanaty, Jorge A. Roa, Daichi Nakagawa, Nohra Chalouhi, Lauren Allan, Sami Al Kasab, Kaustubh Limaye, Daizo Ishii, Edgar A. Samaniego, Pascal Jabbour, James C. Torner, and David M. Hasan

OBJECTIVE

Aspirin has emerged as a potential agent in the prevention of rupture of intracranial aneurysms (IAs). In this study, the authors’ goal was to test if aspirin is protective against aneurysm growth in patients harboring multiple IAs ≤ 5 mm.

METHODS

The authors performed a retrospective review of a prospectively maintained database covering the period July 2009 through January 2019. Patients’ data were included if the following criteria were met: 1) the patient harbored multiple IAs; 2) designated primary aneurysms were treated by surgical/endovascular means; 3) the remaining aneurysms were observed for growth; and 4) a follow-up period of at least 5 years after the initial treatment was available. Demographics, earlier medical history, the rupture status of designated primary aneurysms, aneurysms’ angiographic features, and treatment modalities were gathered.

RESULTS

The authors identified 146 patients harboring a total of 375 IAs. At the initial encounter, 146 aneurysms were treated and the remaining 229 aneurysms (2–5 mm) were observed. During the follow-up period, 24 (10.48%) of 229 aneurysms grew. All aneurysms observed to grow later underwent treatment. None of the observed aneurysms ruptured. Multivariate analysis showed that aspirin was significantly associated with a decreased rate of growth (odds ratio [OR] 0.19, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.05–0.63). Variables associated with an increased rate of growth included hypertension (OR 14.38, 95% CI 3.83–53.94), drug abuse (OR 11.26, 95% CI 1.21–104.65), history of polycystic kidney disease (OR 9.48, 95% CI 1.51–59.35), and subarachnoid hemorrhage at presentation (OR 5.91, 95% CI 1.83–19.09).

CONCLUSIONS

In patients with multiple IAs, aspirin significantly decreased the rate of aneurysm growth over time. Additional prospective interventional studies are needed to validate these findings.

Restricted access

Mario Zanaty, Susanna Howard, Jorge A. Roa, Carlos M. Alvarez, David K. Kung, David J. McCarthy, Edgar A. Samaniego, Daichi Nakagawa, Robert M. Starke, Kaustubh Limaye, Sami Al Kasab, Nohra Chalouhi, Pascal Jabbour, James Torner, Daniel Tranel, and David Hasan

OBJECTIVE

Revascularization of a symptomatic, medically refractory, cervical chronically occluded internal carotid artery (COICA) using endovascular techniques (ETs) has surfaced as a viable alternative to extracranial-intracranial bypass. The authors aimed to assess the safety, success, and neurocognitive outcomes of recanalization of COICA using ETs or hybrid treatment (ET plus carotid endarterectomy) and to identify candidate radiological markers that could predict success.

METHODS

The authors performed a retrospective analysis of their prospectively collected institutional database and used their previously published COICA classification to assess the potential benefits of ETs or hybrid surgery to revascularize symptomatic patients with COICA. Subjects who had undergone CT perfusion (CTP) imaging and Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) testing, both pre- and postprocedure, were included. The authors then performed a review of the literature on patients with COICA to further evaluate the success and safety of these treatment alternatives.

RESULTS

The single-center study revealed 28 subjects who had undergone revascularization of symptomatic COICA. Five subjects had CTP imaging and MoCA testing pre- and postrevascularization and thus were included in the study. All 5 patients had very large penumbra involving the entire hemisphere supplied by the ipsilateral COICA, which resolved postoperatively. Significant improvement in neurocognitive outcome was demonstrated by MoCA testing after treatment (preprocedure: 19.8 ± 2.4, postprocedure: 27 ± 1.6; p = 0.0038). Moreover, successful revascularization of COICA led to full restoration of cerebral hemodynamics in all cases. Review of the literature identified a total of 333 patients with COICA. Of these, 232 (70%) showed successful recanalization after ETs or hybrid surgery, with low major and minor complication rates (3.9% and 2.7%, respectively).

CONCLUSIONS

ETs and hybrid surgery are safe and effective alternatives to revascularize patients with symptomatic COICA. CTP imaging could be used as a radiological marker to assess cerebral hemodynamics and predict the success of revascularization. Improvement in CTP parameters is associated with significant improvement in neurocognitive functions.

Full access

Daichi Nakagawa, Kohsuke Kudo, Olatilewa Awe, Mario Zanaty, Yasunori Nagahama, Cameron Cushing, Vincent Magnotta, Minako Hayakawa, Lauren Allan, Jeremy Greenlee, Issam A. Awad, Timothy Carroll, James Torner, Madhavan L. Raghavan, and David M. Hasan

OBJECT

Sentinel headaches (SHs) associated with cerebral aneurysms (CAs) could be due to microbleeds, which are considered a sign that an aneurysm is unstable. Despite the prognostic importance of these microbleeds, they remain difficult to detect using routine imaging studies. The objective of this pilot study is to detect microbleeds associated with SH using a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM) sequence and then evaluate the morphological characteristics of unstable aneurysms with microbleeds.

METHODS

Twenty CAs in 16 consecutive patients with an initial presentation of headache (HA) leading to a diagnosis of CA were analyzed. Headaches in 4 of the patients (two of whom had 2 aneurysms each) met the typical definition of SH, and the other 12 patients (two of whom also had 2 aneurysms each) all had migraine HA. All patients underwent imaging with the MRI-QSM sequence. Two independent MRI experts who were blinded to the patients’ clinical history performed 3D graphical analysis to evaluate for potential microbleeds associated with these CAs. Computational flow and morphometric analyses were also performed to estimate wall shear and morphological variables.

RESULTS

In the 4 patients with SH, MRI-QSM results were positive for 4 aneurysms, and hence these aneurysms were considered positive for non-heme ferric iron (microbleeds). The other 16 aneurysms were negative. Among aneurysm shape indices, the undulation index was significantly higher in the QSM-positive group than in the QSM-negative group. In addition, the spatial averaged wall shear magnitude was lower in the aneurysm wall in direct contact with microbleeds.

CONCLUSIONS

MRI-QSM allows for objective detection of microbleeds associated with SH and therefore identification of unstable CAs. CAs with slightly greater undulation indices are associated with positive MRI-QSM results and hence with microbleeds. Studies with larger populations are needed to confirm these preliminary findings.

Full access

David Hasan, Mario Zanaty, Robert M. Starke, Elias Atallah, Nohra Chalouhi, Pascal Jabbour, Amit Singla, Waldo R. Guerrero, Daichi Nakagawa, Edgar A. Samaniego, Nnenna Mbabuike, Rabih G. Tawk, Adnan H. Siddiqui, Elad I. Levy, Roberta L. Novakovic, Jonathan White, Clemens M. Schirmer, Thomas G. Brott, Hussain Shallwani, and L. Nelson Hopkins

OBJECTIVE

The overall risk of ischemic stroke from a chronically occluded internal carotid artery (COICA) is around 5%–7% per year despite receiving the best available medical therapy. Here, authors propose a radiographic classification of COICA that can be used as a guide to determine the technical success and safety of endovascular recanalization for symptomatic COICA and to assess the changes in systemic blood pressure following successful revascularization.

METHODS

The radiographic images of 100 consecutive subjects with COICA were analyzed. A new classification of COICA was proposed based on the morphology, location of occlusion, and presence or absence of reconstitution of the distal ICA. The classification was used to predict successful revascularization in 32 symptomatic COICAs in 31 patients, five of whom were female (5/31 [16.13%]). Patients were included in the study if they had a COICA with ischemic symptoms refractory to medical therapy. Carotid artery occlusion was defined as 100% cross-sectional occlusion of the vessel lumen as documented on CTA or MRA and confirmed by digital subtraction angiography.

RESULTS

Four types (A–D) of radiographic COICA were identified. Types A and B were more amenable to safe revascularization than types C and D. Recanalization was successful at a rate of 68.75% (22/32 COICAs; type A: 8/8; type B: 8/8; type C: 4/8; type D: 2/8). The perioperative complication rate was 18.75% (6/32; type A: 0/8 [0%]; type B: 1/8 [12.50%]; type C: 3/8 [37.50%], type D: 2/8 [25.00%]). None of these complications led to permanent morbidity or death. Twenty (64.52%) of 31 subjects had improvement in their symptoms at the 2–6 months’ follow-up. A statistically significant decrease in systolic blood pressure (SBP) was noted in 17/21 (80.95%) patients who had successful revascularization, which persisted on follow-up (p = 0.0001). The remaining 10 subjects in whom revascularization failed had no significant changes in SBP (p = 0.73).

CONCLUSIONS

The pilot study suggested that our proposed classification of COICA may be useful as an adjunctive guide to determine the technical feasibility and safety of revascularization for symptomatic COICA using endovascular techniques. Additionally, successful revascularization may lead to a significant decrease in SBP postprocedure. A Phase 2b trial in larger cohorts to assess the efficacy of endovascular revascularization using our COICA classification is warranted.