Browse

You are looking at 1 - 10 of 106 items for

  • Refine by Access: all x
  • By Author: Starke, Robert M. x
Clear All
Free access

Dural arteriovenous fistulas are not observed to convert to a higher grade after partial embolization

Erin Walker, Anja Srienc, Daphne Lew, Ridhima Guniganti, Giuseppe Lanzino, Waleed Brinjikji, Minako Hayakawa, Edgar A. Samaniego, Colin P. Derdeyn, Rose Du, Rosalind Lai, Jason P. Sheehan, Robert M. Starke, Adib Abla, Ahmed Abdelsalam, Bradley Gross, Felipe Albuquerque, Michael T. Lawton, Louis J. Kim, Michael Levitt, Sepideh Amin-Hanjani, Ali Alaraj, Ethan Winkler, W. Christopher Fox, Adam Polifka, Samuel Hall, Diederik Bulters, Andrew Durnford, Junichiro Satomi, Yoshiteru Tada, J. Marc C. van Dijk, Adriaan R. E. Potgieser, Ching-Jen Chen, Andrea Becerril-Gaitan, Joshua W. Osbun, and Gregory J. Zipfel

OBJECTIVE

Borden-Shucart type I dural arteriovenous fistulas (dAVFs) lack cortical venous drainage and occasionally necessitate intervention depending on patient symptoms. Conversion is the rare transformation of a low-grade dAVF to a higher grade. Factors associated with increased risk of dAVF conversion to a higher grade are poorly understood. The authors hypothesized that partial treatment of type I dAVFs is an independent risk factor for conversion.

METHODS

The multicenter Consortium for Dural Arteriovenous Fistula Outcomes Research database was used to perform a retrospective analysis of all patients with type I dAVFs.

RESULTS

Three hundred fifty-eight (33.2%) of 1077 patients had type I dAVFs. Of those 358 patients, 206 received endovascular treatment and 131 were not treated. Two (2.2%) of 91 patients receiving partial endovascular treatment for a low-grade dAVF experienced conversion to a higher grade, 2 (1.5%) of 131 who were not treated experienced conversion, and none (0%) of 115 patients who received complete endovascular treatment experienced dAVF conversion. The majority of converted dAVFs localized to the transverse-sigmoid sinus and all received embolization as part of their treatment.

CONCLUSIONS

Partial treatment of type I dAVFs does not appear to be significantly associated with conversion to a higher grade.

Free access

Evaluating the diagnostic accuracy of 3D contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography versus digital subtraction angiography in spinal dural arteriovenous fistulas

Adham M. Khalafallah, Joseph Yunga Tigre, Nadine Rady, Robert M. Starke, Efrat Saraf-Lavi, and Allan D. Levi

OBJECTIVE

Spinal dural arteriovenous fistulas (SDAVFs) often go undiagnosed, leading to irreversible spinal cord dysfunction. Although digital subtraction angiography (DSA) is the gold standard for diagnosing SDAVF, DSA is invasive and operator dependent, with associated risks. MR angiography (MRA) is a promising alternative. This study aimed to evaluate the performance of MRA as an equal alternative to DSA in investigating, diagnosing, and localizing SDAVF.

METHODS

Prospectively collected data from a single neurosurgeon at a large tertiary academic center were searched for SDAVFs. Eligibility criteria included any patient with a surgically proven SDAVF in whom preoperative DSA, MRA, or both had been obtained. The eligible patients formed a consecutive series, in which they were divided into DSA and MRA groups. DSA and MRA were the index tests that were compared to the surgical SDAVF outcome, which was the reference standard. Accurate diagnosis was considered to have occurred when the imaging report matched the operative diagnosis to the correct spinal level. Comparisons used a two-sample t-test for continuous variables and Fisher-Freeman-Halton’s exact test for categorical variables, with p < 0.05 specifying significance. Univariate, bivariate, and multivariate analyses were conducted to investigate group associations with DSA and MRA accuracy. Positive predictive value, sensitivity, and accuracy were calculated.

RESULTS

A total of 27 patients with a mean age of 63 years underwent surgery for SDAVF. There were 19 male (70.4%) and 8 female (29.6%) patients, and the mean duration of symptoms at the time of surgery was 14 months (range 2–48 months). Seventeen patients (63%) presented with bowel or bladder incontinence. Bivariate analysis of the DSA and MRA groups further revealed no significant relationships between the characteristics and accuracy of SDAVF diagnosis. MRA was found to be more sensitive and accurate (100% and 73.3%) than DSA (85.7% and 69.2%), with a subanalysis of the patients with both preoperative MRA and DSA showing that MRA had a greater positive predictive value (78.6 vs 72.7), sensitivity (100 vs 72.7), and accuracy (78.6 vs 57.1) than DSA.

CONCLUSIONS

In surgically proven cases of SDAVFs, the authors determined that MRA was more accurate than DSA for SDAVF diagnosis and localization to the corresponding vertebral level. Incomplete catheterization at each vertebral level may result in the failure of DSA to detect SDAVF.

Restricted access

Stent-assisted Woven EndoBridge device for the treatment of intracranial aneurysms: an international multicenter study

Jose Danilo Bengzon Diestro, Mahmoud Dibas, Nimer Adeeb, Robert W. Regenhardt, Justin E. Vranic, Adrien Guenego, Sovann V. Lay, Leonardo Renieri, Ali Al Balushi, Eimad Shotar, Kévin Premat, Kareem El Namaani, Guillaume Saliou, Markus A. Möhlenbruch, Ivan Lylyk, Paul M. Foreman, Jay A. Vachhani, Vedran Župančić, Muhammad U. Hafeez, Caleb Rutledge, Hamid Rai, Vincent M. Tutino, Shervin Mirshahi, Sherief Ghozy, Pablo Harker, Naif M. Alotaibi, James D. Rabinov, Yifan Ren, Clemens M. Schirmer, Oded Goren, Mariangela Piano, Anna L. Kühn, Caterina Michelozzi, Stéphanie Elens, Robert M. Starke, Ameer E. Hassan, Arsalaan Salehani, Anh Nguyen, Jesse Jones, Marios Psychogios, Julian Spears, Thomas Marotta, Vitor Pereira, Carmen Parra-Fariñas, Maria Bres-Bullrich, Michael Mayich, Mohamed M. Salem, Jan-Karl Burkhardt, Brian T. Jankowitz, Ricardo A. Domingo, Thien Huynh, Rabih Tawk, Christian Ulfert, Boris Lubicz, Pietro Panni, Ajit S. Puri, Guglielmo Pero, Christoph J. Griessenauer, Hamed Asadi, Adnan Siddiqui, Andrew F. Ducruet, Felipe C. Albuquerque, Nirav Patel, Peter Kan, Vladimir Kalousek, Pedro Lylyk, Srikanth Boddu, Christopher J. Stapleton, Jared Knopman, Pascal Jabbour, Stavropoula Tjoumakaris, Frédéric Clarençon, Nicola Limbucci, Mohammad A. Aziz-Sultan, Hugo H. Cuellar-Saenz, Christophe Cognard, Aman B. Patel, and Adam A. Dmytriw

OBJECTIVE

The Woven EndoBridge (WEB) device is an intrasaccular flow disruptor designed for wide-necked bifurcation aneurysms. These aneurysms may require the use of a concomitant stent. The objective of this study was to determine the clinical and radiological outcomes of patients undergoing stent-assisted WEB treatment. In addition, the authors also sought to determine the predictors of a concomitant stent in aneurysms treated with the WEB device.

METHODS

The data for this study were taken from the WorldWideWEB Consortium, an international multicenter cohort including patients treated with the WEB device. Aneurysms were classified into two groups based on treatment: stent-assisted WEB and WEB device alone. The authors compared clinical and radiological outcomes of both groups. Univariable and multivariable binary logistic regression analyses were performed to determine factors that predispose to stent use.

RESULTS

The study included 691 intracranial aneurysms (31 with stents and 660 without stents) treated with the WEB device. The adequate occlusion status did not differ between the two groups at the latest follow-up (83.3% vs 85.6%, p = 0.915). Patients who underwent stenting had more thromboembolic (32.3% vs 6.5%, p < 0.001) and procedural (16.1% vs 3.0%, p < 0.001) complications. Aneurysms treated with a concomitant stent had wider necks, greater heights, and lower dome-to-neck ratios. Increasing neck size was the only significant predictor for stent use.

CONCLUSIONS

This study demonstrates that there is no difference in the degree of aneurysm occlusion between the two groups; however, complications were more frequent in the stent group. In addition, a wider aneurysm neck predisposes to stent assistance in WEB-treated aneurysms.

Free access

Prognostic significance of age within the adolescent and young adult acute ischemic stroke population after mechanical thrombectomy: insights from STAR

Victor M. Lu, Evan M. Luther, Michael A. Silva, Turki Elarjani, Ahmed Abdelsalam, Ilko Maier, Sami Al Kasab, Pascal M. Jabbour, Joon-Tae Kim, Stacey Q. Wolfe, Ansaar T. Rai, Marios-Nikos Psychogios, Edgar A. Samaniego, Adam S. Arthur, Shinichi Yoshimura, Jonathan A. Grossberg, Ali Alawieh, Isabel Fragata, Adam Polifka, Justin Mascitelli, Joshua Osbun, Min S. Park, Michael R. Levitt, Travis Dumont, Hugo Cuellar, Richard W. Williamson Jr., Daniele G. Romano, Roberto Crosa, Benjamin Gory, Maxim Mokin, Mark Moss, Kaustubh Limaye, Peter Kan, Dileep R. Yavagal, Alejandro M. Spiotta, and Robert M. Starke

OBJECTIVE

Although younger adults have been shown to have better functional outcomes after mechanical thrombectomy (MT) for acute ischemic stroke (AIS), the significance of this relationship in the adolescent and young adult (AYA) population is not well defined given its undefined rarity. Correspondingly, the goal of this study was to determine the prognostic significance of age in this specific demographic following MT for large-vessel occlusions.

METHODS

A prospectively maintained international multi-institutional database, STAR (Stroke Thrombectomy and Aneurysm Registry), was reviewed for all patients aged 12–18 (adolescent) and 19–25 (young adult) years. Parameters were compared using chi-square and t-test analyses, and associations were interrogated using regression analyses.

RESULTS

Of 7192 patients in the registry, 41 (0.6%) satisfied all criteria, with a mean age of 19.7 ± 3.3 years. The majority were male (59%) and young adults (61%) versus adolescents (39%). The median prestroke modified Rankin Scale (mRS) score was 0 (range 0–2). Strokes were most common in the anterior circulation (88%), with the middle cerebral artery being the most common vessel (59%). The mean onset-to–groin puncture and groin puncture–to-reperfusion times were 327 ± 229 and 52 ± 42 minutes, respectively. The mean number of passes was 2.2 ± 1.2, with 61% of the cohort achieving successful reperfusion. There were only 3 (7%) cases of reocclusion. The median mRS score at 90 days was 2 (range 0–6). Between the adolescent and young adult subgroups, the median mRS score at last follow-up was statistically lower in the adolescent subgroup (1 vs 2, p = 0.03), and older age was significantly associated with a higher mRS at 90 days (coefficient 0.33, p < 0.01).

CONCLUSIONS

Although rare, MT for AIS in the AYA demographic is both safe and effective. Even within this relatively young demographic, age remains significantly associated with improved functional outcomes. The implication of age-dependent stroke outcomes after MT within the AYA demographic needs greater validation to develop effective age-specific protocols for long-term care across both pediatric and adult centers.

Free access

Transradial versus transfemoral access for embolization of intracranial aneurysms with the Woven EndoBridge device: a propensity score–matched study

Mahmoud Dibas, Nimer Adeeb, Jose Danilo Bengzon Diestro, Hugo H. Cuellar, Ahmad Sweid, Sovann V. Lay, Adrien Guenego, Assala Aslan, Leonardo Renieri, Sri Hari Sundararajan, Guillaume Saliou, Markus Möhlenbruch, Robert W. Regenhardt, Justin E. Vranic, Ivan Lylyk, Paul M. Foreman, Jay A. Vachhani, Vedran Župančić, Muhammad U. Hafeez, Caleb Rutledge, Muhammad Waqas, Vincent M. Tutino, James D. Rabinov, Yifan Ren, Clemens M. Schirmer, Mariangela Piano, Anna L. Kühn, Caterina Michelozzi, Stéphanie Elens, Robert M. Starke, Ameer E. Hassan, Arsalaan Salehani, Peter Sporns, Jesse Jones, Marios Psychogios, Julian Spears, Boris Lubicz, Pietro Panni, Ajit S. Puri, Guglielmo Pero, Christoph J. Griessenauer, Hamed Asadi, Christopher J. Stapleton, Adnan Siddiqui, Andrew F. Ducruet, Felipe C. Albuquerque, Peter Kan, Vladimir Kalousek, Pedro Lylyk, Srikanth Boddu, Jared Knopman, Mohammad A. Aziz-Sultan, Nicola Limbucci, Pascal Jabbour, Christophe Cognard, Aman B. Patel, and Adam A. Dmytriw

OBJECTIVE

Transradial access (TRA) is commonly utilized in neurointerventional procedures. This study compared the technical and clinical outcomes of the use of TRA versus those of transfemoral access (TFA) for intracranial aneurysm embolization with the Woven EndoBridge (WEB) device.

METHODS

This is a secondary analysis of the Worldwide WEB Consortium, which comprises multicenter data related to adult patients with intracranial aneurysms who were managed with the WEB device. These aneurysms were categorized into two groups: those who were treated with TRA or TFA. Patient and aneurysm characteristics and technical and clinical outcomes were compared between groups. Propensity score matching (PSM) was used to match groups according to the following baseline characteristics: age, sex, subarachnoid hemorrhage, aneurysm location, bifurcation aneurysm, aneurysm with incorporated branch, neck width, aspect ratio, dome width, and elapsed time since the last follow-up imaging evaluation.

RESULTS

This study included 682 intracranial aneurysms (median [interquartile range] age 61.3 [53.0–68.0] years), of which 561 were treated with TFA and 121 with TRA. PSM resulted in 65 matched pairs. After PSM, both groups had similar characteristics, angiographic and functional outcomes, and rates of retreatment, thromboembolic and hemorrhagic complications, and death. TFA was associated with longer procedure length (median 96.5 minutes vs 72.0 minutes, p = 0.006) and fluoroscopy time (28.2 minutes vs 24.8 minutes, p = 0.037) as compared with TRA. On the other hand, deployment issues were more common in those treated with TRA, but none resulted in permanent complications.

CONCLUSIONS

TRA has comparable outcomes, with shorter procedure and fluoroscopy time, to TFA for aneurysm embolization with the WEB device.

Free access

Antiplatelet therapy and delayed cerebral ischemia in aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage: a systematic review and meta-analysis

M. Harrison Snyder, Natasha Ironside, Jeyan S. Kumar, Kevin T. Doan, Ryan T. Kellogg, J. Javier Provencio, Robert M. Starke, Min S. Park, Dale Ding, and Ching-Jen Chen

OBJECTIVE

Delayed cerebral ischemia (DCI) is a potentially preventable cause of morbidity and mortality after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH). The authors performed a meta-analysis to assess the effect of antiplatelet therapy (APT) on DCI in patients with aSAH.

METHODS

A systematic review of the PubMed and MEDLINE databases was performed. Study inclusion criteria were 1) ≥ 5 aSAH patients; 2) direct comparison between aSAH management with APT and without APT; and 3) reporting of DCI, angiographic, or symptomatic vasospasm rates for patients treated with versus without APT. The primary efficacy outcome was DCI. The outcomes of the APT versus no-APT cohorts were compared. Bias was assessed using the Downs and Black checklist.

RESULTS

The overall cohort comprised 2039 patients from 15 studies. DCI occurred less commonly in the APT compared with the no-APT cohort (pooled = 15.9% vs 28.6%; OR 0.47, p < 0.01). Angiographic (pooled = 51.6% vs 68.7%; OR 0.46, p < 0.01) and symptomatic (pooled = 23.6% vs 37.7%; OR 0.51, p = 0.01) vasospasm rates were lower in the APT cohort. In-hospital mortality (pooled = 1.7% vs 4.1%; OR 0.53, p = 0.01) and functional dependence (pooled = 21.0% vs 35.7%; OR 0.53, p < 0.01) rates were also lower in the APT cohort. Bleeding event rates were comparable between the two cohorts. Subgroup analysis of cilostazol monotherapy compared with no APT demonstrated a lower DCI rate in the cilostazol cohort (pooled = 10.6% vs 28.1%; OR 0.31, p < 0.01). Subgroup analysis of surgically treated aneurysms demonstrated a lower DCI rate for the APT cohort (pooled = 18.4% vs 33.9%; OR 0.43, p = 0.02).

CONCLUSIONS

APT is associated with improved outcomes in aSAH without an increased risk of bleeding events, particularly in patients who underwent surgical aneurysm repair and those treated with cilostazol. Although study heterogeneity is the most significant limitation of the analysis, the findings suggest that APT is worth exploring in patients with aSAH, particularly in a randomized controlled trial setting.

Free access

Assessing the rate, natural history, and treatment trends of intracranial aneurysms in patients with intracranial dural arteriovenous fistulas: a Consortium for Dural Arteriovenous Fistula Outcomes Research (CONDOR) investigation

Isaac Josh Abecassis, R. Michael Meyer, Michael R. Levitt, Jason P. Sheehan, Ching-Jen Chen, Bradley A. Gross, Ashley Lockerman, W. Christopher Fox, Waleed Brinjikji, Giuseppe Lanzino, Robert M. Starke, Stephanie H. Chen, Adriaan R. E. Potgieser, J. Marc C. van Dijk, Andrew Durnford, Diederik Bulters, Junichiro Satomi, Yoshiteru Tada, Amanda Kwasnicki, Sepideh Amin-Hanjani, Ali Alaraj, Edgar A. Samaniego, Minako Hayakawa, Colin P. Derdeyn, Ethan Winkler, Adib Abla, Pui Man Rosalind Lai, Rose Du, Ridhima Guniganti, Akash P. Kansagra, Gregory J. Zipfel, Louis J. Kim, and on behalf of the Consortium for Dural Arteriovenous Fistula Outcomes Research

OBJECTIVE

There is a reported elevated risk of cerebral aneurysms in patients with intracranial dural arteriovenous fistulas (dAVFs). However, the natural history, rate of spontaneous regression, and ideal treatment regimen are not well characterized. In this study, the authors aimed to describe the characteristics of patients with dAVFs and intracranial aneurysms and propose a classification system.

METHODS

The Consortium for Dural Arteriovenous Fistula Outcomes Research (CONDOR) database from 12 centers was retrospectively reviewed. Analysis was performed to compare dAVF patients with (dAVF+ cohort) and without (dAVF-only cohort) concomitant aneurysm. Aneurysms were categorized based on location as a dAVF flow-related aneurysm (FRA) or a dAVF non–flow-related aneurysm (NFRA), with further classification as extra- or intradural. Patients with traumatic pseudoaneurysms or aneurysms with associated arteriovenous malformations were excluded from the analysis. Patient demographics, dAVF anatomical information, aneurysm information, and follow-up data were collected.

RESULTS

Of the 1077 patients, 1043 were eligible for inclusion, comprising 978 (93.8%) and 65 (6.2%) in the dAVF-only and dAVF+ cohorts, respectively. There were 96 aneurysms in the dAVF+ cohort; 10 patients (1%) harbored 12 FRAs, and 55 patients (5.3%) harbored 84 NFRAs. Dural AVF+ patients had higher rates of smoking (59.3% vs 35.2%, p < 0.001) and illicit drug use (5.8% vs 1.5%, p = 0.02). Sixteen dAVF+ patients (24.6%) presented with aneurysm rupture, which represented 16.7% of the total aneurysms. One patient (1.5%) had aneurysm rupture during follow-up. Patients with dAVF+ were more likely to have a dAVF located in nonconventional locations, less likely to have arterial supply to the dAVF from external carotid artery branches, and more likely to have supply from pial branches. Rates of cortical venous drainage and Borden type distributions were comparable between cohorts. A minority (12.5%) of aneurysms were FRAs. The majority of the aneurysms underwent treatment via either endovascular (36.5%) or microsurgical (15.6%) technique. A small proportion of aneurysms managed conservatively either with or without dAVF treatment spontaneously regressed (6.2%).

CONCLUSIONS

Patients with dAVF have a similar risk of harboring a concomitant intracranial aneurysm unrelated to the dAVF (5.3%) compared with the general population (approximately 2%–5%) and a rare risk (0.9%) of harboring an FRA. Only 50% of FRAs are intradural. Dural AVF+ patients have differences in dAVF angioarchitecture. A subset of dAVF+ patients harbor FRAs that may regress after dAVF treatment.

Free access

Consortium for Dural Arteriovenous Fistula Outcomes Research (CONDOR): rationale, design, and initial characterization of patient cohort

Ridhima Guniganti, Enrico Giordan, Ching-Jen Chen, Isaac Josh Abecassis, Michael R. Levitt, Andrew Durnford, Jessica Smith, Edgar A. Samaniego, Colin P. Derdeyn, Amanda Kwasnicki, Ali Alaraj, Adriaan R. E. Potgieser, Samir Sur, Stephanie H. Chen, Yoshiteru Tada, Ethan Winkler, Ryan R. L. Phelps, Pui Man Rosalind Lai, Rose Du, Adib Abla, Junichiro Satomi, Robert M. Starke, J. Marc C. van Dijk, Sepideh Amin-Hanjani, Minako Hayakawa, Bradley A. Gross, W. Christopher Fox, Diederik Bulters, Louis J. Kim, Jason Sheehan, Giuseppe Lanzino, Jay F. Piccirillo, Akash P. Kansagra, Gregory J. Zipfel, and on behalf of the Consortium for Dural Arteriovenous Fistula Outcomes Research

OBJECTIVE

Cranial dural arteriovenous fistulas (dAVFs) are rare lesions, hampering efforts to understand them and improve their care. To address this challenge, investigators with an established record of dAVF investigation formed an international, multicenter consortium aimed at better elucidating dAVF pathophysiology, imaging characteristics, natural history, and patient outcomes. This report describes the design of the Consortium for Dural Arteriovenous Fistula Outcomes Research (CONDOR) and includes characterization of the 1077-patient cohort.

METHODS

Potential collaborators with established interest in the field were identified via systematic review of the literature. To ensure uniformity of data collection, a quality control process was instituted. Data were retrospectively obtained.

RESULTS

CONDOR comprises 14 centers in the United States, the United Kingdom, the Netherlands, and Japan that have pooled their data from 1077 dAVF patients seen between 1990 and 2017. The cohort includes 359 patients (33%) with Borden type I dAVFs, 175 (16%) with Borden type II fistulas, and 529 (49%) with Borden type III fistulas. Overall, 852 patients (79%) presented with fistula-related symptoms: 427 (40%) presented with nonaggressive symptoms such as tinnitus or orbital phenomena, 258 (24%) presented with intracranial hemorrhage, and 167 (16%) presented with nonhemorrhagic neurological deficits. A smaller proportion (224 patients, 21%), whose dAVFs were discovered incidentally, were asymptomatic. Many patients (85%, 911/1077) underwent treatment via endovascular embolization (55%, 587/1077), surgery (10%, 103/1077), radiosurgery (3%, 36/1077), or multimodal therapy (17%, 184/1077). The overall angiographic cure rate was 83% (758/911 treated), and treatment-related permanent neurological morbidity was 2% (27/1467 total procedures). The median time from diagnosis to follow-up was 380 days (IQR 120–1038.5 days).

CONCLUSIONS

With more than 1000 patients, the CONDOR registry represents the largest registry of cranial dAVF patient data in the world. These unique, well-annotated data will enable multiple future analyses to be performed to better understand dAVFs and their management.

Free access

Dural arteriovenous fistulas without cortical venous drainage: presentation, treatment, and outcomes

Edgar A. Samaniego, Jorge A. Roa, Minako Hayakawa, Ching-Jen Chen, Jason P. Sheehan, Louis J. Kim, Isaac Josh Abecassis, Michael R. Levitt, Ridhima Guniganti, Akash P. Kansagra, Giuseppe Lanzino, Enrico Giordan, Waleed Brinjikji, Diederik Bulters, Andrew Durnford, W. Christopher Fox, Adam J. Polifka, Bradley A. Gross, Sepideh Amin-Hanjani, Ali Alaraj, Amanda Kwasnicki, Robert M. Starke, Samir Sur, J. Marc C. van Dijk, Adriaan R. E. Potgieser, Junichiro Satomi, Yoshiteru Tada, Adib Abla, Ethan Winkler, Rose Du, Pui Man Rosalind Lai, Gregory J. Zipfel, Colin P. Derdeyn, and on behalf of the Consortium for Dural Arteriovenous Fistula Outcomes Research

OBJECTIVE

Current evidence suggests that intracranial dural arteriovenous fistulas (dAVFs) without cortical venous drainage (CVD) have a benign clinical course. However, no large study has evaluated the safety and efficacy of current treatments and their impact over the natural history of dAVFs without CVD.

METHODS

The authors conducted an analysis of the retrospectively collected multicenter Consortium for Dural Arteriovenous Fistula Outcomes Research (CONDOR) database. Patient demographics and presenting symptoms, angiographic features of the dAVFs, and treatment outcomes of patients with Borden type I dAVFs were reviewed. Clinical and radiological follow-up information was assessed to determine rates of new intracranial hemorrhage (ICH) or nonhemorrhagic neurological deficit (NHND), worsening of venous hyperdynamic symptoms (VHSs), angiographic recurrence, and progression or spontaneous regression of dAVFs over time.

RESULTS

A total of 342 patients/Borden type I dAVFs were identified. The mean patient age was 58.1 ± 15.6 years, and 62% were women. The mean follow-up time was 37.7 ± 54.3 months. Of 230 (67.3%) treated dAVFs, 178 (77%) underwent mainly endovascular embolization, 11 (4.7%) radiosurgery alone, and 4 (1.7%) open surgery as the primary modality. After the first embolization, most dAVFs (47.2%) achieved only partial reduction in early venous filling. Multiple complementary interventions increased complete obliteration rates from 37.9% after first embolization to 46.7% after two or more embolizations, and 55.2% after combined radiosurgery and open surgery. Immediate postprocedural complications occurred in 35 dAVFs (15.2%) and 6 (2.6%) with permanent sequelae. Of 127 completely obliterated dAVFs by any therapeutic modality, 2 (1.6%) showed angiographic recurrence/recanalization at a mean of 34.2 months after treatment. Progression to Borden-Shucart type II or III was documented in 2.2% of patients and subsequent development of a new dAVF in 1.6%. Partial spontaneous regression was found in 22 (21.4%) of 103 nontreated dAVFs. Multivariate Cox regression analysis demonstrated that older age, NHND, or severe venous-hyperdynamic symptoms at presentation and infratentorial location were associated with worse prognosis. Kaplan-Meier curves showed no significant difference for stable/improved symptoms survival probability in treated versus nontreated dAVFs. However, estimated survival times showed better trends for treated dAVFs compared with nontreated dAVFs (288.1 months vs 151.1 months, log-rank p = 0.28). This difference was statistically significant for treated dAVFs with 100% occlusion (394 months, log-rank p < 0.001).

CONCLUSIONS

Current therapeutic modalities for management of dAVFs without CVD may provide better symptom control when complete angiographic occlusion is achieved.

Free access

Intervention for unruptured high-grade intracranial dural arteriovenous fistulas: a multicenter study

Ching-Jen Chen, Thomas J. Buell, Dale Ding, Ridhima Guniganti, Akash P. Kansagra, Giuseppe Lanzino, Enrico Giordan, Louis J. Kim, Michael R. Levitt, Isaac Josh Abecassis, Diederik Bulters, Andrew Durnford, W. Christopher Fox, Adam J. Polifka, Bradley A. Gross, Minako Hayakawa, Colin P. Derdeyn, Edgar A. Samaniego, Sepideh Amin-Hanjani, Ali Alaraj, Amanda Kwasnicki, J. Marc C. van Dijk, Adriaan R. E. Potgieser, Robert M. Starke, Samir Sur, Junichiro Satomi, Yoshiteru Tada, Adib A. Abla, Ethan A. Winkler, Rose Du, Pui Man Rosalind Lai, Gregory J. Zipfel, Jason P. Sheehan, and on behalf of the Consortium for Dural Arteriovenous Fistula Outcomes Research

OBJECTIVE

The risk-to-benefit profile of treating an unruptured high-grade dural arteriovenous fistula (dAVF) is not clearly defined. The aim of this multicenter retrospective cohort study was to compare the outcomes of different interventions with observation for unruptured high-grade dAVFs.

METHODS

The authors retrospectively reviewed dAVF patients from 12 institutions participating in the Consortium for Dural Arteriovenous Fistula Outcomes Research (CONDOR). Patients with unruptured high-grade (Borden type II or III) dAVFs were included and categorized into four groups (observation, embolization, surgery, and stereotactic radiosurgery [SRS]) based on the initial management. The primary outcome was defined as the modified Rankin Scale (mRS) score at final follow-up. Secondary outcomes were good outcome (mRS scores 0–2) at final follow-up, symptomatic improvement, all-cause mortality, and dAVF obliteration. The outcomes of each intervention group were compared against those of the observation group as a reference, with adjustment for differences in baseline characteristics.

RESULTS

The study included 415 dAVF patients, accounting for 29, 324, 43, and 19 in the observation, embolization, surgery, and SRS groups, respectively. The mean radiological and clinical follow-up durations were 21 and 25 months, respectively. Functional outcomes were similar for embolization, surgery, and SRS compared with observation. With observation as a reference, obliteration rates were higher after embolization (adjusted OR [aOR] 7.147, p = 0.010) and surgery (aOR 33.803, p < 0.001) and all-cause mortality was lower after embolization (imputed, aOR 0.171, p = 0.040). Hemorrhage rates per 1000 patient-years were 101 for observation versus 9, 22, and 0 for embolization (p = 0.022), surgery (p = 0.245), and SRS (p = 0.077), respectively. Nonhemorrhagic neurological deficit rates were similar between each intervention group versus observation.

CONCLUSIONS

Embolization and surgery for unruptured high-grade dAVFs afforded a greater likelihood of obliteration than did observation. Embolization also reduced the risk of death and dAVF-associated hemorrhage compared with conservative management over a modest follow-up period. These findings support embolization as the first-line treatment of choice for appropriately selected unruptured Borden type II and III dAVFs.