✓ Diagnosis of piriformis syndrome is difficult and its precise definition is highly controversial. In this article, the authors present the case of a patient who had clinical features suggestive of piriformis syndrome. During surgery the patient was found to have a rare variation in anatomical structures, in which the peroneal nerve was displaced by the piriformis muscle. Surgical decompression did not alleviate the patient's symptoms.
Failure of surgical decompression for a presumed case of piriformis syndrome
Robert J. Spinner, Najeeb M. Thomas, and David G. Kline
Predominant infraspinatus muscle weakness in suprascapular nerve compression
Robert J. Spinner, Robert L. Tiel, and David G. Kline
Median nerve penetration by an anomalous tendon
Robert J. Spinner, Jay U. Howington, and David G. Kline
Recurrent intraneural ganglion cyst of the tibial nerve
Robert J. Spinner, John L. D. Atkinson, C. Michel Harper Jr., and Doris E. Wenger
✓ Different theories have evolved to explain the pathogenesis and the cell of origin of intraneural ganglion cysts. Reportedly only three cases of intraneural ganglion of the tibial nerve have been located within the popliteal fossa, and all of these were thought to arise within the nerve. The authors report a case of a recurrent tibial intraneural ganglion in which a connection to the proximal tibiofibular joint was demonstrated on magnetic resonance (MR) images and at surgery. Surgical ligation of the articular branch and evacuation of the cyst led to symptomatic relief, and an MR image obtained 1 year after surgery documented no recurrence. This case reinforces the fact that surgeons need to consider and search for an articular connection in all cases of intraneural ganglia, especially in those that have recurred.
Unrecognized dislocation of the medial portion of the triceps: another cause of failed ulnar nerve transposition
Robert J. Spinner, Shawn W. O'Driscoll, Jesse B. Jupiter, and Richard D. Goldner
Object. Failed surgical treatment for ulnar neuropathy or neuritis due to dislocation of the ulnar nerve presents diagnostic and therapeutic challenges. The authors of this paper will establish unrecognized dislocation (snapping) of the medial portion of the triceps as a preventable cause of failed ulnar nerve transposition.
Methods. Fifteen patients had persistent, painful snapping at the medial elbow after ulnar nerve transposition, which had been performed for documented ulnar nerve dislocation with or without ulnar neuropathy. The snapping was caused by a previously unrecognized dislocation of the medial portion of triceps over the medial epicondyle. Seven of the 15 patients also had persistent ulnar nerve symptoms. The correct diagnosis of snapping triceps was delayed for an average of 22 months after the initial ulnar nerve transposition. An additional surgical procedure was performed in nine of the 15 cases and, in part, consisted of lateral transposition or excision of the offending snapping medial portion of the triceps. Of the four patients in this group who had persistent neurological symptoms, submuscular transposition was performed in the two with more severe symptoms and treatment of the triceps alone was performed in the two with milder neurological symptoms. Excellent results were achieved in all surgically treated patients. Six patients declined additional surgery and experienced persistent snapping and/or ulnar nerve symptoms.
Conclusions. Failure to recognize that dislocation of both the medial portion of the triceps and the ulnar nerve can exist concurrently may result in persistent snapping, elbow pain, and even ulnar nerve symptoms after a technically successful ulnar nerve transposition.
Tardy sciatic nerve palsy following apophyseal avulsion fracture of the ischial tuberosity
Robert J. Spinner, John L. D. Atkinson, Doris E. Wenger, and Michael J. Stuart
✓ This 41-year-old man presented with a 2-year history of symptoms and signs of sciatic nerve compression. Imaging studies revealed a large ossified fragment within the biceps muscle of the thigh abutting the sciatic nerve at the level of the lesser trochanter. The bony fragment resulted from an unrecognized apophyseal avulsion fracture of the ischial tuberosity, which the patient had sustained while sprinting 27 years earlier.
External neurolysis of the sciatic nerve and excision of the mass led to a successful outcome.