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Radial nerve myofibroma: a rare benign tumor with perineural infiltration. Illustrative case

Kitty Y. Wu, David J. Cook, Kimberly K. Amrami, and Robert J. Spinner

BACKGROUND

Myofibromas are benign mesenchymal tumors, classically presenting in infants and young children in the head and neck region. Perineural involvement, especially in peripheral nerves within the upper extremity, is extremely rare in myofibromas.

OBSERVATIONS

The authors present the case of a 16-year-old male with a 4-month history of an enlarging forearm mass and rapidly progressive dense motor weakness in wrist, finger, and thumb extension. Preoperative imaging and fine needle biopsy confirmed the diagnosis of a benign isolated myofibroma. Given the dense paralysis, operative management was indicated, and intraoperative exploration showed extensive involvement of tumor within the radial nerve. The infiltrated nerve segment was excised along with the tumor, and the resulting 5-cm nerve gap was reconstructed using autologous cabled grafts.

LESSONS

Perineural pseudoinvasion can be an extremely rare and atypical feature of nonmalignancies, resulting in dense motor weakness. Extensive nerve involvement may still necessitate nerve resection and reconstruction, despite the benign etiology of the lesion.