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Open access

Radial nerve myofibroma: a rare benign tumor with perineural infiltration. Illustrative case

Kitty Y. Wu, David J. Cook, Kimberly K. Amrami, and Robert J. Spinner

BACKGROUND

Myofibromas are benign mesenchymal tumors, classically presenting in infants and young children in the head and neck region. Perineural involvement, especially in peripheral nerves within the upper extremity, is extremely rare in myofibromas.

OBSERVATIONS

The authors present the case of a 16-year-old male with a 4-month history of an enlarging forearm mass and rapidly progressive dense motor weakness in wrist, finger, and thumb extension. Preoperative imaging and fine needle biopsy confirmed the diagnosis of a benign isolated myofibroma. Given the dense paralysis, operative management was indicated, and intraoperative exploration showed extensive involvement of tumor within the radial nerve. The infiltrated nerve segment was excised along with the tumor, and the resulting 5-cm nerve gap was reconstructed using autologous cabled grafts.

LESSONS

Perineural pseudoinvasion can be an extremely rare and atypical feature of nonmalignancies, resulting in dense motor weakness. Extensive nerve involvement may still necessitate nerve resection and reconstruction, despite the benign etiology of the lesion.

Open access

Perineurioma of the sciatic nerve with reticular, microcystic, and pseudolipoblastic features: illustrative case

Karina A. Lenartowicz, Kimberly K. Amrami, Jorge Torres-Mora, and Robert J. Spinner

BACKGROUND

Perineuriomas are peripheral nerve sheath tumors that are composed of benign, localized proliferations of perineural cells and further subclassified as intraneural or extraneural (soft tissue) based on their relationship to the histological boundaries of the nerve. Multiple histological variants have been described, and herein the authors present the first known case of a pseudolipoblastic perineurioma affecting the nerve.

OBSERVATIONS

A 52-year-old woman presented with a 5-year history of progressive, severe left buttock pain radiating down to the top of her foot and ankle, without any associated weakness, with a large mass in her sciatic nerve noted on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). She underwent resection, which demonstrated a pseudolipoblastic perineurioma of the sciatic nerve, an unusual histological subtype composed of perineurial cells with an abundant clear intracytoplasmic background. Postoperatively, her pain resolved, and follow-up MRI showed no tumor persistence or recurrence.

LESSONS

On imaging, this lesion had a benign appearance, with areas suggestive of subacute hemorrhage, and was associated with a nerve. Although the distinctive morphological features of this lesion may suggest liposarcoma, careful morphological evaluation and appropriate immunohistochemical studies allow its correct classification.

Open access

Angiosarcoma arising in a schwannoma of the peripheral nervous system: illustrative case

Nikita Lakomkin, Jorge Torres-Mora, Eric J. Dozois, and Robert J. Spinner

BACKGROUND

Schwannomas of the peripheral nerves are benign tumors that can very rarely undergo malignant transformation. These lesions are particularly challenging to diagnose via noninvasive techniques but can have significant implications for treatment.

OBSERVATIONS

This is a case of a 70-year-old female with a prior history of a right sciatic notch tumor that was diagnosed as a conventional schwannoma via histology from an initial biopsy and subsequent surgical debulking. Unfortunately, she experienced significant worsening of her motor deficit, whereby her postoperative foot weakness progressed to complete foot drop in less than 2 years. In addition, she demonstrated significant radiological progression, with more than 1 to 2 cm of growth in each dimension at her subsequent evaluation, along with intractable right leg pain. An additional operation was performed to completely remove the 7 × 8 cm tumor, and histology demonstrated angiosarcoma within a schwannoma. There was no evidence of recurrence at 15 months, and the patient had significant improvement in her pain.

LESSONS

Rapidly worsening function and radiological progression are not typically seen with conventional benign nerve sheath tumors and should prompt consideration of other lesions. Angiosarcoma within schwannoma is a rare pathology and optimal therapies for these tumors in terms of surgical timing and adjuvant therapy are still unknown.