The objective of this study was to evaluate the association between county-level socioeconomic status (SES) and the incidence of and surgical treatment for pituitary adenoma (PA).
Using the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s National Program of Cancer Registries and the National Cancer Institute’s Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results database, the authors identified the average annual age-adjusted incidence rates and calculated odds ratios (ORs) for surgical treatment of PA, stratified by a county-level index for SES, race/ethnicity, metropolitan status, and other confounders.
From 2006 to 2018, 167,121 PA cases were identified. There was no significant trend in the incidence of PA by county-level SES overall (incidence rate ratio [IRR] 0.98, 95% CI 0.96–1.00, p = 0.05, comparing highest to lowest quintile of SES). Among Asian or Pacific Islander (API; IRR 0.82, 95% CI 0.71–0.95, p = 0.007) and American Indian/Alaska Native (AIAN) participants (IRR 0.82, 95% CI 0.71–0.95, p = 0.009), the incidence of PA was statistically significantly lower with higher SES, while among Black individuals, the incidence of PA was higher with higher SES (IRR 1.10, 95% CI 1.05–1.15, p < 0.001, comparing 5th to 1st quintile of SES). Higher SES quintile was associated with surgical treatment of PA (OR 1.04, 95% CI 0.99–1.09, comparing highest to lowest quintile, p value for trend = 0.02). Males were more likely than females to undergo surgery (OR 1.50, 95% CI 1.47–1.53, p < 0.001), and Black (OR 0.89, 95% CI 0.86–0.91, p < 0.001) and AIAN individuals (OR 0.88, 95% CI 0.78–0.99, p = 0.04) were less likely to undergo surgery than White individuals, whereas API individuals were more likely to undergo surgery (OR 1.15, 95% CI 1.09–1.21, p < 0.001).
Higher county-level SES in the US was associated with a higher incidence of PA among Black individuals, but not among White individuals, while API and AIAN individuals had a lower PA incidence with higher SES. After multivariable adjustment, higher county-level SES was associated with surgical treatment of PA, and White and API individuals were significantly more likely to undergo surgery than Black or AIAN individuals.