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Christoph J. Griessenauer, Smeer Salam, Philipp Hendrix, Daxa M. Patel, R. Shane Tubbs, Jeffrey P. Blount, and Peter A. Winkler

OBJECT

Evidence in support of hemispherectomy stems from a multitude of retrospective studies illustrating individual institutions' experience. A systematic review of this topic, however, is lacking in the literature.

METHODS

A systematic review of hemispherectomy for the treatment of refractory epilepsy available up to October 2013 was performed using the following inclusion criteria: reports of a total of 10 or more patients in the pediatric age group (≤ 20 years) undergoing hemispherectomy, seizure outcome reported after a minimum follow-up of 1 year after the initial procedure, and description of the type of hemispherectomy. Only the most recent paper from institutions that published multiple papers with overlapping study periods was included. Two reviewers independently applied the inclusion criteria and extracted all the data.

RESULTS

Twenty-nine studies with a total of 1161 patients met the inclusion criteria. Seizure outcome was available for 1102 patients, and the overall rate of seizure freedom at the last follow-up was 73.4%. Sixteen studies (55.2%) exclusively reported seizure outcomes of a single type of hemispherectomy. There was no statistically significant difference in seizure outcome and type of hemispherectomy (p = 0.737). Underlying etiology was reported for 85.4% of patients with documented seizure outcome, and the overall distribution of acquired, developmental, and progressive etiologies was 30.5%, 40.7%, and 28.8%, respectively. Acquired and progressive etiologies were associated with significantly higher seizure-free rates than developmental etiologies (p < 0.001). Twenty of the 29 studies (69%) reported complications. The overall rate of hydrocephalus requiring CSF diversion was 14%. Mortality within 30 days was 2.2% and was not statistically different between types of hemispherectomy (p = 0.787).

CONCLUSIONS

Hemispherectomy is highly effective for treating refractory epilepsy in the pediatric age group, particularly for acquired and progressive etiologies. While the type of hemispherectomy does not have any influence on seizure outcome, hemispherotomy procedures are associated with a more favorable complication profile.

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Joshua J. Chern, Samir Sarda, Brian M. Howard, Andrew Jea, R. Shane Tubbs, Barunashish Brahma, David M. Wrubel, Andrew Reisner, and William Boydston

Object

Nonoperative blunt head trauma is a common reason for admission in a pediatric hospital. Adverse events, such as growing skull fracture, are rare, and the incidence of such morbidity is not known. As a result, optimal follow-up care is not clear.

Methods

Patients admitted after minor blunt head trauma between May 1, 2009, and April 30, 2013, were identified at a single institution. Demographic, socioeconomic, and clinical characteristics were retrieved from administrative and outpatient databases. Clinical events within the 180-day period following discharge were reviewed and analyzed. These events included emergency department (ED) visits, need for surgical procedures, clinic visits, and surveillance imaging utilization. Associations among these clinical events and potential contributing factors were analyzed using appropriate statistical methods.

Results

There were 937 admissions for minor blunt head trauma in the 4-year period. Patients who required surgical interventions during the index admission were excluded. The average age of the admitted patients was 5.53 years, and the average length of stay was 1.7 days; 15.7% of patients were admitted for concussion symptoms with negative imaging findings, and 26.4% of patients suffered a skull fracture without intracranial injury. Patients presented with subdural, subarachnoid, or intraventricular hemorrhage in 11.6%, 9.19%, and 0.53% of cases, respectively. After discharge, 672 patients returned for at least 1 follow-up clinic visit (71.7%), and surveillance imaging was obtained at the time of the visit in 343 instances.

The number of adverse events was small and consisted of 34 ED visits and 3 surgeries. Some of the ED visits could have been prevented with better discharge instructions, but none of the surgery was preventable. Furthermore, the pattern of postinjury surveillance imaging utilization correlated with physician identity but not with injury severity. Because the number of adverse events was small, surveillance imaging could not be shown to positively influence outcomes.

Conclusions

Adverse events after nonoperative mild traumatic injury are rare. The routine use of postinjury surveillance imaging remains controversial, but these data suggest that such imaging does not effectively identify those who require operative intervention.

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Mahesh B. Shenai, R. Shane Tubbs, Barton L. Guthrie, and Aaron A. Cohen-Gadol

Object

The shortage of surgeons compels the development of novel technologies that geographically extend the capabilities of individual surgeons and enhance surgical skills. The authors have developed “Virtual Interactive Presence” (VIP), a platform that allows remote participants to simultaneously view each other's visual field, creating a shared field of view for real-time surgical telecollaboration.

Methods

The authors demonstrate the capability of VIP to facilitate long-distance telecollaboration during cadaveric dissection. Virtual Interactive Presence consists of local and remote workstations with integrated video capture devices and video displays. Each workstation mutually connects via commercial teleconferencing devices, allowing worldwide point-to-point communication. Software composites the local and remote video feeds, displaying a hybrid perspective to each participant. For demonstration, local and remote VIP stations were situated in Indianapolis, Indiana, and Birmingham, Alabama, respectively. A suboccipital craniotomy and microsurgical dissection of the pineal region was performed in a cadaveric specimen using VIP. Task and system performance were subjectively evaluated, while additional video analysis was used for objective assessment of delay and resolution.

Results

Participants at both stations were able to visually and verbally interact while identifying anatomical structures, guiding surgical maneuvers, and discussing overall surgical strategy. Video analysis of 3 separate video clips yielded a mean compositing delay of 760 ± 606 msec (when compared with the audio signal). Image resolution was adequate to visualize complex intracranial anatomy and provide interactive guidance.

Conclusions

Virtual Interactive Presence is a feasible paradigm for real-time, long-distance surgical telecollaboration. Delay, resolution, scaling, and registration are parameters that require further optimization, but are within the realm of current technology. The paradigm potentially enables remotely located experts to mentor less experienced personnel located at the surgical site with applications in surgical training programs, remote proctoring for proficiency, and expert support for rural settings and across different counties.

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Joshua J. Chern, Markus Bookland, Javier Tejedor-Sojo, Jonathan Riley, Mohammadali M. Shoja, R. Shane Tubbs, and Andrew Reisner

Object

The rate of readmission after CSF shunt surgery is significant and has caught the attention of purchasers of health care. However, a detailed description of clinical scenarios that lead to readmissions and reoperations after index shunt surgery is lacking in the medical literature.

Methods

This study included 1755 shunt revision and insertion surgeries that were performed at a single institution between May 1, 2009, and April 30, 2013. Demographic, socioeconomic, and clinical characteristics were prospectively collected in the administrative, business, and operating room databases. Clinical events within the 30 days following discharge were reviewed and analyzed. Two events of interest, Emergency Department (ED) utilization and reoperation, were further analyzed for risk factor associations by using multivariate logistic regression.

Results

There were 290 readmissions within 30 days of discharge (16.5%). Admission sources included ED (n = 216), hospital transfers (n = 23), and others. Of the 290 readmissions, 184 were associated with an operation, but only 165 of these were performed by the neurosurgical service. These included surgeries for shunt occlusion and externalization (n = 150), wound revision (n = 7), and other neurosurgical procedures that were not shunt related (n = 8). The remaining readmissions (n = 106) were not associated with an operation, and only 59 patients were admitted for issues related to the index shunt surgery.

When return to the ED was the dependent variable in a multivariate regression model, patients who returned to the ED were more likely to be from the Atlanta metropolitan area and to be either uninsured or insured with public assistance. When reoperation was the dependent variable, patients whose surgery started after 3 p.m. were more likely to undergo subsequent CSF shunt revision surgery on readmission.

Conclusions

Of the readmissions within 30 days of shunt surgery, 74.5% were related to the index shunt surgery. Whether and to what extent these readmissions are preventable continues to be controversial. Further study is needed to identify modifiable risk factors that may eventually improve patient care.

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Daxa M. Patel, R. Shane Tubbs, Gigi Pate, James M. Johnston Jr., and Jeffrey P. Blount

Object

Surveillance imaging of the cerebral ventricles can be valuable in following up children with shunt-treated hydrocephalus. There also, however, has been recent increased awareness and concern over the potential risk associated with imaging-related radiation exposure in children. Magnetic resonance imaging represents an imaging alternative that does not use ionizing radiation; however, its practical utility has been limited due to the near-uniform requirement for sedation or general anesthesia in children. Magnetic resonance imaging without sedation is often futile because of the movement artifact produced by the nonsedated pediatric patient. Some studies have demonstrated the feasibility of using fast-sequence MRI (fsMRI), but the reported experiences are limited. The authors have incorporated fsMRI into their routine shunt surveillance imaging paradigms and report here a 5-year experience with this modality.

Methods

The authors initially started using fsMRI for routine surveillance in a single clinic in 2008 and have gradually increased their institutional utilization of this modality as experience has accumulated and protocols have been refined. Imaging sequences obtained for each child include an axial T2-weighted half-Fourier acquisition single-shot turbo spin-echo (HASTE), coronal T2-weighted HASTE, and sagittal T2-weighted HASTE images. The authors conducted a retrospective chart and imaging review. They rated each fsMR image according to 5 visibility parameters: 1) ventricle size, 2) ventricle configuration, 3) presence or absence of transependymal flow, 4) presence or absence of motion artifact, and 5) visualization of the ventricular catheter. Each parameter was graded as 1 (present) or 0 (absent). Thus, the maximum value assigned to each scan could be 5 and the minimum value assigned to each scan could be 0. Interrater reliability between pairs of observers was calculated using the Kendall's tau-b and intraclass coefficients.

Results

Two hundred patients underwent fsMRI. No child required sedation. The average duration of examinations was approximately 3.37 minutes, and mean age of the patients was 5.7 years. Clinically useful images were attained in all cases. Overall quality of the fsMRI studies based on the 5 different visibility parameters showed that 169 images (84.5%) included 4 or 5 parameters (score ≥ 4) and had statistically significant excellent quality. The Kendall's tau-b for the overall fsMRI ratings was 0.82 (p = 0.002) and the intraclass coefficient was 0.87 (p < 0.0001).

Conclusions

In the present cohort of 200 patients, fsMRI studies were shown to have an excellent overall quality and a statistically significant high degree of interrater reliability. Consequently, the authors propose that fsMRI is a sufficiently effective modality that eliminates the need for sedation and the use of ionizing radiation and that it should supplant CT for routine surveillance imaging in hydrocephalic patients.

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Christoph J. Griessenauer, Elias Rizk, Joseph H. Miller, Philipp Hendrix, R. Shane Tubbs, Mark S. Dias, Kelsie Riemenschneider, and Joshua J. Chern

Object

Tectal plate gliomas are generally low-grade astrocytomas with favorable prognosis, and observation of the lesion and management of hydrocephalus remain the mainstay of treatment.

Methods

A cohort of patients with tectal plate gliomas at 2 academic institutions was retrospectively reviewed.

Results

Forty-four patients with a mean age of 10.2 years who harbored tectal plate gliomas were included in the study. The mean clinical and radiological follow-up was 7.6 ± 3.3 years (median 7.9 years, range 1.5–14.7 years) and 6.5 ± 3.1 years (median 6.5 years, range 1.1–14.7 years), respectively. The most frequent intervention was CSF diversion (81.8% of patients) followed by biopsy (11.4%), radiotherapy (4.5%), chemotherapy (4.5%), and resection (2.3%). On MR imaging tectal plate gliomas most commonly showed T1-weighted isointensity (71.4%), T2-weighted hyperintensity (88.1%), and rarely enhanced (19%). The initial mean volume was 1.6 ± 2.2 cm3 and it increased to 2.0 ± 4.4 cm3 (p = 0.628) at the last follow-up. Frontal and occipital horn ratio (FOHR) and third ventricular width statistically decreased over time (p < 0.001 and p < 0.05, respectively).

Conclusions

The authors' results support existing evidence that tectal plate gliomas frequently follow a benign clinical and radiographic course and rarely require any intervention beyond management of associated hydrocephalus.

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Christoph J. Griessenauer, R. Shane Tubbs, Mohammadali M. Shoja, Joel Raborn, Christopher J. Boes, Martin M. Mortazavi, and Giuseppe Lanzino

Alfred W. Adson was a pioneer in the field of neurosurgery. He described operations for a variety of neurosurgical diseases and developed surgical instruments. Under his leadership the Section of Neurological Surgery at the Mayo Clinic was established and he functioned as its first chair. Adson's contributions to the understanding of spinal and spinal cord tumors are less well known. This article reviews related medical records and publications and sets his contributions in the context of the work of other important pioneers in spinal tumor surgery at the time.

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R. Shane Tubbs, Martin M. Mortazavi, Sanjay Krishnamurthy, Ketan Verma, Christoph J. Griessenauer, and Aaron A. Cohen-Gadol

Object

During intracranial approaches to the skull base, vascular relationships are important. One relationship that has received scant attention in the literature is that between the superior petrosal sinus (SPS) and the opening of the Meckel cave (that is, the porus trigeminus).

Methods

Cadaver dissections were performed in 25 latex-injected adult cadaveric heads (50 sides). Specifically, the relationship between the SPS and the opening of the Meckel cave was observed. The goal was to enhance knowledge of the relationship between the SPS and the opening of the Meckel cave.

Results

Of the 50 sides, 68%, 18%, and 16% of SPSs traveled superior to, inferior to, and around the opening to the Meckel cave, respectively. In the latter cases, a venous ring was formed around the proximal trigeminal nerve. No sinus entered the Meckel cave. In general, the porus trigeminus was narrowed on sides found to have an SPS that encircled this region. Sinuses that traveled only inferior to the porus were in general smaller than sinuses that traveled superior or encircled this opening. No statistically significant differences were noted between the various sinus relationships and sex, age, or side of the head.

Conclusions

Knowledge of the relationship between the SPS and the opening of the Meckel cave may be useful to the skull base surgeon. Based on this study, some individuals may retain the early embryonic position of their SPS in relation to the trigeminal nerve.

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Robert P. Naftel, R. Shane Tubbs, Joshua Y. Menendez, John C. Wellons III, Ian F. Pollack, and W. Jerry Oakes

Object

The effects of posterior fossa decompression on Chiari malformation Type I–induced syringomyelia have been well described. However, treatment of worsening syringomyelia after Chiari decompression remains enigmatic. This paper defines patient and clinical characteristics as well as treatment and postoperative radiological and clinical outcomes in patients experiencing this complication.

Methods

The authors performed a retrospective review of patients at the Children's Hospital of Pittsburgh and Children's of Alabama who developed worsening syringomyelia after Chiari decompression was performed.

Results

Fourteen children (age range 8 months to 15 years), 7 of whom had preoperative syringomyelia, underwent posterior fossa decompression. Aseptic meningitis (n = 3) and bacterial meningitis (n = 2) complicated 5 cases (4 of these patients were originally treated at outside hospitals). Worsening syringomyelia presented a median of 1.4 years (range 0.2–10.3 years) after the primary decompression. Ten children presented with new, recurrent, or persistent symptoms, and 4 were asymptomatic. Secondary Chiari decompression was performed in 11 of the 14 children. The other 3 children were advised to undergo secondary decompression. A structural cause for each failed primary Chiari decompression (for example, extensive scarring, suture in the obex, arachnoid web, residual posterior arch of C-1, and no duraplasty) was identified at the secondary operation. After secondary decompression, 8 patients' symptoms completely resolved, 1 patient's condition stabilized, and 2 patients remained asymptomatic. Radiologically, 10 of the 11 children had a decrease in the size of their syringes, and 1 child experienced no change (but improved clinically). The median follow-up from initial Chiari decompression was 3.1 years (range 0.8–14.1 years) and from secondary decompression, 1.3 years (range 0.3–4.5 years). No patient underwent syringopleural shunting or other nonposterior fossa treatment for syringomyelia.

Conclusions

Based on the authors' experience, children with worsening syringomyelia after decompression for Chiari malformation Type I generally have a surgically remediable structural etiology, and secondary exploration and decompression should be considered.

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Martin M. Mortazavi, Christoph J. Griessenauer, Paul Foreman, Reza Bavarsad Shahripour, Mohammadali M. Shoja, Curtis J. Rozzelle, R. Shane Tubbs, Winfield Stitt Fisher III, and Takanori Fukushima

Vein of Galen aneurysmal malformations are a rare and diverse group of entities with a complex anatomy, pathophysiology, and serious clinical sequelae. Due to their complexity, there is no uniform treatment paradigm. Furthermore, treatment itself entails the risk of serious complication. Offering the best treatment option is dependent on an understanding of the aberrant anatomy and pathophysiology of these entities, and tailored therapy is recommended. Herein, the authors review the current concepts related to vein of Galen aneurysmal malformations and suggest a new classification system excluding mesodiencephalic plexiform intrinsic arteriovenous malformations from this group of malformations.