The advancement of high-resolution imaging and increased clinical experience have led to an increased understanding of the formation and treatment of intraneural ganglion cysts. Nearly all intraneural ganglion cysts in the common peroneal nerve have been reported to arise from a joint connection to the superior tibiofibular joint. The authors have identified four cases of intraneural ganglion cysts arising from the knee joint itself; however, none of these reported cases were well described, documented, or illustrated with high-resolution imaging.
Here the authors present the case of an intraneural ganglion cyst arising from the knee joint and causing intermittent weakness and pain. The articular branch to the knee joint was clearly demonstrated on high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging and confirmed at surgical exploration. The patient was treated with articular branch ligation and has had complete resolution of his symptoms without recurrence of the cyst on follow-up imaging.
This case adds to the mounting evidence that intraneural cyst pathology is dependent on a connection to a synovial joint as stated in the unifying theory of intraneural cyst development.